Lake Lyndon B. Johnson
Lake Lyndon B. Johnson is a reservoir on the Colorado River in the Texas Hill Country about 45 miles northwest of Austin; the reservoir was formed in 1950 by the construction of Granite Shoals Dam by the Lower Colorado River Authority. The Colorado River and the Llano River meet in the northern portion of the lake at Kingsland; the towns of Granite Shoals, Horseshoe Bay, Highland Haven, Sunrise Beach are located on the lake. The boundary line separating Burnet County and Llano County runs down the center of the lake; the lake was called Lake Granite Shoals. The dam would be renamed Wirtz Dam in 1952 for Alvin J. Wirtz, the first general counsel of the LCRA, the lake was renamed to Lake Lyndon B. Johnson in 1965 in honor of US President Lyndon Baines Johnson. In addition to his work to enact the Rural Electrification Act that formed the basis for building the Texas Highland Lakes, President Johnson owned a ranch on the lake, he and Mrs. Johnson entertained national and foreign dignitaries on the lake during his vice presidency and presidency.
The other reservoirs on the Colorado River are Lake Buchanan, Inks Lake, Lake Marble Falls, Lake Travis, Lake Austin, Lady Bird Lake. Lake LBJ along with Inks Lake and Lake Marble Falls are pass-through lakes for Lake Buchanan and Lake Travis. There is no room in Lake LBJ for additional water storage, water that comes in must go out. Therefore, Lake LBJ is at a near constant level, but the level can fluctuate during a flood; the LCRA lowers the lake periodically for maintenance on Wirtz Dam and to allow landowners to remove sediment around their docks. Lake LBJ has been stocked with several species of fish intended to improve the utility of the reservoir for recreational fishing. Fish present in Lake LBJ include largemouth bass, white bass and crappie. Lake LBJ is one of the Highland Lakes infested with hydrilla, a non-native aquatic plant species, the LCRA is undergoing treatment to eradicate the hydrilla. Most of the property bordering Lake LBJ is owned; the Nightengale Archaeological Center at Kingsland is a unique educational park operated by the Lower Colorado River Authority, adjacent to Lake LBJ.
The popularity of Lake LBJ is due to its constant level water which provides ideal conditions for boating, water skiing, riding personal water craft and other water sports. The lake provides cooling water for the Thomas C. Ferguson Power Plant, located on its shores. List of facilities named after Lyndon Johnson Official LCRA Wirtz Dam and Lake LBJ website Lake LBJ Lake LBJ - Texas Parks & Wildlife Nightengale Archaeological Center Lake Lyndon B. Johnson from the Handbook of Texas Online City of Granite Shoals web site
Lake Travis is a reservoir on the Colorado River in central Texas in the United States. The reservoir was formed in 1942 by the construction of Mansfield Dam on the western edge of Austin, Texas by the Lower Colorado River Authority, was built to contain floodwaters in a flash-flood prone region. During its construction, after a severe flood in July 1938, the height of the dam was raised to add storage capacity for floodwaters. Serving principally as flood-control reservoir, Lake Travis' historical minimum to maximum water height change is nearly 100 feet. In 2018 alone, it has seen a 20-foot depth increase within a single 24-hour period of time. With 30 square miles of surface area, Lake Travis has the largest storage capacity of the seven reservoirs known as the Highland Lakes, stretches 65 miles upriver from western Travis County in a serpentine course into southern Burnet County to Max Starcke Dam, southwest of the town of Marble Falls; the Pedernales River, a major tributary of the Colorado River, flows into the lake from the southwest in western Travis County.
The lake is used for flood control, water supply, electrical power generation, recreation. Lake Travis is well-known for its outdoor recreation opportunities, including fishing, swimming, scuba diving, picnicking and zip lining. Another recreational use, nude sunbathing and swimming, is permitted in Hippie Hollow Park; this picturesque park is located near the eastern end of Lake Travis and holds the distinction of being the only legal clothing optional park in Texas. Lake Travis is considered one of the clearest lakes in Texas, it is a vital water supply for the nearby city of Austin and the surrounding metropolitan area. In ranking lakes in Texas for accidental fatalities, Lake Travis was in first-place in 2011 and tied for second-place for total deaths over the years 2000-2015. Flotation devices are recommended on Lake Travis for personal safety reasons. According to the Travis County Sheriff's Office: Lake Travis is a dangerous body of water because it isn't a lake, it's a giant reservoir.
