Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, hierarchy and property rights. Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as religion, parliamentary government, property rights, with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity; the more extreme elements—reactionaries—oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were". The first established use of the term in a political context originated in 1818 with François-René de Chateaubriand during the period of Bourbon Restoration that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution. Associated with right-wing politics, the term has since been used to describe a wide range of views. There is no single set of policies regarded as conservative because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place and time, thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a wide range of issues.
Edmund Burke, an 18th-century politician who opposed the French Revolution but supported the American Revolution, is credited as one of the main theorists of conservatism in Great Britain in the 1790s. According to Quintin Hogg, the chairman of the British Conservative Party in 1959: "Conservatism is not so much a philosophy as an attitude, a constant force, performing a timeless function in the development of a free society, corresponding to a deep and permanent requirement of human nature itself". In contrast to the tradition-based definition of conservatism, some political theorists such as Corey Robin define conservatism in terms of a general defense of social and economic inequality. From this perspective, conservatism is less an attempt to uphold traditional institutions and more, "a meditation on—and theoretical rendition of—the felt experience of having power, seeing it threatened, trying to win it back". Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of minimal government intervention in the economy.
Individuals should be free to participate in the market and generate wealth without government interference. However, individuals cannot be depended on to act responsibly in other spheres of life, therefore liberal conservatives believe that a strong state is necessary to ensure law and order and social institutions are needed to nurture a sense of duty and responsibility to the nation. Liberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism, influenced by liberal stances; as these latter two terms have had different meanings over time and across countries, liberal conservatism has a wide variety of meanings. The term referred to the combination of economic liberalism, which champions laissez-faire markets, with the classical conservatism concern for established tradition, respect for authority and religious values, it contrasted itself with classical liberalism, which supported freedom for the individual in both the economic and social spheres. Over time, the general conservative ideology in many countries adopted economic liberal arguments and the term liberal conservatism was replaced with conservatism.
This is the case in countries where liberal economic ideas have been the tradition such as the United States and are thus considered conservative. In other countries where liberal conservative movements have entered the political mainstream, such as Italy and Spain, the terms liberal and conservative may be synonymous; the liberal conservative tradition in the United States combines the economic individualism of the classical liberals with a Burkean form of conservatism. A secondary meaning for the term liberal conservatism that has developed in Europe is a combination of more modern conservative views with those of social liberalism; this has developed as an opposition to the more collectivist views of socialism. This involves stressing what are now conservative views of free market economics and belief in individual responsibility, with social liberal views on defence of civil rights and support for a limited welfare state. In continental Europe, this is sometimes translated into English as social conservatism.
Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism that combines liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or more the right-wing of the liberal movement. The roots of conservative liberalism are found at the beginning of the history of liberalism; until the two World Wars, in most European countries the political class was formed by conservative liberals, from Germany to Italy. Events after World War I brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative type of liberalism. Libertarian conservatism describes certain political ideologies within the United States and Canada which combine libertarian economic issues with aspects of conservatism, its four main branches are constitutionalism, paleolibertarianism, small government conservatism and Christian libertarianism. They differ from paleoconservatives, in that they are in favor of more personal and economic freedom. Agorists such as Samuel Edward Konkin III labeled libertarian conservatism right-libertarianism.
In contrast to paleoconservatives, libertarian conservatives support strict laissez-faire policies such as free trade, opposition to any national bank and opposition to business regulations. They are vehemently opposed to environmental regulations, corporate welfare and other areas of economic intervention. Many conservatives in the United States, be
2014 Uruguayan general election
General elections were held in Uruguay on 26 October 2014, alongside a constitutional referendum. Since no presidential candidate received an absolute majority, a runoff took place on 30 November 2014. Primary elections had been held on 1 June 2014. Incumbent President José Mujica was ineligible to run owing to a constitutional limit on serving consecutive terms; the governing Broad Front nominated former President Tabaré Vázquez as its candidate, with Vázquez defeating Luis Alberto Lacalle Pou of the National Party in the second round of voting by the widest margin since the run-off system was first implemented in 1999. The Broad Front maintained its majority in the Chamber of Deputies, winning 50 of the 99 seats. There were around 250,000 new voters in many of them not used to traditional media. Campaign managers and advertising agents took notice of this new trend, implemented an important portion of their campaign via social media. Within the Broad Front coalition, Movement of Popular Participation won six seats in the Senate, the Liber Seregni Front won three and the Socialist Party won two.
Following the second round of the presidential elections, the Broad Front gained an extra seat in the Senate, giving them a majority, as Vice President Raúl Fernando Sendic Rodríguez automatically became a member. Uruguayan presidential primaries, 2014 Uruguayan municipal elections, 2015 Electoral Process in Uruguay 2014-2015 Electoral Court of Uruguay
The Permanent Conference of Political Parties of Latin America and the Caribbean is an international organization of political parties in Latin America and the Caribbean. It was created at the behest of the Institutional Revolutionary Party on 12 October 1979 in Oaxaca and brings together Liberal, social democratic, Christian democratic, leftist political parties. Today COPPPAL is the most important forum of political parties in the Caribbean, its first president was Gustavo Carvajal Moreno of Mexico. Its current president is the Dominican politician Manolo Pichardo. COPPPAL was established during an October 12, 1979, conference in Oaxaca, Mexico, on the initiative of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional, the ruling party in Mexico at the time; the multilateral non-governmental organization was defined by its charter as a "forum of nationalist parties that prioritize sovereignty, while advancing a more just and egalitarian international order." The organization would advance this goal by "defending democracy and the legal and political institutions while fostering their development and improvement.
The organization was led by the PRI between its establishment in 1979 and 1984, again between 1989 and 2005. Antonio Cafiero of the Justicialist Party was elected president of the coordinating committee in 2005, Gustavo Carvajal Moreno of the PRI was elected as its adjunct president. Cafiero was succeeded in 2011 by Pedro Joaquín Coldwell of the PRI; the committee coordinates youth exchange and other activities among its member parties, as well as with the International Conference of Asian Political Parties. The following political parties from the Americas are represented at COPPPAL: International Conference of Asian Political Parties Official website
A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
Juan Pedro Bordaberry Herrán is a Uruguayan political figure from the Colorado Party. Bordaberry was educated at The British Schools of Montevideo, gaining fluency in English, he finished highschool at Instituto Preuniversitario Salesiano Juan XXIII. He studied law. Bordaberry served as the Tourism minister in the government of President Jorge Batlle until 2005, he was appointed Industry and Energy minister and Sports and Youth minister. He participated in the mayoral elections for Montevideo, but lost to Ricardo Ehrlich, of the Frente Amplio. Bordaberry got 26.9% of the vote. In this election, Bordaberry multiplied by three the votes that his party, the Colorado, had received in the October 2004 general election, he was still 1% below Oscar Magurno's performance of May 2000. Pedro Bordaberry's decision to seek a political base in Montevideo contrasts with his father, dictator Juan Maria Bordaberry, who had a long association with rural affairs, he is a son of Juan Maria Bordaberry, elected President of Uruguay in free elections in 1972 and former Dictator of Uruguay from 1973 to 1976, after closing Parliament.
Since his father's arrest in 2006, in connection with the 1976 assassination of two legislators, Senator Zelmar Michelini and House leader Héctor Gutiérrez, Pedro Bordaberry has been vocal in his support. Some observers would argue that it is natural for this state of affairs to have come about, that it is unreasonable to expect Pedro Bordaberry not to defend his father. Others would argue that from a publicity perspective it is in the tactical political interests of the Broad Front, for Pedro Bordaberry, seen as one of the principal leaders of the opposition, to be identified in his public pronouncements with a controversial period in which he himself played no direct role. Bordaberry is a grandson of former Senator and Ruralist leader Domingo Bordaberry, a great-grandson of Santiago Bordaberry, a French national from the Basque Country, he is a brother of the noted Ruralist leader Santiago Bordaberry, based in Durazno Department, central Uruguay. Pedro Bordaberry's career is one of a number of examples in Latin American politics of the son of a President of authoritarian tendencies making his mark subsequently while upholding constitutional legitimacy.
The careers of Omar Torrijos and Martín Torrijos of Panama are comparable cases in point. Bordaberry has contributed to literary criticism of the Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges, an acute observer of the historical and cultural scenes of both Argentina and Uruguay, he has notably discussed Borges's theme of the complexity of memory. In 2007, following a well-attended meeting of supporters in Trinidad, Pedro Bordaberry formed a new group in the Colorado Party; this group is called "Vamos Uruguay". Bordaberry's group claims to represent calls for ethics and real participation of the Uruguayan people in public life of the country. Bordaberry has built up a nationwide organization for the group. Many local chapters of'Vamos Uruguay' have been established in Uruguay's departments. Polls in 2008 showed that Bordaberry by a huge margin was the candidate best placed to gain his party's nomination for the Uruguayan Presidential elections in 2009. Guillermo Stirling, the former Colorado Party candidate for the Presidency in 2004, was in 2008 seen as close to Bordaberry, rather than to former Vice President of Uruguay Luis Antonio Hierro López thought to be a candidate, but trailing in polls thought to be broadly accurate.
Other prominent Colorado supporters include former Minister Jorge Sanguinetti and former Deputies Washington García Rijo and Diana Saravia Olmos, former'Intendente' of Artigas Ariel Riani. In May 2008 Pedro Bordaberry received death threats while in the Pocitos district of Montevideo. An unstable or enraged individual was sought in connection with the incident. However, it was thought that longstanding, widespread frustrations relating to the former civilian-military régime and its conflict with Tupamaro urban guerrillas may have supplied part of the context of this event. Political violence in Uruguay has subsided since the departure of the civilian-military administration of 1973-1985. However, there have been occasions when aspiring and rising politicians have died in mysterious circumstances, notably Villanueva Saravia in 1998. In 2008 Bordaberry called on Interior Minister Daisy Tourné to resign; this call followed Bordaberry's publicly expressed doubts about what he claimed was Tourné's lack of commitment to her ministerial responsibility for security issues.
However, Ms. Tourné did resign in 2009 following some public gaffes relating to other prominent Opposition figures. Bordaberry has entered into controversy regarding some of the foreign official trips which President Tabaré Vázquez has undertaken. For example, he has been critical of President Vázquez for choosing to be in Cuba at a June 2008 commemoration - which Mr. Vázquez himself initiated - of the victims of the cilivian-military administration, although the role of Mr. Bordaberry Senior was relevant to the events commemorated. However, Bordaberry has defended President Vázquez in relation to what he regarded as a breach of protocol by his hosts during a visit of Mr. Vázquez to Argentina
Guillermo Stirling is a Uruguayan notary and political figure. Stirling is a prominent member of the Uruguayan Colorado Party, he has been a close colleague of Presidents Julio María Jorge Batlle. His grandfather Manuel Stirling was a Deputy and Senator for Paysandú. Stirling was President of the Chamber of Deputies of Uruguay from March 1, 1995 to March 1, 1996, he served as Interior Minister under the Presidency of Julio María Sanguinetti. He subsequently served in the same office under Jorge Batlle's Presidency, he was the unsuccessful Colorado Party candidate in the 2004 Presidential elections, gaining 10% of the vote, which came about following a period of considerable economic instability. Stirling was seen as closer to Pedro Bordaberry Herrán for the Presidential elections in 2009, as opposed to former Vice President of Uruguay Luis Antonio Hierro López, seen as a contender for the Colorado Party's candidacy. However, it was thought that Stirling himself and his internal voting recommendations did not command a large personal following within the party.
It was thought that for the 2009 elections Stirling, who served in the government of President Jorge Batlle, had to some extent been eclipsed by politicians of the generation of Pedro Bordaberry, whose'Vamos Uruguay' grouping within the Colorado Party Stirling in any case endorsed, prior to his retirement from politics in 2008 at the age of 71. List of political families#Uruguay Politics of Uruguay#Political parties and elections Colorado Party Manuel Stirling#Political role Pedro Bordaberry#Formation of Vamos Uruguay