William McKinley was the 25th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination six months into his second term. During his presidency, McKinley led the nation to victory in the Spanish–American War, raised protective tariffs to promote American industry and kept the nation on the gold standard in a rejection of free silver. McKinley was the last president to have served in the American Civil War and the only one to have started the war as an enlisted soldier, beginning as a private in the Union Army and ending as a brevet major. After the war, he settled in Canton, where he practiced law and married Ida Saxton. In 1876, he was elected to Congress, where he became the Republican Party's expert on the protective tariff, which he promised would bring prosperity, his 1890 McKinley Tariff was controversial, which together with a Democratic redistricting aimed at gerrymandering him out of office led to his defeat in the Democratic landslide of 1890. He was elected governor of Ohio in 1891 and 1893, steering a moderate course between capital and labor interests.
With the aid of his close adviser Mark Hanna, he secured the Republican nomination for president in 1896 amid a deep economic depression. He defeated his Democratic rival William Jennings Bryan after a front porch campaign in which he advocated "sound money" and promised that high tariffs would restore prosperity. Rapid economic growth marked McKinley's presidency, he promoted the 1897 Dingley Tariff to protect manufacturers and factory workers from foreign competition and in 1900 secured the passage of the Gold Standard Act. McKinley hoped to persuade Spain to grant independence to rebellious Cuba without conflict, but when negotiation failed he led the nation into the Spanish-American War of 1898; the United States victory was decisive. As part of the peace settlement, Spain turned over to the United States its main overseas colonies of Puerto Rico and the Philippines while Cuba was promised independence, but at that time remained under the control of the United States Army; the United States annexed the independent Republic of Hawaii in 1898 and it became a United States territory.
Historians regard McKinley's 1896 victory as a realigning election in which the political stalemate of the post-Civil War era gave way to the Republican-dominated Fourth Party System, which began with the Progressive Era. McKinley defeated Bryan again in the 1900 presidential election in a campaign focused on imperialism and free silver, his legacy was cut short when he was shot on September 6, 1901 by Leon Czolgosz, a second-generation Polish-American with anarchist leanings. McKinley died eight days and was succeeded by his Vice President Theodore Roosevelt; as an innovator of American interventionism and pro-business sentiment, McKinley's presidency is considered above average, though his positive public perception was soon overshadowed by Roosevelt. William McKinley Jr. was born in 1843 in Niles, the seventh of nine children of William McKinley Sr. and Nancy McKinley. The McKinleys were of English and Scots-Irish descent and had settled in western Pennsylvania in the 18th century, tracing back to a David McKinley, born in Dervock, County Antrim, in present-day Northern Ireland.
There, the elder McKinley was born in Mercer County. The family moved to Ohio, he married her later. The Allison family was of English descent and among Pennsylvania's earliest settlers; the family trade on both sides was iron-making, McKinley senior operated foundries throughout Ohio, in New Lisbon, Niles and Canton. The McKinley household was, like many from Ohio's Western Reserve, steeped in Whiggish and abolitionist sentiment, the latter based on the family's staunch Methodist beliefs. William followed in the Methodist tradition, becoming active in the local Methodist church at the age of sixteen, he was a lifelong pious Methodist. In 1852, the family moved from Niles to Poland, Ohio so that their children could attend the better schools there. Graduating from Poland Seminary in 1859, he enrolled the following year at Allegheny College in Meadville, Pennsylvania, he was an honorary member of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. He remained at Allegheny for only one year, returning home in 1860 after becoming depressed.
He spent time at Mount Union College in Alliance, Ohio as a board member. Although his health recovered, family finances declined and McKinley was unable to return to Allegheny, first working as a postal clerk and taking a job teaching at a school near Poland, Ohio; when the Southern states seceded from the Union and the American Civil War began, thousands of men in Ohio volunteered for service. Among them were McKinley and his cousin William McKinley Osbourne, who enlisted as privates in the newly formed Poland Guards in June 1861; the men left for Columbus where they were consolidated with other small units to form the 23rd Ohio Infantry. The men were unhappy to learn that, unlike Ohio's earlier volunteer regiments, they would not be permitted to elect their officers. Dennison appointed Colonel William Rosecrans as the commander of the regiment, the men began training on the outskirts of Columbus. McKinley took to the soldier's life and wrote a series of letters to his hometown newspaper extolling the army and the Union cause.