It has a dynamic about it. There are all kinds of things under the water. There's low visibility. There are steep, steep drop-offs, so, you can be standing in three feet of water, take a step, you're in 50 feet of water. We will have over 200,000 people visit Lake Travis every summer and there is a small percentage of people who die on our lake. But, any death is a significant death and we want to make sure that people are taking this lake and that means wearing a flotation device. Lake Travis has been stocked with several species of fish intended to improve the utility of the reservoir for recreational fishing. Fish present in Lake Travis include largemouth bass, guadalupe bass, white bass, striped bass and sunfish. In spring 2008 there were several reports of leeches residing in Lake Travis; the leeches are harmless to humans but can be a nuisance. Lake Travis is considered "full". Above 681 feet, flood control gates at Mansfield Dam are opened under the direction of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers.
The level of the lake can vary dramatically—with an over 96-foot range between its historical high and low—depending on the amount of rainfall in the Colorado River basin upstream. The historic high level on the lake was 710.4 feet above msl on December 25, 1991, a little less than four feet below the dam's top/spillway at 714 feet above msl. The historic low was 614.2 feet above msl on August 14, 1951. The extreme drought of 2008-2009 brought the lake to its fourth lowest level at 626.09 feet above msl in November 2009. The second lowest level was 615.02 feet above msl on November 8, 1963. During the 2010–13 Southern United States drought, levels went as low as 618 feet, making it the third lowest level ever; the LCRA, a public utility whose responsibilities include the management of Lake Travis, makes water level reports available on the internet. In April 2016, the lake returned to its full capacity at 681 ft. Lake Travis serves as the primary flood control reservoir of the Highland Lake chain.
The LCRA, under advisement from the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, is responsible for floodgate operations at Mansfield Dam. Ideally, this is done in a time-delayed fashion after a major rainfall so as to either mitigate or outright prevent downstream flooding which otherwise would have been both immediate and extreme without the dam's presence; as Lake Travis levels increase during major floods, floodgate operations are conducted to protect property around Lake Travis as well as the dam itself. While the dam's physical design assists in its own protection during floods, extensive spillway operations, a worst-case scenario which has not happened in the lake's history, could undermine the dam's base and affect its overall integrity. Under such conditions, operations are intended to protect the dam, lake water may be released to the dam's full, 24-floodgate capacity—regardless of downstream effects—to prevent the catastrophic loss of the dam. Including its hydroelectric generators but not the spillway, at 681 feet above msl the dam's total maximum discharge capacity is more than 130,000 cubic feet per second.
Rates of discharge increase as water levels/pressures increase. Pedernales River Lake Travis High School Key Water Levels for Lake Travis During Floods "Lake Travis". Texas Parks and Wildlife. 2009-06-18. Retrieved 2009-09-03. "Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis". Lower Colorado River Authority. 2009-08-28. Retrieved 2009
Columbus is a city in Colorado County in southeastern Texas, United States, 74 miles west of Houston. The population was 3,655 as of the 2010 census, it is located on the Colorado River. The Colorado County Courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the town motto, coined by James Harbert Wooten, Jr. M. D. is "City of Live Oaks and Live Folks". Columbus is the home of a Santa Claus Museum, based on the collection of Mary Elizabeth Hopkins, it is located on the southwest side of the Colorado River. Columbus is in the north-central part of Colorado County at 29°42′21″N 96°32′46″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.88 square miles, of which 0.004 square miles, or 0.16%, is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Columbus has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps; the first American settlers arrived in 1821 and believed this was the legendary site of Montezuma's Indian village.
In 1822, the Mexican government issued land grants to members of Stephen F. Austin's Old Three Hundred, who included Benjamin Beason and Abram Alley. Alley's 1830s log cabin is used as a tool museum. Beason arrived in 1821, received his land grant in 1822, settled along the Colorado River with his wife Elizabeth "Betsy" and family. By late December 1821, colonists Robert H. Kuykendall with his brother Joseph, Daniel Gilleland arrived in the area of present-day Columbus. In 1822, Benjamin Beason began operating a ferry across the Colorado River, the settlement became known as Beason's Ferry or Beason's Crossing. Beason established a gristmill, a sawmill. Beason's Crossing became part of Austin's San Felipe colony in 1822, when the colony was divided into two districts by the Mexican governor José F. Trespalacios; the Mexican government granted the rights to establish a town, the locals elected town officials. John J. Tumlinson, Sr. was elected alcalde, with Robert Kuykendall captain and Moses Morrison lieutenant.
