Colorado Party (Uruguay)
The Colorado Party is a political party in Uruguay. The party seeks to unite moderate and social democratic groups, it was the dominant party of government without exception during the stabilization of the Uruguayan republic. At the 2004 national elections, the Colorado Party won 10 seats out of 99 in the Chamber of Representatives and 3 seats out of 31 in the Senate, its presidential candidate, Guillermo Stirling, won the same 10.4% of the popular vote. The Colorado Party was founded in Montevideo, Uruguay, on 17 September 1836; some of its major historical leaders were Fructuoso Rivera, Venancio Flores, José Batlle y Ordóñez, Luis Batlle Berres, Jorge Pacheco Areco, Juan María Bordaberry, Julio María Sanguinetti and Jorge Batlle. The party has been the most elected party in Uruguayan history with uninterrupted dominance during the 20th century; the Colorados were in office from 1865 to 1959, when they were defeated by the Partido Nacional in the 1958 elections. They returned to office after the 1966 elections.
They won the first elections at the end of the military dictatorship, in 1984. They went on to win the 1999 elections. From its birth until the last decades of the 20th century its traditional rival was the conservative Partido Nacional; the Colorado Party suffered its worst defeat in the 2004 national elections, with little over 10 per cent of the popular vote for its presidential candidate Guillermo Stirling, having only three out of thirty national Senators. Reasons for the party's weak results were many, but these include the economic crisis and old party leaders. Subsequently, to his defeat in 2004, Guillermo Stirling endorsed Pedro Bordaberry Herrán's Vamos Uruguay movement. Bordaberry Herrán became the presidential candidate for the 2009 presidential election, placed third, with 17 percent of the vote, behind José Mujica and Luis Alberto Lacalle. Bordaberry Herrán placed third again with 13 % of the vote. Colorado Party National Party Contributions to liberal theory Social democracy Liberalism worldwide List of liberal parties Liberal democracy Liberalism in Uruguay Fructuoso Rivera José Batllé y Ordóñez Jorge Batlle Pedro Bordaberry
A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
Senate of Paraguay
The Chamber of Senators of Paraguay, the upper house of the National Congress, has 45 members, elected for a five-year term by proportional representation. Senators: National Republican Association – Colorado PartyLilian Samaniego Luis Castiglioni Arnoldo Wiens Mirta Leonor Gusinky Julio César Velázquez Óscar Alberto González Gustavo Javier González Enrique Fausto Bachetta Chiriani Julio Antonio Quiñónez Silvio Adalberto Avelar Benítez Juan Carlos del Valle Javier Alejandro Osorio Núnez Blanca Ovelar Mario Abdo Benítez Oscar Rubén Fernández Víctor Bogado González Juan Darío Espínoza Carlos Núñez Agüero Nelson Dario AguinagaldeAuthentic Radical Liberal PartyAntonio Ramos Emilia Patricia Alfaro Franco Ramón Gómez Blanca Beatríz Fonseca Carlos Alberto Amarilla Enzo Cardozo Jiménez Ramona Gómez Cáceres Luís Alberto Lezcano Julio César Franco María Blanca González Miguel Carmona Fernando Silva Roberto Ramón Acevedo QuevedoGuasú FrontFernando Lugo Carlos Alberto Filizzola Pallarés Sixto Galeano Esperanza Martínez Oscar Hugo Richer FlorentínProgressive Democratic PartyArnaldo Euclides Giuzzio Desiree Graciela Masi Pedro Arturo CruzAvanza PaísAdolfo Marcelino Ferreiro Miguel Ángel LópezNational Union of Ethical CitizensJorge Oviedo José Manuel BóbedaNational Encounter PartyEduardo Romalino Petta List of Presidents of the Senate of Paraguay Official website
Chamber of Deputies of Paraguay
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of Paraguay's bicameral legislature, the National Congress. It is made up of 80 members, elected for a five-year term by proportional representation; the other chamber of the National Congress is the Chamber of Senators. Deputies of Paraguay Website
General Higinio Morínigo Martínez was a general and political figure in Paraguay. He was the President and military dictator of Paraguay from September 7, 1940 to June 3, 1948. Opposition to his rule led to the Paraguayan civil war of 1947; the Paraguayan city General Higinio Morínigo is named in his honor. Morínigo was born in 1897 in Paraguarí, Paraguay, to a merchant family of mixed European and Guarani descent, he was fluent in the Guaraní languages. Little else is known of his early life, he attended military college and entered the Paraguayan Army in 1922. He participated in the Chaco War and was appointed the Army's Chief of Staff in 1936. Morínigo gained fame in Paraguay during the February Revolution of 1936 by heading an expedition to the site of the Battle of Cerro Corá to retrieve the remains of Francisco Solano López. President José Félix Estigarribia, himself a Chaco War hero and supporter of the Liberal Party, promoted Morínigo to general and appointed him as Minister of War on May 2, 1940.
After Estigarribia's unexpected death in an airplane crash on September 7, Morínigo was chosen by the army and Liberal ministers as interim President for the two-month period leading to new Presidential elections. On September 30, 1940, after growing disagreements with the President, the Liberal ministers resigned from the government. On October 16 Morínigo announced. Soon afterward he announced a policy of disciplina, jerarquia, y orden and stated that persons who spread subversive ideas would be "subject to confinement". On November 30 he announced in a midday radio address, "The people and the Army from this moment will be under a single command." All political parties were banned and he established a military dictatorship. In his coup and subsequent rule he was assisted by the 1940 Constitution—written by Liberals and Estigarribia—that had increased the powers of the President. To strengthen his authority, on February 4, 1941 Morínigo removed the influential Colonel Peredes from the post of Interior Minister.
On April 17, 1941 he suppressed a febrerista uprising by supporters of the February Revolution. On April 25, 1942 he banned the Liberal Party, accusing them of conspiring with the Bolivians and exiled Party's leaders. Morínigo's only remaining supporters were radicals from the Army. During his dictatorship he faced widespread resistance, including general strikes and military revolts, but he survived by maintaining the loyalty of the Paraguayan Army, which received 45% of the country's budget. Morínigo relied on the right-wing Colorado faction Guion Rojo, led by Juan Natalico Gonzalez, as a paramilitary police force to intimidate febreristas and Liberals. Opposition newspapers were shut down and publishers exiled. Morínigo held presidential elections on February 15, 1943. Just as in other South American countries, pro-Nazi and pro-fascist sympathies at this time were quite strong in the society and among military officers. After it entered World War II in 1941, the United States tried to exert some pressure on Morínigo to limit the influence of Axis supporters.
He kept Paraguay neutral and declared war against the Axis powers only in February 1945, without sending any soldiers to fight. A surge of German influence in the region and Argentina's pro-Axis leanings alarmed the United States, which sought to wean Paraguay away from German and Argentine influence. At the same time, the United States sought to enhance its presence in the region and pursued close cooperation with Brazil, Argentina's traditional rival. To this end, the United States provided to Paraguay sizable amounts of funds and supplies under the Lend-Lease Agreement, provided loans for public works, gave technical assistance in agriculture and health care; the United States Department of State approved of closer ties between Brazil and Paraguay and supported Brazil's offer to finance a road project designed to reduce Paraguay's dependence on Argentina. United States protests over German and Argentine activities in Paraguay fell on deaf ears. While the United States defined its interests in terms of resisting the fascist threat, Paraguayan officials believed their best interests lay in economic expediency and were reluctant to antagonize Germany until the outcome of the war was no longer in doubt.
Many Paraguayans believed Germany was no more of a threat to Paraguay's sovereignty than the United States. Much to the displeasure of the United States and Britain, Morínigo refused to act against German economic and diplomatic interests until the end of the war. German agents had converted many Paraguayans to the Axis cause. South America's first Nazi Party branch had been founded in Paraguay in 1931. German immigrant schools, hospitals, farmers' cooperatives, youth groups, charitable societies became active Axis backers. All of those organizations prominently displayed portraits of Adolf Hitler, it is no exaggeration to say. Large numbers of Paraguayan military officers and government officials were sympathetic to the Axis. Among these officials was the national police chief, who named his son Adolfo Hirohito after the best-known Axis leaders. By 1941, the official newspaper El País had adopted an overtly pro-German stance. At the same time, the government controlled pro-Allied labor unions. Police cadets wore Italian insignia on their uniforms.
The December 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and Germany's declaration of war against the United States gave the United States the leverage it needed, however, to force Morínigo to commit himsel
President of Paraguay
The President of Paraguay known as the President of the Republic of Paraguay, is according to the Constitution of Paraguay the head of the executive branch of the Government of Paraguay, both head of state and head of government. His honorific title is Excelentísimo Señor. Under the 1992 constitution, the President is limited to a single five-year term. An attempt by the Senate to abolish term limits on 1 April 2017 resulted in protests; the Presidential seat is the Palacio de los López, in Asunción. The Presidential residence is the Mburuvichá Roga in Asunción. Once Presidents leave office, they are granted by the Constitution of Paraguay the speaking-but-non-voting position of Senator for life; the current President of Paraguay is Mario Abdo Benítez, since 15 August 2018. First Lady of Paraguay Presidency of the Republic of Paraguay
Fernando Armindo Lugo Méndez is a Paraguayan politician, President of Paraguay from 2008 to 2012. He was a Roman Catholic priest and bishop, serving as Bishop of the Diocese of San Pedro from 1994 to 2005, he was elected as president in an election that ended 61 years of rule by the Colorado Party. In 2012, he was removed from office through an impeachment process that neighboring countries deemed a coup d'état, he was elected to the Senate of Paraguay in the 2013 general elections. He received his basic education at a religious school in Encarnación, sold snacks on the streets, his family was not religious. However, they were active in Colorado Party politics, his maternal uncle, Epifanio Méndez Fleitas, was a co-conspirator in the 1954 Paraguayan coup d'etat that helped bring Alfredo Stroessner to power. However, he fell out of favor with Stroessner and left the country. Fernando's father was imprisoned twenty times, some of his elder siblings were sent into so-called exile, his father wanted Lugo to become a lawyer, but at 18 Lugo entered a normal school, began teaching in a rural community.
He was well accepted by the community, religious, but they had no priest. He said that he was touched by that experience, so discovered his vocation to the Roman Catholic priesthood. At age 19 he entered, he was ordained a priest for the society on 15 August 1977. He was sent to Ecuador. In Ecuador he learned about liberation theology. Lugo returned to Paraguay in 1982, after a year, was sent to Rome for further academic studies. Lugo came back to Paraguay two years before the Stroessner dictatorship's fall. Lugo was ordained a bishop on 17 April 1994, received charge of the nation's poorest diocese, in the San Pedro diocese. Lugo resigned his ordinary from the Diocese of San Pedro on 11 January 2005, he had requested laicization in order to run for office. However, the Holy See refused the request on the grounds that bishops could not undergo laicization, denied him the requested canonical permission to run for civil elected office. However, after Lugo won the presidential election, the Church granted his laicization on 30 June 2008.
Without doubt it is possible to resurrect a country like Paraguay. We are people of hope, of faith, I won't be the one killing that hope of the people. I do believe we will resurrect this country, a country drowned in misery and discrimination; because I do believe Paraguay could be different. I do not lack faith in this flock. Where there is a scream coming from the poor people, where there is sweat, where people are shoeless, we will be there; because in such people there is a resurrection. Lugo jumped to the national arena by backing peasant claims for better land distribution. During 2006, opinion polls published by Diario ABC Color newspaper showed him as a possible choice for the opposition's presidential candidacy. Known as "the bishop of the poor", Lugo was seen in subsequent months as the most serious threat to the dominance of the Colorado Party on Paraguayan politics. Although he said he found the presidency of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela interesting, he made a point to distance himself from leftist leaders in Latin America, focusing more on social inequality in Paraguay.
On 23 February 2007, a Prensa Latina article noted that the Paraguayan Interior Ministry offered Lugo protection because of the death threats he received during the course of his political activities. According to a poll in February 2007, he was the leading contender in the April 2008 presidential election, with more than 37% of the voters' intention. On 29 October 2007, he registered as member of the small Christian Democratic Party of Paraguay, which allowed him to file as a candidate; the CDP became the core of the Patriotic Alliance for Change, a coalition of more than a dozen opposition parties and social movements which backed Lugo for President. Federico Franco of the Authentic Radical Liberal Party, Paraguay's largest opposition party, was the candidate for Vice President; the legality of Lugo's candidacy was questioned, because Article 235 of the Constitution forbids clerics of any religious denomination to hold elective office, Pope Benedict XVI had rejected Lugo's resignation from the priesthood.
However, on 16 November 2007, President Nicanor Duarte Frutos announced that the Party would not object to Lugo's candidacy, In July 2008, the Pope laicized Lugo, which made the question moot. On 20 April 2008, Lugo won the election by a margin of 10 %; the Colorado Party candidate, Blanca Ovelar, acknowledged that Lugo had an unassailable lead and conceded the race that same night at about 9 pm local time. Two hours President Duarte acknowledged that the Colorados had lost an election for the first time in 61 years. Lugo's swearing in marked the first time in Paraguay's history that a ruling party peacefully surrendered power to an elected member from the opposition, he became Paraguay's second leftist president, the first to be elected. Lugo was sworn in as President on 15 August 2008, saying he would not accept the presidential salary because it "belongs to more humble people" and encouraged other politicians to refuse their salaries as well, he named Alejandro Hamed as his foreign minister.
During the campaign, Lugo had suggested that he would switc