The Pawnee are a Plains Indian tribe who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma. Pawnee people are enrolled in the federally recognized Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma, they lived in Nebraska and Kansas. In the Pawnee language, the Pawnee people refer to themselves as Chaticks si Chaticks or Men of Men, the Pawnee lived in large earth lodge villages with adjacent farmlands. With the arrival of horses, the Pawnee retained their agricultural lifestyle, in the early 19th century, the Pawnee numbered over 10,000 people and were one of the largest and most powerful tribes in the west. They had suffered losses due to diseases brought by the expanding Europeans. By 1860, the Pawnee population was reduced to 4000 and it further decreased, because of disease, crop failure and warfare, to approximately 2400 by 1873, at which time they were forced to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Many Pawnee warriors enlisted to serve as Indian scouts in the US Army to track, there are approximately 3200 enrolled Pawnee and nearly all reside in Oklahoma.
Their tribal headquarters is in Pawnee and their tribal area is in parts of Noble, Payne. The tribal constitution establishes the government of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma and this government consists of the Nasharo Council, the Pawnee Business Council, and the Supreme Court. Enrollment into the tribe requires a minimum blood quantum. The Nasharo Council, known as the Chiefs Council consists of eight members, each band has two representatives on the Nasharo Council selected by the members of the tribal bands, Kitkehahki and Skidi. Current Pawnee Business Council, Marshall R. Gover, President Bruce Pratt, Vice President Misty M. Nuttle, the Pawnee operate two gaming casinos, three smoke shops, two fuel stations, and one truck stop. Their estimated economic impact for 2010 was $10.5 million, increased revenues from the casinos have helped them provide for education and welfare of their citizens. They issue their own vehicle tags and operate their housing authority. The Pawnee were divided into two large groupings—the Skidi living in the north and the South Bands, while the Skidi were the most populous group of Pawnee, the Chaui of the South Bands were generally the politically leading group, although each band was autonomous.
As was typical of many Native American tribes, each band saw to its own, in response to pressures from the Spanish and Americans, as well as neighboring tribes, the Pawnee began to draw closer together. Archeology studies of ancient sites have demonstrated the people lived in this pattern for nearly 700 years, the Pawnee generally settled close to the rivers and placed their lodges on the higher banks. They built earth lodges that by historical times tended to be oval in shape, at earlier stages and they constructed the frame, made of 10–15 posts set some 10 feet apart, which outlined the central room of the lodge
The Cheyenne are one of the Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and their language is of the Algonquian language family. The Cheyenne comprise two Native American tribes, the Sótaeoo or Sótaétaneoo and the Tsétsêhéstâhese and these tribes merged in the early 19th century. At the time of their first contact with the Europeans, the Cheyenne were living in the area of what is now Minnesota, at times they have been allied with the Lakota and Arapaho, and at other points enemies of the Lakota. In the early 18th century they migrated west across the Mississippi River and into North and South Dakota, having settled the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Powder River Country of present-day Montana, they introduced the horse culture to Lakota bands about 1730. Allied with the Arapaho, the Cheyenne pushed the Kiowa to the Southern Plains, in turn, they were pushed west by the more numerous Lakota. The Cheyenne Nation or Tsêhéstáno was at one time composed of ten bands that spread across the Great Plains from southern Colorado to the Black Hills in South Dakota and they fought their traditional enemies, the Crow and the United States Army forces.
In the mid-19th century, the bands began to split, with some choosing to remain near the Black Hills. Tribal enrollment figures, as of late 2014, indicate there are approximately 10,840 members. Approximately 91% of the population are Native Americans, with 72. 8% identifying themselves as Cheyenne, slightly more than one quarter of the population five years or older spoke a language other than English. The Southern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne as Heévâhetaneoo meaning Roped People, together with the Southern Arapaho, form the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes and their combined population is 12,130, as of 2008. In 2003, approximately 8,000 of these identified themselves as Cheyenne, the Tsétsêhéstâhese, which translates to those who are like this. Though the identity of the Šahíya is not known, many Great Plains tribes assume it means Cree or some people who spoke an Algonquian language related to Cree. The Cheyenne word for Ojibwe is Sáheaeoo, a word that sounds similar to the Dakota word Šahíya, another of the common etymologies for Cheyenne is a bit like the alien speech.
The etymology of the name Tsitsistas, which the Cheyennes call themselves, is uncertain, grinnells record is typical, he states They call themselves Tsistsistas, which the books commonly give as meaning people. It most likely related to one another, similarly bred, like us, our people. The term for the Cheyenne homeland is Tsiihistano, the Cheyenne of Montana and Oklahoma speak the Cheyenne language, known as Tsêhésenêstsestôtse. Approximately 800 people speak Cheyenne in Oklahoma, there are only a handful of vocabulary differences between the two locations. The Cheyenne alphabet contains 14 letters, the Cheyenne language is one of the larger Algonquian-language group
Jicarilla Apache refers to the members of the Jicarilla Apache Nation currently living in New Mexico and speaking a Southern Athabaskan language. The term jicarilla, pronounced heek-ah-REE-yah, comes from Mexican Spanish meaning little basket and their autonym is Tinde or Dinde, meaning the People. To neighboring Apache bands like the Mescalero and Lipan they were known as Kinya-Inde, the Jicarilla Apache lived in a semi-nomadic existence in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and plains of southern Colorado, northern New Mexico and ranged into the Great Plains starting before 1525 CE. They lived a peaceful life for years, traveling seasonally to traditional hunting, gathering. The Jicarilla learned about farming and pottery from the Puebloan peoples and learned about survival on the plains from the Plains Indians and had a rich and varied diet and lifestyle. Tribal members transitioned from a lifestyle and are now supported by their oil and gas, casino gaming, ranching. The Jicarilla continue to be known for their pottery, large numbers of them lived along the Cimarron River and ranged out into the plains of northwestern Texas and the western portions of Oklahoma and Kansas.
Their territory overlapped that of other tribes. They were found to be in the Chama Valley, New Mexico, prior to that time, and the arrival of the Spanish, the Jicarilla lived a relatively peaceful existence. One of the Plains Indian traits prominent in Jicarilla Culture was an emphasis on raiding, after Spanish contact raiding increased in frequency and intensity with the use of and need for horses. In the 1600s, the Jicarillas were semi-nomads, practicing seasonal agriculture that they learned from the Pueblo people, the Apache are linked to the Dismal River culture of the western Plains, generally attributed to the Paloma and Quartelejo Apaches. Jicarilla Apache pottery has found in some of the Dismal River complex sites. Some of the people of the Dismal River culture joined the Kiowa Apache in the Black Hills of South Dakota and they found farming in the mountains safer than on the open plains. They primarily hunted buffalo into the 17th century and thereafter hunted antelope, mountain sheep, from the wild, women gathered berries, honey, potatoes and seeds.
They believe the heart of the world is located near Taos, the Jicarilla created shrines in sites that held spiritual meaning, sharing some of the Taos area sites with the Taos Pueblo. Clay for the pottery came from the Taos and Picuris Pueblo areas, due to increase in other populations, Manifest Destiny, and Indian Wars, the Apaches traditional cultural and economic lifestyle became strained. Many people died due to famine, Indian Wars, including the Battle of Cieneguilla, at the beginning of the eighteenth century the Jicarilla commonly raided the Plains tribes to their east and used the fruits of their successes to trade with the Pueblo Indians and the Spanish. As they were pushed off the plain, the Jicarilla moved to the mountains and near the pueblos and Spanish missions where they sought alliance with the Puebloan peoples and the Spanish settlers
Sand Creek massacre
The Sand Creek massacre was a massacre in the American Indian Wars that occurred on November 29,1864, when a 675-man force of Colorado U. S. The location has been designated the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site and is administered by the National Park Service and this area included present-day southeastern Wyoming, southwestern Nebraska, most of eastern Colorado, and the westernmost portions of Kansas. In November 1858, the discovery of gold in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, part of the Kansas Territory, european-American immigrants flooded across Cheyenne and Arapaho lands. They competed for resources, and some tried to stay. The Cheyenne chiefs included Black Kettle, White Antelope, Lean Bear, Little Wolf, and Tall Bear, the Arapaho chiefs included Little Raven, Shave-Head, Big Mouth, and Niwot, or Left Hand. The new reserve, less than one-13th the size of the 1851 reserve, was located in eastern Colorado, between the Arkansas River and Sand Creek. Most bands of the Cheyenne, including the Dog Soldiers, a band of Cheyenne.
They disavowed the treaty - which never received the blessing of the Council of 44 and they continued to live and hunt in the bison-rich lands of eastern Colorado and western Kansas, and became increasingly belligerent over the tide of white migration across their lands. Tensions were high, particularly in the Smoky Hill River country of Kansas, the whites, claimed the treaty was a solemn obligation. Officials took the position that Indians who refused to abide by it were hostile, the beginning of the American Civil War, in 1861, led to the organization of military forces in Colorado Territory. In March 1862, the Colorado volunteers defeated a Confederate Army from Texas in the Battle of Glorieta Pass, New Mexico by destroying their supply wagons, the Confederates returned to Texas, and the First Regiment of Colorado Volunteers returned to Colorado Territory. They were mounted as a guard under the command of Colonel John Chivington. Chivington and Colorado territorial governor John Evans adopted a line against Indians.
On May 16,1864, a detachment under Lieutenant George S. Eayre crossed into Kansas and encountered Cheyenne in their summer buffalo-hunting camp at Big Bushes, near the Smoky Hill River. Cheyenne chiefs Lean Bear and Star approached the soldiers to signal their peaceful intent and this incident touched off a war of retaliation by the Cheyenne in Kansas. Damn any man who sympathizes with Indians, I have come to kill Indians, and believe it is right and honorable to use any means under Gods heaven to kill Indians. Kill and scalp all and little, nits make lice, after a while, the Native Americans were requested to relocate to Big Sandy Creek, less than 40 miles northwest of Fort Lyon, with the guarantee of perfect safety remaining in effect. The Dog Soldiers, who had responsible for many of the attacks
The Colorado War was fought from 1863 to 1865 and was an Indian War between the Cheyenne and Arapaho Nations and white settlers and militia in the Colorado Territory and adjacent regions. The United States government and Colorado Territory authorities participated through the Colorado volunteers, the war was centered on the Colorado Eastern Plains. The war included an attack in November 1864 against the camp of the Southern Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle known as the Sand Creek massacre. The engagement, initially hailed in the United States press as a victory, was publicly condemned as an act of depraved genocidal brutality. The massacre resulted in military and congressional hearings which established the culpability of John Chivington, the commander of the Colorado Volunteers, the tribes would be converted from nomadic hunting to a farming lifestyle. The new reservation, instead of being a hunting territory, would be surveyed and divided among the tribal members. Moreover, the federal agents promised that each tribe would receive a US $30,000 subsidy for 15 years, as well as a grist mill, saw mill, the leader of the Cheyenne who signed the treaty was Black Kettle.
The treaty text, which the Cheyenne and Arapaho chiefs could not read, stipulated that the Cheyenne, the chiefs clarified that they could only speak for their bands but not for their nations as a whole. The conflict occurred during the last two years of the American Civil War, the same units of the 1st Colorado Volunteers of the US Army that fought in this war spearheaded the Union counterattack in the New Mexico Campaign against the Confederate Army. By the early 1860s, relations between the Sioux and the United States on the northern Great Plains had deteriorated substantially, prior to this time, white emigrants passed relatively harmoniously through the area on their way along the California and the Oregon Trails. Especially troublesome from their point was the slicing up of the bison herd by the increasingly heavily used trails. The Colorado War marked the spreading of the trend among the Plains Tribes southward along Rockies, the increased traffic in the area resulted in attacks by, most notoriously by the Kiowa, who were regarded as historically one of the most antagonistic tribes to white encroachment of any kind.