Tumlinson's land adjoined Beason's. Tumlinson was killed by Native Americans in 1823. In 1834, after the Tumlinson children inherited the estate, they sold land to William Dewees, married to Beason's daughter, Lydia. Dewees' land grant was near the site of Texas. By 1836, Beason's Ferry Crossing was home to over 25 families. During the fight for Texas independence, Sam Houston and his men camped along the banks of the Colorado River near Beason's Crossing. Following the Battle of the Alamo, Santa Anna's army headed for San Jacinto, Houston ordered that Beason's Crossing be burned during the Runaway Scrape. Columbus was established by European Americans in 1837 after Texas achieved independence from Mexico. After the population returned following warfare, residents renamed Beason's Crossing "Columbus"; some speculate that it was named in honor of residents who migrated from Columbus, while others believe the town was named after Christopher Columbus, who explored on behalf of Spain in the late 15th century.
The town of Columbus was platted again in 1837. The Dewees family gave land for a new school and a courthouse. By 1837, the town had been re-established with two public houses, two stores, half a dozen small dwellings, it was named the seat of Colorado County, had developed as a center of business and trade for surrounding areas. Cattle ranching was big business by the late 19th century; some merchants and ranchers did well, built fine houses in the city, such as the house built by Robert E. Stafford, he supported the Stafford Opera House, now serving as a museum and performance space. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it attracted touring lecturers. Other notable historic homes operated today as museums are the Dilue Rose Harris House Museum, Tate-Senftenburg-Brandon House Museum; the Tate-Senftenburg-Brandon House owned by the Columbus Historical Preservation Trust, Inc. was sold to private owners in 2017 and is no longer operated as a museum but is being further restored and maintains its historic character.
The Colorado County Courthouse was built in the fourth such structure in the city. It was designed in the Classical Revival and Italianate styles of architecture by noted Houston architect Eugene T. Heiner, he designed at least nine other Texas courthouses. The bell tower was damaged in a 1909 storm; the dome was added before 1939. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 2013-2014, the courthouse was being upgraded for current uses. In the 20th century, the Santa Claus Museum was established in town, based on the collection of Mary Elizabeth Hopkins and located in her former residence, it has become a noted tourist destination in the region. The historic Alley Log Cabin and Tool Museum is another unique site. In 1890, 2,199 people lived in Columbus. In 1900, the population declined to 1,824 residents. At the 2000 census, 3,916 people, 1,497 households and 946 families resided in the city; the population density was 1,387.5 inhabitants per square mile. The 1,750 housing units averaged 620.1 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 66.55% White, 19.94% African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 10.52% from other races, 2.27% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race
Bay City, Texas
Bay City is a city in Matagorda County, United States. The population was 17,614 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Matagorda County. The current mayor is Mark Bricker. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.5 square miles, of which 8.5 square miles is land and 0.12% is covered by water. Bay City was named "Bay Prairie", as the natural ecosystems that surround the town are prairies crisscrossed by creeks that lead into the bay; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Bay City has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, 18,667 people, 6,912 households, 4,769 families resided in the city. The population density was 2,196.0 people per square mile. There were 8,113 housing units at an average density of 954.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 61.62% White, 17.26% African American, 0.74% Native American, 0.88% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 16.84% from other races, 2.59% from two or more races.
Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 34.74% of the population. Of the 6,912 households, 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 16.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were not families. About 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.25. In the city, the population was distributed as 30.9% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,446, for a family was $39,281. Males had a median income of $38,202 versus $23,058 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,284. About 18.3% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.7% of those under age 18 and 14.3% of those age 65 or over.
Minorities make up the largest ethnic portion of Texas. In 2017, Bay City became the site of a new $1.8-billion Tenaris seamless-pipe mill, making tubular goods, such as drill pipe and casing, for the oil-drilling industry. Bay City housed the headquarters of Stanley Stores; the chain made several donations to the Bay City Museum. Bay City is home to the Matagorda County Birding Nature Center, a 35-acre expanse of gardens and wildlife along the Colorado River of Texas. Other attractions include the Matagorda County Museum, Market Days every 3rd Saturday, a variety of small shops and boutiques downtown; the Bay City Art League located here, has undergone major renovations and is working to revitalize the art scene in Matagorda County. In addition, the Bay City Community Theatre group produces shows at various local venues. Bay City is served by the Bay City Independent School District, consisting of elementary, junior high, high schools; the district operated seven schools until grade levels were condensed.
It is now operating five schools and is led by superintendent Dr. Marshall Scott III. Wharton County Junior College has a campus in Bay City, focusing on technical training and nuclear plant operations. Matagorda County is served by the Matagorda Regional Medical Center, the mission-aligned Matagorda Medical Group; the Matagorda Episcopal Health Outreach Program, the county's only federally qualified health center, offers Family Medical, OB/Gyn, Behavior Health, Dentistry services. MEHOP accepts most insurances and assures that no patient will be denied or unable to access health care services due to an individual's inability to pay. Charles Austin, Olympic gold medalist. Forrest Bess, artist Robert Blackmon, professional football player. David Caldwell, professional football player. J. B. Cox, professional baseball player. Joe DeLoach, Olympic gold medalist during the Seoul Olympics. Mark Dennard, professional football player. Alex Dixon, professional soccer player. Hart Lee Dykes, professional football player.
