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Colorado Mineral Belt

The Colorado Mineral Belt is an area of ore deposits from the La Plata Mountains in Southwestern Colorado to near the middle of the state at Boulder and from which over 25 million troy ounces of gold were extracted beginning in 1858. The belt is a "northeast-striking zone defined by: a Proterozoic shear zone system. Mining districts include: Central City-Idaho Springs district Leadville mining district, named for Leadville, Colorado Sneffels-Red Mountain-Telluride districtThe belt lies within a zone, geologically active at intervals beginning from near the time of crustal accretion in central Colorado at least 1.6 billion years ago until the present. Parts of the CMB follow shear zones of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Igneous rocks intruded about 60 to 70 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny are associated with the belt and once were thought to be responsible for most of the ore deposits. Now many of the important ore deposits are thought to be genetically related to younger magmatism, some at least as young as about 25 million years.

Map of the Colorado Mineral Belt

Oil paint

Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil linseed oil. The viscosity of the paint may be modified by the addition of a solvent such as turpentine or white spirit, varnish may be added to increase the glossiness of the dried oil paint film. Oil paints have been used in Europe since the 12th century for simple decoration, but were not adopted as an artistic medium until the early 15th century. Common modern applications of oil paint are in finishing and protection of wood in buildings and exposed metal structures such as ships and bridges, its hard-wearing properties and luminous colors make it desirable for both interior and exterior use on wood and metal. Due to its slow-drying properties, it has been used in paint-on-glass animation. Thickness of coat has considerable bearing on time required for drying: thin coats of oil paint dry quickly; the technical history of the introduction and development of oil paint, the date of introduction of various additives is still—despite intense research since the mid 19th century—not well understood.

The literature abounds with incorrect theories and information: in general, anything published before 1952 is suspect. Until 1991 nothing was known about the organic aspect of cave paintings from the Paleolithic era. Many assumptions were made about the chemistry of the binders. Well known Dutch-American artist Willem De Kooning is known for saying “Flesh is the reason oil paint was invented”; the oldest known oil paintings date from 650 AD, found in 2008 in caves in Afghanistan's Bamiyan Valley, "using walnut and poppy seed oils." Though the ancient Mediterranean civilizations of Greece and Egypt used vegetable oils, there is little evidence to indicate their use as media in painting. Indeed, linseed oil was not used as a medium because of its tendency to dry slowly and crack, unlike mastic and wax. Greek writers such as Aetius Amidenus recorded recipes involving the use of oils for drying, such as walnut, hempseed, pine nut and linseed; when thickened, the oils became resinous and could be used as varnish to seal and protect paintings from water.

Additionally, when yellow pigment was added to oil, it could be spread over tin foil as a less expensive alternative to gold leaf. Early Christian monks used the techniques in their own artworks. Theophilus Presbyter, a 12th-century German monk, recommended linseed oil but advocated against the use of olive oil due to its long drying time. Oil paint was used as it is today in house decoration, as a tough waterproof cover for exposed woodwork outdoors. In the 13th century, oil was used to detail tempera paintings. In the 14th century, Cennino Cennini described a painting technique utilizing tempera painting covered by light layers of oil; the slow-drying properties of organic oils were known to early painters. However, the difficulty in acquiring and working the materials meant that they were used; as public preference for naturalism increased, the quick-drying tempera paints became insufficient to achieve the detailed and precise effects that oil could achieve. The Early Netherlandish painting of the 15th century saw the rise of the panel painting purely in oils, or oil painting, or works combining tempera and oil painting, by the 16th century easel painting in pure oils had become the norm, using much the same techniques and materials found today.

The claim by Vasari that Jan van Eyck "invented" oil painting, while it has cast a long shadow, is not correct, but van Eyck's use of oil paint achieved novel results in terms of precise detail and mixing colours wet-on-wet with a skill hardly equalled since. Van Eyck’s mixture may have consisted of piled glass, calcined bones, mineral pigments boiled in linseed oil until they reached a viscous state—or he may have used sun-thickened oils, he left no written documentation. The Flemish-trained or influenced Antonello da Messina, who Vasari wrongly credited with the introduction of oil paint to Italy, does seem to have improved the formula by adding litharge, or lead oxide; the new mixture had better drying properties. This mixture was known as oglio cotto—"cooked oil." Leonardo da Vinci improved these techniques by cooking the mixture at a low temperature and adding 5 to 10% beeswax, which prevented darkening of the paint. Giorgione and Tintoretto each may have altered this recipe for their own purposes.

The paint tube was invented in 1841 by portrait painter John Goffe Rand, superseding pig bladders and glass syringes as the primary tool of paint transport. Artists, or their assistants ground each pigment by hand mixing the binding oil in the proper proportions. Paints could now be sold in tin tubes with a cap; the cap could be screwed back on and the paints preserved for future use, providing flexibility and efficiency to painting outdoors. The manufactured paints had a balanced consistency that the artist could thin with oil, turpentine, or other mediums. Paint in tubes changed the way some artists approached painting; the artist Pierre-Auguste Renoir said, “Without tubes of paint, there would have been no Impressionism.” For the impressionists, tubed paints offered an accessible variety of colors for their plein air palettes, motivating them to make spontaneous color choices. With greater quantities of preserved paint, they were able to apply paint more thickly. Traditional oil paints require an oil that always hardens, forming a

2004–05 Portland Trail Blazers season

The 2004–05 NBA season was the 35th season for the Portland Trail Blazers in the National Basketball Association. During the offseason, the Blazers acquired Nick Van Exel from the Golden State Warriors and signed free agent Joel Przybilla; the Blazers played around.500 for the first two months, but started to struggle losing 11 of their 15 games in January. Head coach Maurice Cheeks was fired midway through the season with a record of 22–33, he was replaced by General Manager Kevin Pritchard, who acted as interim coach for the remainder of the season, in which the team went 5–22. For the second year in a row, the Blazers did not qualify for the playoffs; the team's overall record of 27–55 was their worst since 1973–74, their fourth season of existence. Following the season, Pritchard was fired as coach, Van Exel signed as a free agent with the San Antonio Spurs, Shareef Abdur-Rahim was traded to the New Jersey Nets, but failed his physical and on signed with the Sacramento Kings, Damon Stoudamire signed with the Memphis Grizzlies, Derek Anderson signed with the Houston Rockets.

Z - clinched division title y - clinched division title x - clinched playoff spot

OECD Better Life Index

The OECD Better Life Index, in May 2011 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development following a decade of work on this issue, is a first attempt to bring together internationally comparable measures of well-being in line with the recommendations of the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress known as the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission. The recommendations made by this Commission sought to address concerns that standard macroeconomic statistics like GDP failed to give a true account of people’s current and future well-being; the OECD Better Life Initiative includes two main elements: "Your Better Life Index" and "How's Life?" Your Better Life Index, launched in May 2011, is an interactive tool that allows people to compare countries' performances according to their own preferences in terms of what makes for a better life. It was designed by Berlin-based agency Raureif in collaboration with Moritz Stefaner. First published on 24 May 2011, it includes 11 "dimensions" of well-being: Housing: housing conditions and spendings Income: household income and net financial wealth Jobs: earnings, job security and unemployment Community: quality of social support network Education: education and what one gets out of it Environment: quality of environment Governance: involvement in democracy Health Life Satisfaction: level of happiness Safety: murder and assault rates Work-life balanceCanberra has been ranked as the world's most liveable city according to the OECD Better Life Index for the second consecutive year, based on results published on 6 October 2014.

How's Life? offers a comprehensive picture of what makes up people's lives in 40 countries worldwide. The report assesses the above 11 specific aspects of life as part of the OECD's ongoing effort to devise new measures for assessing well-being that go beyond GDP. New indicators and dimensions are planned be added to the Better Life Index in the future. For example, the Better Life Index was criticised for not showing inequalities in a society. Future editions of the index are planned to take inequalities into account, by focusing on well-being achievements of specific groups of the population. OECD Better Life Index for 2017. Legend: From an econometric point of view, the Index seems similar to other efforts aimed at substituting or complementing the gross domestic product measure by an econometric model for measuring happiness and well-being of the population. One major criticism is that the Better Life Index uses a limited subset of indicators used by other econometric models such as Gross National Well-being Index 2005, Sustainable Society Index of 2008, Bhutan Gross National Happiness Index of 2012, Social Progress Index of 2013.

Observers argue that "the 11 dimensions still cannot capture what is important to a populace, such as social networks that sustain relationships, freedom of speech.". Various critics have pointed out that the OECD's BLI does not include such dimensions as poverty, economic inequality, access to health insurance, pollution. In 2012 OECD relaunched "with new indicators on inequality and gender plus rankings for Brazil and Russia. A couple have been removed too: Governance has been renamed civic engagement, employment rate of women with children has been replaced by the full integration of gender information in the employment data and students' cognitive skills has replaced students' reading skills to have a broader view."Some argue that some of the criteria are vague and question the purpose of such measure, for example, they question, "what constitutes “environmental quality”? Can it result in population control policy to minimize damage to the environment? While others argue that the Better Life Index unlike the Gross National Happiness Index does not pay attention to religion.

Critics state that the Better Life Index ignores good family life, or moral formation. Others have criticized its methodology such as the use of relative scores instead of absolute ones. Official website

List of extreme points of Canada

The following lists include extreme and significant points of the geography of Canada. Northernmost point — Cape Columbia, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut 83°6′41″N 69°57′30″W Southernmost point — South point of Middle Island, Ontario, in Lake Erie 41°40′53″N 82°40′56″W Easternmost point — Cape Spear, Newfoundland 47°31′25″N 52°37′10″W Westernmost point — Boundary Peak 187, Yukon 60°18′23″N 141°0′7″W Northernmost point — Zenith Point, Nunavut 72°0′0″N 94°38′59″W Southernmost point — Point Pelee, Ontario 41°54′33″N 82°30′32″W Easternmost point — Cape Saint Charles, Labrador 52°13′3″N 55°37′15″W Westernmost point — Boundary Peak 187, Yukon 60°18′23″N 141°0′7″W Mount Logan Yukon 60°34′33″N 140°24′10″W — highest Canadian summit at 5,959 m Barbeau Peak, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut 81°54′30″N 75°1′30″W — highest Canadian island summit and highest summit of the Canadian Arctic at 2,616 m Coastline — lowest Canadian surface point at sea level Great Slave Lake bottom, Northwest Territories 61°40′N 114°00′W — lowest fresh water point of North America at −458 m Baffin Island, Nunavut 63°33′N 65°26′W — most extensive Canadian island at 507,451 km2 Ellesmere Island, Nunavut 81°55′36″N 74°59′12″W — tallest Canadian island at 2,616 m Island of Newfoundland and Labrador 49°N 56°W — most extensive Canadian Atlantic island at 108,860 km2 Vancouver Island, British Columbia 49°30′N 125°30′W — most extensive Canadian Pacific island at 31,285 km2 Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron, Ontario 45°46′N 82°12′W — most extensive lake island on Earth at 2,766 km2 Lake Superior, Ontario 47°45′N 87°30′W — most voluminous lake of Western Hemisphere at 11,600 km3 Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories 61°40′N 114°00′W — deepest lake of Western Hemisphere at 614 m Lake Michigan–Huron, Ontario 45°49′N 84°45′W — by some considerations the most extensive lake of Western Hemisphere and the most extensive freshwater lake on Earth at 117,400 km2 Nettilling Lake on Baffin Island, Nunavut 66°30′N 70°50′W — most extensive lake on an island on Earth at 5,066 km2 Lake Manitou on Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron, Ontario 45°46′42″N 81°59′30″W — most extensive lake on an island in a lake on Earth at 104 km2 Yukon River, British Columbia and Yukon 62°35′55″N 164°47′40″W — longest Bering Sea main stem river at 3,185 km Nelson River, Manitoba 57°5′5″N 92°30′8″W — longest Hudson Bay main stem river at 2,575 km Columbia River, British Columbia 46°14′39″N 124°3′29″W — longest Canadian Pacific Ocean main stem river at 2,000 km Mackenzie River, Northwest Territories 68°56′23″N 136°10′22″W — longest Canadian Arctic Ocean main stem river at 1,738 km Saint Lawrence River and Quebec 49°40′N 64°30′W — longest Canadian Atlantic Ocean main stem river at 965 km Geography of Canada Extreme points of North America Extreme points of Canadian provinces Extreme communities of Canada Nordicity Remote and isolated community

Helen Clarke (field hockey)

Helen Margaret Clarke is a former field hockey goalkeeper and captain for New Zealand, who competed in three Summer Olympics: 1992, 2000 and 2004. Clarke earned a record 166 caps for her country and was appointed a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit in the 2005 New Year Honours for services to hockey, she was a member of the New Zealand team at the 1998 Commonwealth Games in Kuala Lumpur, where she won a bronze medal, the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester, two World Cups. She retired from the sport after the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, she has taught physical education and English at Mount Roskill Grammar School in Auckland