They were somewhat caught in the crossfire of the war, tensions further increased between the settlers and the Indians. The discovery of gold in the Rocky Mountains prompted more and more men to settle into the territory. The Indians, particularly the Cheyennes, replied by creating their own war parties such as the infamous Dog Soldiers and this was seen by many as a violation of the Treaty of Fort Laramie that strained the Indian-white relationships. Soon Indian war parties started raiding white settlements, and with military intervention. In November 29,1864, a 675-man unit of troops, consisting of armed white men from Colorado led by John Chivington, crossed into Cheyenne. The troops sacked the village and killed over 200 Indians including unarmed women and children, in response to the attack, many Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians joined the Dog Soldiers and mobilized war parties to attack settlements and military outposts throughout Colorado
Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
The Basketmaker culture of the pre-Ancestral Puebloans began about 1500 BC and continued until about AD500 with the beginning of the Pueblo I Era. The prehistoric American southwestern culture was named Basketmaker for the number of baskets found at archaeological sites of 3,000 to 2,000 years ago. Well-preserved mummies found in dry caves provide insight into the ancient Basketmakers, women were about 5 feet tall and men were 3 to 4 inches taller. They had long, narrow faces and medium to stocky build and their skin varied from light to dark brown and they had brown or black hair and eyes. Fancy hairstyles were worn by men and infrequently by women. The Basketmakers wore sandals made of yucca fibers or strips of leaves. There is little evidence of clothing aside from a few found at archaeological sites. Women may have worn aprons on special occasions, hides or blankets made of yucca fibers and rabbit fur were likely for warmth. Both men and women wore necklaces and pendants made of shell, bone, such as abalone and olivella from the coast of the Pacific ocean, would have been obtained through trade.
In the Early Basketmaker II Era people lived a semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle with the introduction of cultivation of corn, some of the early people lived in cave shelters in the San Juan River drainage. Excavation of their sites yielded a number of baskets, for which they received their name, corn. It was not until the Late Basketmaker II Era that people lived in permanent dwellings, crude pit-houses made of brush, hunting became much easier during the Basketmaker III Era when bow-and-arrow technology replaced the spear used since the Archaic period of the Americas. Throughout the Ancestral Puebloan cultural eras the most important resource was water, in the lowlands the climate was an arid land of juniper and sage. At about 6,000 feet in elevation the climate was a land of pinyon trees. The cultural groups of this include, Ancestral Puebloans - southern Utah, southern Colorado, northern Arizona and northern. Mogollon - southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico and northern Mexico, patayan - western Arizona and Baja California.
Ancient Peoples of the American Southwest, hunter-Gatherer Archaeology of the Colorado High Country
In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone, it is largely synonymous with parietal art. A global phenomenon, rock art is found in many diverse regions of the world. It has been produced in many contexts throughout history, although the majority of rock art that has been ethnographically recorded has been produced as a part of ritual. Such artworks are often divided into three forms, which are carved into the surface, which are painted onto the surface. The oldest known rock art dates from the Upper Palaeolithic period, having found in Europe, Asia. Archaeologists studying these artworks believe that they likely had magico-religious significance, Rock art continues to be of importance to indigenous peoples in various parts of the world, who view them as both sacred items and significant components of their cultural patrimony. Such archaeological sites are significant sources of cultural tourism, and have been utilised in popular culture for their aesthetic qualities.
Normally found in cultures, a rock relief or rock-cut relief is a relief sculpture carved on solid or living rock such as a cliff. They are a category of art, and sometimes found in conjunction with rock-cut architecture. However, they tend to be omitted in most works on rock art, a few such works exploit the natural contours of the rock and use them to define an image, but they do not amount to man-made reliefs. Rock reliefs have been made in many cultures, and were important in the art of the Ancient Near East. Rock reliefs are generally large, as they need to be to make an impact in the open air. Most have figures that are over life-size, and in many the figures are multiples of life-size, the vertical relief is most common, but reliefs on essentially horizontal surfaces are found. The term typically excludes relief carvings inside caves, whether natural or themselves man-made, natural rock formations made into statues or other sculpture in the round, most famously at the Great Sphinx of Giza, are usually excluded.
Reliefs on large boulders left in their location, like the Hittite İmamkullu relief, are likely to be included. The term rock art appears in the literature as early as the 1940s. It has described as rock carvings, rock drawings, rock engravings, rock inscriptions, rock paintings, rock pictures. The defining characteristic of rock art is that it is placed on natural rock surfaces, as such, rock art is a form of landscape art, and includes designs that have been placed on boulder and cliff faces, cave walls and ceilings, and on the ground surface
Sites may range from those with few or no remains visible above ground, to buildings and other structures still in use. Beyond this, the definition and geographical extent of a site can vary widely, depending on the period studied and it is almost invariably difficult to delimit a site. It is sometimes taken to indicate a settlement of some sort although the archaeologist must define the limits of human activity around the settlement, any episode of deposition such as a hoard or burial can form a site as well. Development-led archaeology undertaken as cultural resources management has the disadvantage of having its sites defined by the limits of the intended development, even in this case however, in describing and interpreting the site, the archaeologist will have to look outside the boundaries of the building site. According to Jess Beck in “How Do Archaeologists find sites. ”The areas with a number of artifacts are good targets for future excavation. The most common person to have found artifacts are farmers who are plowing their fields or just cleaning them up often find archaeological artifacts, many people who are out hiking and even pilots find artifacts they usually end up reporting them to archaeologist to do further investigation.
When they find sites, they have to first record the area and if they have the money, there are many ways to find sites, one example can be through surveys. Surveys involve walking around analyzing the land looking for artifacts. ”This helps archaeologists in the future. In case there was no time, or money during the finding of the site, archaeologists can come back, archaeologist can sample randomly within a given area of land as another form of conducting surveys. Surveys are very useful, according to Jess Beck, “it can tell you where people were living at different points in the past. ”Geophysics is a branch of survey becoming more and more popular in archaeology, because it uses different types of instruments to investigate features below the ground surface. It is not as reliable, because although they can see what is under the surface of the ground it does not produce the best picture, Archaeologists have to still dig up the area in order to uncover the truth. There are two most common types of survey, which is, magnetometer and ground penetrating radar.
Magnetometry is the technique of measuring and mapping patterns of magnetism in the soil and it uses an instrument called a magnetometer which is required to measure and map traces of soil magnetism. The ground penetrating radar is a method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface and it uses electro magnetic radiation in the microwave band of the radio spectrum, and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. There are many tools that can be used to find artifacts. This tool is helpful to archaeologists who want to explore in a different area. They can use this tool to see what has already been discovered, with this information available, archaeologists can expand their research and add more to what has already been found. Traditionally, sites are distinguished by the presence of artifacts and features
The Kiowas are a tribe of Native Americans. They migrated from western Montana southward into the Rocky Mountains in Colorado in the 17th and 18th centuries, in 1867, the Kiowa were moved to a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Today they are recognized as Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma with headquarters in Carnegie. The Kiowa language is spoken today and is part of the Tanoan language family. As of 2011, there are 12,000 members, Kiowa call themselves Kaigwu, Cáuigù or Gaigwu, most given with the meaning Principal People. The first part of the name is the element Kae-, Cáui- or Gai- which means the Kiowa themselves – it may derive from the word ka or from ka-a, kae-kia means a Kiowa man, Kae-ma is a Kiowa woman. The second element -gua refers to men or people, so the meaning of the two elements is Kiowa people, to express Principal People or genuine, real or true People in Kiowa is to add the ending -hin. Ancient names were Kútjàu or Kwu-da and Tep-da, relating to the pulling or coming out of a hollow log until a pregnant woman got stuck.
Later, they called themselves Kom-pa-bianta for people with large tipi flaps, the mountain pass they came through was populated heavily by grizzly bear Kgyi-yo and Blackfoot people. Other tribes who encountered the Kiowa used sign language to them by holding two straight fingers near the lower outside edge of the eye and moving these fingers back past the ear. This corresponded to the ancient Kiowa hairstyle cut horizontally from the lower edge of the eyes to the back of their ears. This was a practice to keep their hair from getting tangled as an arrow was let loose from a bow string. George Catlin painted Kiowa warriors with this hairstyle, for a time, the Kiowa are thought to have shared land, mostly in present-day eastern Colorado, with the Arapaho. An Arapaho name for the Kiowa is creek people, and the Arapaho word for creek is kohowu, for example, the Kiowa are referred to as creek people in an oral narrative recited in 1993 by native Arapaho speaker Paul Moss. Thus, it is possible Kiowa may have come from a name by which the tribe was known among the Arapaho, the Kiowa language is a member of the Kiowa-Tanoan language family.
The relationship was first proposed by Smithsonian linguist John P. Harrington in 1910, parker McKenzie, born 1897, was a noted authority on the Kiowa language, learning English only when he began school. He worked with John P. Harrington on the Kiowa language and he went on to discuss the etymology of words and insights of how the Kiowa language changed to incorporate new items of material culture. McKenzies letters are in the National Anthropological Archives on pronunciation and grammar of the Kiowa language, Kiowa were one of the numerous nations across the US, Canada and Mexico that spoke Plains Sign Talk
The Cody complex is a Paleo-Indian culture group first identified at a bison antiquus kill site near Cody, Wyoming in 1951. Points possessing characteristics of Cody Complex flaking have been found all across North America from Canada to as far south as Oklahoma, the tradition is generally attributed to the North American, primarily in the High Plains portion of the American Great Plains. The discovery of the Cody complex broadened the understanding of late Paleo-Indian cultural traditions beyond the Folsom tradition, most Cody complex sites were bison antiquus kill and butcher sites, and sometime campsites. The sites are distinguished by their campsites and butchering process, the tools, dated between about 6,000 and 8,000 BC, include Cody knives and Scottsbluff and diamond-shaped Eden projectile points
The Shoshone were sometimes called the Snake Indians by neighboring tribes and early American explorers. Their peoples have become members of recognized tribes throughout their traditional areas of settlement, often colocated with the Paiute. The name Shoshone comes from Sosoni, a Shoshone word for high-growing grasses, some neighboring tribes call the Shoshone Grass House People, based on their traditional homes made from soshoni. Shoshones call themselves Newe, meaning People, meriwether Lewis recorded the tribe as the Sosonees or snake Indians in 1805. The Shoshoni language is spoken by approximately 1,000 people today and it belongs to the Central Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Speakers are scattered from central Nevada to central Wyoming, the largest numbers of Shoshoni speakers live on the federally recognized Duck Valley Indian Reservation, located on the border of Nevada and Idaho, and Goshute Reservation in Utah. Idaho State University offers Shoshoni-language classes, the Shoshone are a Native American tribe, who originated in the western Great Basin and spread north and east into present-day Idaho and Wyoming.
By 1500, some Eastern Shoshone had crossed the Rocky Mountains into the Great Plains, after 1750, warfare and pressure from the Blackfoot, Lakota and Arapaho pushed Eastern Shoshone south and westward. Some of them moved as far south as Texas, emerging as the Comanche by 1700, as more European-American settlers migrated west, tensions rose with the indigenous people over competition for territory and resources. Wars occurred throughout the half of the 19th century. The Northern Shoshone, led by Chief Pocatello, fought during the 1860s with settlers in Idaho, as more settlers encroached on Shoshone hunting territory, the natives raided farms and ranches for food, and attacked immigrants. The warfare resulted in the Bear River Massacre, when US forces attacked and killed an estimated 410 Northwestern Shoshone, a large number of the dead were civilians, including women and children, deliberately killed by the soldiers. This was the highest number of deaths which the Shoshone suffered at the hands of United States forces, allied with the Bannock, to whom they were related, the Shoshone fought against the United States in the Snake War from 1864 to 1868.
They fought US forces together in 1878 in the Bannock War, in 1876, by contrast, the Shoshone fought alongside the U. S. Army in the Battle of the Rosebud against their traditional enemies, the Lakota and Cheyenne. In 1879 a band of approximately 300 Eastern Shoshone became involved in the Sheepeater Indian War and it was the last Indian war fought in the Pacific Northwest region of the present-day United States. In 1911 a small group of Bannock under a leader named Mike Daggett, known as Shoshone Mike, killed four ranchers in Washoe County, the settlers formed a posse and went out after the Native Americans. They caught up with the Bannock band on February 26,1911 and they lost one man of the posse, Ed Hogle. The posse captured three children and a woman, a rancher donated the partial remains of three adult males, two adult females, two adolescent males, and three children to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC for study