Simon Fletcher, professional football player. Ronnie Heard, professional football player. Quentin Jammer, professional football player. Chandi Jones, professional basketball player. Greg Laughlin, U. S. Representatives from Texas's 14th district. C. Wallis Ohl, Jr. retired Provisional Bishop of Fort Worth. Ricardo Ramírez, Roman Catholic Bishop. Tracy Simien, professional football player. Loy Sneary, rice farmer and former county judge. Mal Whitfield, Olympic gold medalist. Cedric Woodard, professional football player. Tom Uher and Texas State Representative for 32 years Part of the 1965 movie Baby the Rain Must Fall was filmed in Bay City, The Tree of Life gathered locals to be extras for filming at Matagorda Beach... Official website Bay City in Handbook of Texas
Lubbock is the 11th-most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the county seat of Lubbock County. With a population of 256,042 in 2015, the city is the 83rd-most populous in the United States; the city is located in northwestern part of the state, a region known and geographically as the Llano Estacado, ecologically is part of the southern end of the High Plains, lying at the economic center of the Lubbock metropolitan area, which has a projected 2020 population of 327,424. Lubbock's nickname, "Hub City", derives from it being the economic and health-care hub of the multicounty region, north of the Permian Basin and south of the Texas Panhandle called the South Plains; the area is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world and is dependent on water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer for irrigation. Lubbock was selected as the 12th-best place to start a small business by CNNMoney.com. CNN mentioned the city's traditional business atmosphere: low rent for commercial space, central location, cooperative city government.
Lubbock is home to the sixth-largest college by enrollment in the state. Lubbock High School has been recognized for three consecutive years by Newsweek as one of the top high schools in the United States, based in part on its international baccalaureate program; as of 1867, the land that would become Lubbock was the heart of Comancheria, the shifting domain controlled by the Comanche. Lubbock County was founded in 1876, it was named after Thomas Saltus Lubbock, former Texas Ranger and brother of Francis Lubbock, governor of Texas during the Civil War. As early as 1884, a U. S. post office existed in Yellow House Canyon. A small town, known as Old Lubbock, Lubbock, or North Town, was established about three miles to the east. In 1890, the original Lubbock merged with another small town south of the canyon; the new town adopted the Lubbock name. The merger included moving the original Lubbock's Nicolett Hotel across the canyon on rollers to the new townsite. Lubbock became the county seat in 1891, was incorporated on March 16, 1909.
In the same year, the first railroad train arrived. Texas Technological College was founded in Lubbock in 1923. A separate university, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, opened as Texas Tech University School of Medicine in 1969. Both universities are now overseen by the Texas Tech University System, after it was established in 1996 and based in Lubbock. Lubbock Christian University, founded in 1957, Sunset International Bible Institute, both affiliated with the Churches of Christ, have their main campuses in the city. South Plains College and Wayland Baptist University operate branch campuses in Lubbock. At one time, Lubbock was home to Reese Air Force Base located 6 mi west of the city, it was established in August 1941, during the defense build-up prior to World War II, by the United States Department of War and the U. S. Army as Lubbock Army Airfield, it served the old U. S. Army Air Forces, the U. S. Air Force, after reorganization and establishment in 1947; the USAF base's primary mission throughout its existence was pilot training.
The base was closed 30 September 1997, after being selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure Commission in 1995, is now a research and business park called Reese Technology Center. The city is home to the Lubbock Lake Landmark, part of the Museum of Texas Tech University; the landmark is an natural-history preserve at the northern edge of the city. It shows evidence of 12,000 years of human occupation in the region; the National Ranching Heritage Center part of the Museum of Texas Tech University, houses historic ranch-related structures from the region. During World War II, airmen cadets from the Royal Air Force, flying from their training base at Terrell, Texas flew to Lubbock on training flights; the town served as a stand-in for the British for Cork, the same distance from London, England, as Lubbock is from Terrell. In August 1951, a V-shaped formation of lights was seen over the city; the "Lubbock Lights" series of sightings received national publicity and is regarded as one of the first great "UFO" cases.