Delays in issuance of uniforms and weapons again brought the men into conflict with their officers, but Major Rut
James Beauchamp Clark was a prominent American politician in the Democratic Party from the 1890s until his death. He represented Missouri in the United States House of Representatives and served as Speaker of the House from 1911 to 1919. Born in Kentucky, he established a law practice in Missouri, he won election to the House in 1892, lost his seat in 1894, won the seat back in 1896. He became the House Minority Leader in 1908 and was elevated to Speaker after Democrats took control of the House in the 1910 elections, he inadvertently helped defeat the Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1911 by arguing that ratification of the treaty would lead to the incorporation of Canada into the United States. Entering the 1912 Democratic National Convention, Clark had won the backing of a majority of the delegates, but lacked the necessary two-thirds majority to win the presidential nomination. After dozens of ballots, Woodrow Wilson emerged as the Democratic presidential nominee, went on to win the 1912 presidential election.
Clark helped Wilson pass much of his progressive agenda but opposed U. S. entry into World War I. The 1920 House elections saw the defeat of numerous Democrats, including Clark, he died the following March. Clark was born in Kentucky, to John Hampton Clark and Aletha Beauchamp. Through his mother, he was the first cousin twice removed of the famous lawyer-turned-murderer Jereboam O. Beauchamp, he is directly descended from the famous John Beauchamp through his mother. He graduated from Bethany College where he was initiated into Delta Tau Delta Fraternity, Cincinnati Law School and moved to Missouri in 1875, opened a law practice the following year, he settled in Bowling Green, the county seat of Pike County. He served a principal at Marshall College from 1873 to 1874. Clark was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1892. After a surprise loss in 1894 to William M. Treloar, he regained the seat in 1896, remained in the House until his death, the day before he was to leave office.
Clark was defeated by John Sharp Williams of Mississippi. After Williams ran for the Senate in 1908, Clark won; when the Democrats won control of the House in 1911, Clark became Speaker. In 1911, Clark gave a speech. On the floor of the House, Clark argued for the recent Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty and declared: "I look forward to the time when the American flag will fly over every square foot of British North America up to the North Pole."Clark went on to suggest in his speech that the treaty was the first step towards the end of Canada, a speech, greeted with "prolonged applause" according to the Congressional Record. The Washington Post reported, "Evidently the Democrats approved of Mr. Clark's annexation sentiments and voted for the reciprocity bill because, among other things, it improves the prospect of annexation." The Chicago Tribunal condemned Clark in an editorial, predicting that Clark's speech might have fatally damaged the treaty in Canada. Remarks about the absorption of one country by another grate harshly on the ears of the smaller."
The Conservative Party of Canada, which opposed the treaty, won the Canadian election in large part because of Clark's speech. In 1912, Clark was the frontrunner for the Democratic presidential nomination, coming into the convention with a majority of delegates pledged to him, but he failed to receive the necessary two-thirds of the vote on the first several ballots. After lengthy negotiation, clever management by supporters of New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson, with widespread allegations of influence by special interests, delivered the nomination instead to Wilson. Clark's speakership was notable for his skill from 1910 to 1914 in maintaining party unity to block William Howard Taft's legislation and pass Wilson's. Clark split the party in 1917 and 1918, when he opposed Wilson's decision to bring the United States into World War I. In addition, Clark opposed the Federal Reserve Act, which concentrated financial power in the hands of eastern banks. Clark's opposition to the Federal Reserve Act is said to be the reason that Missouri is the only state granted two Federal Reserve Banks.
Clark was defeated in the Republican landslide of 1920 and died shortly thereafter in his home in Washington, DC. Champ Clark is the namesake of the small community of Audrain County, Missouri; the former Clark National Forest was named after him. Clark married to Genevieve Bennett Clark on December 14, 1881. Together, they had Joel Bennett Clark and Genevieve Clark Thomson. Bennet served as a United States Senator from Missouri from 1933 to 1945. Genevieve was a candidate for the House of Representatives for Louisiana. List of United States Congress members who died in office Specific GeneralGarraty, John A. and Mark C. Carnes. American National Biography, vol. 4, "Clark, Champ". New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. United States Congress. "Champ Clark". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. James Beauchamp Clark at Find a Grave James Beauchamp Clark article from the Crystal Reference Encyclopedia James Beauchamp Clark's Signature on the 17th Amendment to the constitution Image of original document Champ Clark, late a representative from Missouri, Memorial addresses delivered in the House of
Ward is a Home Rule Municipality in Boulder County, United States. The population was 150 at the 2010 census; the town is a former mining settlement founded in 1860 in the wake of the discovery of gold at nearby Gold Hill. Once one of the richest towns in the state during the Colorado Gold Rush, it is located on a mountainside at the top of Left Hand Canyon, near the Peak to Peak Highway northwest of Boulder; the town was named for Calvin Ward, who prospected a claim in 1860 on the site known as Miser's Dream. The town boomed the following year with the discovery by Cyrus W. Deardorff of the Columbia vein. Over the next several decades the population fluctuated, growing from several hundred to several thousand before declining once again; the mines in the area remained profitable for many decades, with one mine producing over 2 million ounces of silver. A post office with the name Ward District was established January 13, 1863; the city was incorporated in June 1896. The railroad reached the area in 1898, arriving over the Whiplash and Switzerland Trail, which climbed over 4,000 feet from Boulder over the course of 26 miles.
In January 1900 over 50 buildings were destroyed by a devastating fire, although the profitability of the mines led to the immediate rebuilding of the town. The town was deserted by the 1920s, but the construction of the Peak-to-Peak Highway in the 1930s led to a revival of the town. During WWII the town's year-round population dropped to four people. In the 1960s, the town's population jumped from between 10-20 year-round residents to well over 100 due to the town's interest to hippies; the town has several businesses along its main street, including a restaurant, a coffee shop and general store. Ward is located at 40°4′20″N 105°30′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.6 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 150 people, 75 households, 36 families residing in the town; the population density was 296.9 people per square mile. There were 82 housing units at an average density of 144.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.82% White, 1.18% from two or more races.
There were 75 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.7% were married couples living together, 5.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 52% were non-families. 37.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2 and the average family size was 2.67. The age of the town's populace was spread out, with 19.3% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 32% from 25 to 44, 35.3% from 45 to 64, 8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 154.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 132.7 males. In 2000, the median income for a household in the town was $33,750, the median income for a family was $50,313. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $28,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,900. None of the population or families were below the poverty line. Hazel Schmoll, botanist Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Colorado cities and towns Colorado municipalities Colorado counties Boulder County, Colorado Colorado metropolitan areas Front Range Urban Corridor North Central Colorado Urban Area Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO Combined Statistical Area Boulder, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area Roosevelt National Forest 2013 Colorado floods Town contacts CDOT map of Ward Ward, Colorado: a slice of Appalachia in the Rockies Ghosttowns.com: Ward, Colorado Ward, Colorado, a revitalized gold-mining ghost town
Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections. Beginning in the late 1800s, women worked for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, sought to change voting laws in order to allow them to vote. National and international organizations formed to coordinate efforts to gain voting rights the International Woman Suffrage Alliance, worked for equal civil rights for women. Women who owned property gained the right to vote in the Isle of Man in 1881, in 1893, the British colony of New Zealand granted all women the right to vote. Most independent countries enacted women's suffrage in the interwar era, including Canada in 1917. Leslie Hume argues that the First World War changed the popular mood: The women's contribution to the war effort challenged the notion of women's physical and mental inferiority and made it more difficult to maintain that women were, both by constitution and temperament, unfit to vote. If women could work in munitions factories, it seemed both ungrateful and illogical to deny them a place in the polling booth.
But the vote was much more than a reward for war work. Extended political campaigns by women and their supporters have been necessary to gain legislation or constitutional amendments for women's suffrage. In many countries, limited suffrage for women was granted before universal suffrage for men; the United Nations encouraged women's suffrage in the years following World War II, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women identifies it as a basic right with 189 countries being parties to this Convention. In ancient Athens cited as the birthplace of democracy, only adult, male citizens who owned land were permitted to vote. Through subsequent centuries, Europe was ruled by monarchs, though various forms of parliament arose at different times; the high rank ascribed to abbesses within the Catholic Church permitted some women the right to sit and vote at national assemblies – as with various high-ranking abbesses in Medieval Germany, who were ranked among the independent princes of the empire.
Their Protestant successors enjoyed the same privilege into modern times. Marie Guyart, a French nun who worked with the First Nations peoples of Canada during the seventeenth century, wrote in 1654 regarding the suffrage practices of Iroquois women, "These female chieftains are women of standing amongst the savages, they have a deciding vote in the councils, they make decisions there like the men, it is they who delegated the first ambassadors to discuss peace." The Iroquois, like many First Nations peoples in North America, had a matrilineal kinship system. Property and descent were passed through the female line. Women elders could depose them; the emergence of modern democracy began with male citizens obtaining the right to vote in advance of female citizens, except in the Kingdom of Hawai'i, where universal manhood and women's suffrage was introduced in 1840. In Sweden, conditional women's suffrage was in effect during the Age of Liberty. Other possible contenders for first "country" to grant women suffrage include the Corsican Republic, the Pitcairn Islands, the Isle of Man, Franceville, but some of these operated only as independent states and others were not independent.
In 1756, Lydia Taft became the first legal woman voter in colonial America. This occurred under British rule in the Massachusetts Colony. In a New England town meeting in Uxbridge, she voted on at least three occasions. Unmarried white women who owned property could vote in New Jersey from 1776 to 1807. In the 1792 elections in Sierra Leone a new British colony, all heads of household could vote and one-third were ethnic African women; the female descendants of the Bounty mutineers who lived on Pitcairn Islands could vote from 1838. This right was transferred; the seed for the first Woman's Rights Convention in the United States in Seneca Falls, New York was planted in 1840, when Elizabeth Cady Stanton met Lucretia Mott at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London. The conference refused to seat Mott and other women delegates from the U. S. because of their sex. In 1851, Stanton met temperance worker Susan B. Anthony, shortly the two would be joined in the long struggle to secure the vote for women in the U.
S. In 1868 Anthony encouraged working women from the printing and sewing trades in New York, who were excluded from men's trade unions, to form Working Women's Associations; as a delegate to the National Labor Congress in 1868, Anthony persuaded the committee on female labor to call for votes for women and equal pay for equal work. The men at the conference deleted the reference to the vote. In the U. S. women in the Wyoming Territory could vote as of 1869. Subsequent American suffrage groups disagreed on tactics, with the National American Woman Suffrage Association arguing for a state-by-state campaign and the National Woman's Party focusing on an amendment to the U. S. Constitution. In 1881 the Isle of Man, an internally self-governing dependent territory of the British Crown, enfranchised women property owners. With this it provide
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
The Woman's Christian Temperance Union is an active international temperance organization, among the first organizations of women devoted to social reform with a program that "linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied Christianity." It was influential in the temperance movement, supported the 18th Amendment. It was influential in social reform issues that came to prominence in the progressive era; the WCTU was organized on December 23, 1873, in Hillsboro and declared at a national convention in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1874. It operated at an international level and in the context of religion and reform, including missionary work and woman's suffrage. Two years after its founding, the American WCTU sponsored an international conference at which the International Women's Christian Temperance Union was formed; the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union was founded in 1883 and became the international arm of the organization, which has now affiliates in Australia, Germany, India, New Zealand, South Korea, United Kingdom, the United States, among others.
At its founding in 1874, the stated purpose of the WCTU was to create a "sober and pure world" by abstinence and evangelical Christianity. Annie Wittenmyer was its first president; the constitution of the WCTU called for "the entire prohibition of the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors as a beverage."Frances Willard, a noted feminist, was elected the WCTU's second president in 1879 and Willard grew the organization to be the largest organization of women in the world by 1890. She remained president until her death in 1898, its members were inspired by the Greek writer Xenophon, who defined temperance as "moderation in all things healthful. In other words, should something be good, it should not be indulged in to excess; the WCTU perceived alcohol as a cause and consequence of larger social problems rather than as a personal weakness or failing. The WCTU agitated against tobacco; the American WCTU formed a "Department for the Overthrow of the Tobacco Habit" as early as 1885 and published anti-tobacco articles in the 1880s.
Agitation against tobacco continued through to the 1950s. As a consequence of its stated purposes, the WCTU was very interested in a number of social reform issues, including labor, public health and international peace; as the movement grew in numbers and strength, members of the WCTU focused on suffrage. The WCTU was instrumental in organizing woman's suffrage leaders and in helping more women become involved in American politics. Local chapters, known as "unions", were autonomous, though linked to state and national headquarters. Willard pushed for the "Home Protection" ballot, arguing that women, being the morally superior sex, needed the vote in order to act as "citizen-mothers" and protect their homes and cure society's ills. At a time when suffragists were viewed as radicals and alienated most American women, the WCTU offered a more traditionally feminine and "appropriate" organization for women to join. Although the WCTU had chapters throughout North America with hundreds of thousands of members, the "Christian" in its title was limited to those with an evangelical Protestant conviction and the importance of their role has been noted.
The goal of evangelizing the world, according to this model, meant that few Catholics, Muslims, Buddhists or Hindus were attracted to it, "even though the last three had a pronounced cultural and religious preference for abstinence". As the WCTU grew internationally, it developed various approaches that helped with the inclusion of women of religions other than Christianity. But, it was always and still is, a Christian women's organization; the WCTU's work extended across a range of efforts to bring about social moral reform. In the 1880s it worked on creating legislation to protect working girls from the exploitation of men, including raising Age of Consent laws, it focused on keeping Sundays as Sabbath days and restrict frivolous activities. In 1901 the WCTU said; the WCTU wanted to aid immigrants coming into the United States through "Americanization" activities. Between 1900 and 1920, much of their budget was given to their center on Ellis Island, which helped to start the Americanization process.
The WCTU promoted the idea that immigrants were more prone to alcoholism than Native Americans, focusing on Irish and German immigrant communities as the source of the problem. The WCTU was concerned about trying to alleviate poverty, through abstinence from alcohol. Through journal articles, the WCTU tried to prove. A fictional story in one of their journal articles illustrates this fact: Ned has applied for a job, but he is not chosen, he finds. Jack is a kindly man but he spends his money on drink and cigarettes. Ned has been seen drinking and smoking; the employer thinks that Ned Fisher lacks the necessary traits of industriousness which he associates with abstinence and self-control. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union grew rapidly; the WCTU adopted Willard's "Do Everything" philosophy, which meant that the "W. C. T. U. Campaigned for local and national prohibition, woman suffrage, protective purity legislation, scientific temperance instruction in the schools, better working conditions for labor, anti-polygamy
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle
The Flatirons are rock formations in the western United States, near Boulder, consisting of flatirons. There are five large, numbered Flatirons ranging from north to south along the east slope of Green Mountain, the term "The Flatirons" sometimes refers to these five alone. Numerous additional named Flatirons are on the southern part of Green Mountain, Bear Peak, among the surrounding foothills; the Flatirons were known as the "Chautauqua Slabs" c. 1900 and "The Crags" c. 1906. There are two hypotheses regarding the origin of the current name, one based on resemblance to old-fashioned clothes irons, the other based on resemblance to the Flatiron Building completed in 1902; the Flatirons consist of conglomeratic sandstone of the Fountain Formation. Geologists estimate the age of these rocks as 290 to 296 million years; the Flatirons were subsequently exposed by erosion. Other manifestations of the Fountain Formation can be found in many places along the Colorado Front Range, including Garden of the Gods near Colorado Springs, Roxborough State Park in Douglas County, Red Rocks Amphitheatre near Morrison.
The Flatirons on Green Mountain are within the City of Boulder Open Mountain Parks system. They are popular destinations for hikers and rock climbers, with rock grades ranging from easy to world-class. Images of the numbered Flatirons on Green Mountain are ubiquitous symbols of the city of Boulder; the area abounds with Flatirons photographs, drawings and sculptures. The city government, the University of Colorado, many businesses make use of this symbol in their logos and marketing materials. Many businesses use the word Flatirons or Flatiron in their names. In addition, Boulder is referred to in the tech industry as the "Silicon Flatirons", analogous to Santa Clara Valley's famous nickname; the third Flatiron bore a "CU," for the University of Colorado, in 50-foot white letters from the 1950s until 1980, when the city painted over the initials to restore the natural look of the stone formation. CU students Dale Johnson and Robert Rowlands climbed the flatiron one night in November 1949 to paint the original "C."
The "C" was painted again, with a "U" being added in the 1950s. The letters are still faintly visible under the reddish paint used by the city in 1980. Climbing according to summitPost.org Geology Flatiron Webcam 360 Degree Panoramas Near Flat Irons Gibson, Dick. "Geology of Boulder Flatirons: The Fountain Formation". Gravmag. Gibson Consulting. Retrieved 7 October 2014