The sightings were considered credible because they were witnessed by several respected science professors at Texas Technological College and were photographed by a Texas Tech student. The photographs were reprinted nationwide in Life. Project Blue Book, the USAF's official investigation of the UFO mystery, concluded the photographs were not a hoax and showed genuine objects, but dismissed the UFOs as being either "night-flying moths" or a type of bird called a plover reflected in the nighttime glow of Lubbock's new street lights. However, other researchers have disputed these explanations, for many, the "Lubbock Lights" remain a mystery. In 1960, the U. S. Census Bureau reported Lubbock's population as area as 75.0 sq mi. On May 11, 1970, the Lubbock Tornado struck the city. Twenty-six people died, damage was estimated at $125 million; the Metro Tower known as the Great Plains Life Building, at 274 ft in height, is believed to have been the tallest building to survive a direct hit from an F5 tornado.
Then-mayor Jim Granberry and the Lubbock City Council, which included Granberry's successor as mayor, Morris W. Turner, were charged with directing the rebuilding of downtown Lubbock in the aftermath of the storm. In August, 1988, tens of thousands of people came to Lubbock, drawn by an apparition of Mary. In 2009, Lubbock celebrated its centennial; the historians Paul H. Carlson, Donald R. Abbe, David J. Murrah co-authored Lubbock and the South
The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the furthest place in that river or stream from its estuary or confluence with another river, as measured along the course of the river. The United States Geological Survey states that a river's "length may be considered to be the distance from the mouth to the most distant headwater source, or from the mouth to the headwaters of the stream known as the source stream"; as an example of the second definition above, the USGS at times considers the Missouri River as a tributary of the Mississippi River. But it follows the first definition above in using the combined Missouri - lower Mississippi length figure in lists of lengths of rivers around the world. Most rivers have numerous tributaries and change names often; this most identified definition of a river source uses the most distant point in the drainage basin from which water runs year-around, or, alternatively, as the furthest point from which water could flow ephemerally. The latter definition includes sometimes-dry channels and removes any possible definitions that would have the river source "move around" from month to month depending on precipitation or ground water levels.
This definition, from geographer Andrew Johnston of the Smithsonian Institution, is used by the National Geographic Society when pinpointing the source of rivers such as the Amazon or Nile. A definition given by the state of Montana agrees, stating that a river source is never a confluence but is "in a location, the farthest, along water miles, from where that river ends." Under this definition neither a lake nor a confluence of tributaries can be a true river source, though both provide the starting point for the portion of a river carrying a single name. For example, National Geographic and every other geographic authority and atlas define the source of the Nile River not as Lake Victoria's outlet where the name "Nile" first appears, which would reduce the Nile's length by over 900 km, but instead use the source of the largest river flowing into the lake, the Kagera River; the source of the Amazon River has been determined this way though the river changes names numerous times along its course.
However, the source of Thames in England is traditionally reckoned according to the named river Thames rather than its longer tributary, the Churn — although not without contention. When not listing river lengths, alternative definitions may be used; the Missouri River's source is named by some USGS and other federal and state agency sources, following Lewis and Clark's naming convention, as the confluence of the Madison and Jefferson Rivers, rather than the source of its longest tributary. This is contradicted by a US Army Corps of Engineers official on a USGS site who states the most common definition: "Geographers follow the longest tributary to identify the source of rivers and streams. In the case of the Missouri River and Clark would have had to travel to the east...to reach the source"... He states that the Missouri River source is well upstream from Lewis and Clark's confluence, "following the Jefferson River to the Beaverhead River to Red Rock River Red Rock Creek to Hell Roaring Creek."
Sometimes the source of the most remote tributary may be in an area, more marsh-like, in which the "uppermost" or most remote section of the marsh would be the true source. For example, the source of the River Tees is marshland; the furthest stream is often called the headstream. Headwaters are small streams with cool waters because of shade and melted ice or snow, they may be glacial headwaters, waters formed by the melting of glacial ice. Headwater areas are the upstream areas of a watershed, as opposed to the outflow or discharge of a watershed; the river source is but not always on or quite near the edge of the watershed, or watershed divide. For example, the source of the Colorado River is at the Continental Divide separating the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean watersheds of North America. A river is considered a linear geographic feature, with one source. For an example, note how the Mississippi River and Missouri River sources are defined: "Largest Rivers in the United States". United States Geological Survey.
U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Mississippi River, Length: 2,340 miles, Source: 47°14′22″N 95°12′29″W U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Missouri River, Length: 2,540 miles, Source: 45°55′39″N 111°30′29″W The verb "rise" can be used to express the general region of a river's source, is qualified with an adverbial expression of place. For example: The River Thames rises in Gloucestershire; the White Nile rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa. The word "source", when applied to lakes rather than rivers or streams, refers to the lake's inflow. Source of the Amazon River Source of the Nile Spring Strahler number Water well
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary