It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war. As the war continued, the actions of the Viet Cong decreased as the role. U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, in the course of the war, the U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam and they viewed the conflict as a colonial war and a continuation of the First Indochina War against forces from France and on the United States. The U. S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam and this was part the domino theory of a wider containment policy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism. Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was French Indochina, U. S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with troop levels tripling in 1961 and again in 1962.
Regular U. S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965, despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued. In the U. S. and the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed as part of a larger counterculture, the war changed the dynamics between the Eastern and Western Blocs, and altered North–South relations. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973, the capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities, estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 240, 000–300,000 Cambodians,20, 000–62,000 Laotians, and 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict. Various names have applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most commonly used name in English and it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict.
As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ. It is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam, France began its conquest of Indochina in the late 1850s, and completed pacification by 1893. The 1884 Treaty of Huế formed the basis for French colonial rule in Vietnam for the seven decades
Syntactic Structures is a major work in linguistics by American linguist Noam Chomsky. It was first published in 1957 and it introduced the idea of transformational generative grammar. This was an approach to syntax. At its base, this method uses phrase structure rules and these rules break down sentences into smaller parts. Chomsky combines these with a new kind of rules called transformations and this procedure gives rise to different sentence structures. Using this method, Chomsky aimed to generate all grammatical sentences of a given language, Syntactic Structures is Chomskys first book. It is a monograph of about a hundred pages. Chomsky wrote it for specialists in linguistics and he based it on the lecture notes he had prepared for his students at MIT. In it, he offered the now-famous sentence Colorless green ideas sleep furiously and this is a sentence with no clear meaning. Yet, grammar-wise it still seems instinctively correct to a native English speaker, for Chomsky, the study of syntax is thus independent of semantics.
Chomsky wrote Syntactic Structures when he was still an unknown scholar, Mouton, a small Dutch publisher, released the book. Still, this dense technical work was received in the beginning. It was even considered an addition to the existing tradition of language study. Yet, established older linguists soon began criticizing it for its bold new views, unlike them, younger linguists were eager to adopt Chomskys way of doing research. And so linguistics changed course in the half of the 20th century. It became normal to build more formal theories with syntax at their center and this way of study valued languages place in the mind over language behavior. Syntactic Structures has influenced fields outside linguistics and it had a big impact on the study of knowledge and mental processes. It had an effect on the research on computers
Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, cognitive scientist, social critic, and political activist. Sometimes described as the father of modern linguistics, Chomsky is a figure in analytic philosophy. Ideologically, he aligns with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism, born to middle-class Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants in Philadelphia, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from alternative bookstores in New York City. At the age of sixteen he began studies at the University of Pennsylvania, taking courses in linguistics and philosophy. From 1951 to 1955 he was appointed to Harvard Universitys Society of Fellows and he is credited as the creator or co-creator of the universal grammar theory, the generative grammar theory, the Chomsky hierarchy, and the minimalist program. Chomsky played a role in the decline of behaviorism. Associated with the New Left, he was arrested multiple times for his activism, while expanding his work in linguistics over subsequent decades, he became involved in the Linguistics Wars.
In collaboration with Edward S. Herman, Chomsky co-wrote an analysis articulating the propaganda model of media criticism, his defense of unconditional freedom of speech—including for Holocaust deniers—generated significant controversy in the Faurisson affair of the early 1980s. Following his retirement from teaching, he has continued his vocal political activism, including opposing the War on Terror. One of the most cited scholars in history, Chomsky has influenced an array of academic fields. Avram Noam Chomsky was born on December 7,1928, in the East Oak Lane neighborhood of Philadelphia and his father was William Zev Chomsky, an Ashkenazi Jew originally from Ukraine who had fled to the United States in 1913. Chomskys mother was the Belarusian-born Elsie Simonofsky, a teacher and activist whom William had met while working at Mikveh Israel, Noam was the Chomsky familys first child. His younger brother, David Eli Chomsky, was five years later. The brothers were close, although David was more easygoing while Noam could be very competitive, as a Jew, Chomsky faced anti-semitism as a child, particularly from the Irish and German communities living in Philadelphia.
He was substantially influenced by his uncle who owned a newspaper stand in New York City, whenever visiting his uncle, Chomsky frequented left-wing and anarchist bookstores in the city, voraciously reading political literature. He described his discovery of anarchism as an accident, because it allowed him to become critical of other far-left ideologies, namely Stalinism. Chomskys primary education was at Oak Lane Country Day School, an independent Deweyite institution that focused on allowing its pupils to pursue their own interests in a non-competitive atmosphere. It was here, at age 10, that he wrote his first article, on the spread of fascism, from the age of 12 or 13, he identified more fully with anarchist politics
Exquisite corpse, known as exquisite cadaver or rotating corpse, is a method by which a collection of words or images is collectively assembled. Each collaborator adds to a composition in sequence, either by following a rule or by being allowed to see only the end of what the previous person contributed, Surrealism principal founder André Breton reported that it started in fun, but became playful and eventually enriching. Breton said the diversion started about 1925, but Pierre Reverdy wrote that it started much earlier, in a variant now known as picture consequences, instead of sentences, portions of a person were drawn. The name is derived from a phrase that resulted when Surrealists first played the game, André Breton writes that the game developed at the residence of friends in an old house at 54 rue du Chateau. In the beginning were Yves Tanguy, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, Benjamin Péret, Pierre Reverdy, other participants probably included Max Morise, Joan Miró, Man Ray, Simone Collinet, Tristan Tzara, Georges Hugnet, René Char, and Paul and Nusch Éluard.
Henry Miller often partook of the game to pass time in French cafés during the 1930s, the cut-up technique of William S. Burroughs and Brion Gysin was influenced by Surrealism. The Narrative Corpse is a comic book chain-story by 69 all-star cartoonists edited by Art Spiegelman, naked Came the Manatee is a mystery thriller parody novel. Each of its thirteen chapters was written, in sequence, by a different Florida writer, beginning with Dave Barry, apichatpong Weerasethakuls 2000 film Mysterious Object at Noon uses this technique with a mixture of documentary and fictional film. The Exquisite Corpse Project is a 2012 feature-length comedy written using the exquisite corpse technique, watskys 2016 Album, x Infinity, features a song titled Exquisite Corpse using this technique featuring verses by several artists. Photoshop tennis Comic jam Round-robin Media related to Cadavre exquis at Wikimedia Commons
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS was a British philosopher, mathematician, writer, social critic, political activist and Nobel laureate. At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal, a socialist, and a pacifist and he was born in Monmouthshire into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in the United Kingdom. In the early 20th century, Russell led the British revolt against idealism and he is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege, colleague G. E. Moore, and protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein. He is widely held to be one of the 20th centurys premier logicians, with A. N. Whitehead he wrote Principia Mathematica, an attempt to create a logical basis for mathematics. His philosophical essay On Denoting has been considered a paradigm of philosophy, Russell mostly was a prominent anti-war activist, he championed anti-imperialism. Occasionally, he advocated preventive nuclear war, before the opportunity provided by the monopoly is gone.
He went to prison for his pacifism during World War I, in 1950 Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought. Bertrand Russell was born on 18 May 1872 at Ravenscroft, Trellech and his parents and Viscountess Amberley, were radical for their times. Lord Amberley consented to his wifes affair with their childrens tutor, both were early advocates of birth control at a time when this was considered scandalous. Lord Amberley was an atheist and his atheism was evident when he asked the philosopher John Stuart Mill to act as Russells secular godfather, Mill died the year after Russells birth, but his writings had a great effect on Russells life. His paternal grandfather, the Earl Russell, had asked twice by Queen Victoria to form a government. The Russells had been prominent in England for several centuries before this, coming to power, Lady Amberley was the daughter of Lord and Lady Stanley of Alderley.
Russell often feared the ridicule of his grandmother, one of the campaigners for education of women. Russell had two siblings, brother Frank, and sister Rachel, in June 1874 Russells mother died of diphtheria, followed shortly by Rachels death. In January 1876, his father died of bronchitis following a period of depression. Frank and Bertrand were placed in the care of their staunchly Victorian paternal grandparents and his grandfather, former Prime Minister Earl Russell, died in 1878, and was remembered by Russell as a kindly old man in a wheelchair. His grandmother, the Countess Russell, was the dominant family figure for the rest of Russells childhood, the countess was from a Scottish Presbyterian family, and successfully petitioned the Court of Chancery to set aside a provision in Amberleys will requiring the children to be raised as agnostics. Her favourite Bible verse, Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil, the atmosphere at Pembroke Lodge was one of frequent prayer, emotional repression, and formality, Frank reacted to this with open rebellion, but the young Bertrand learned to hide his feelings
X-bar theory is a theory of syntactic category formation. The letter X is used to signify an arbitrary lexical category, the X may become an N for noun, a V for verb, an A for adjective, or a P for preposition. The term X-bar is derived from the notation representing this structure, certain structures are represented by X. Because this may be difficult to typeset, this is written as X′, using the prime symbol or with superscript numerals as exponents. In English, this is read as X bar. The notation XP stands for X Phrase, and is at the equivalent level of X-bar-bar, written X″ or X2, X-bar theory was first proposed by Noam Chomsky, building on Zellig Harriss 1951 approach to categories, and further developed by Ray Jackendoff. X-bar theory was incorporated into both transformational and nontransformational theories of syntax, including GB, GPSG, LFG, and HPSG, recent work in the Minimalist Program has largely abandoned X-bar schemata in favor of Bare Phrase Structure approaches. There are three syntax assembly rules which form the basis of X-bar theory and these rules can be expressed in English, as immediate dominance rules for natural language, or visually as parse trees.
All three representations are presented below, an X Phrase consists of an optional specifier and an X-bar, in any order, XP →, X′ XP XP / \ or / \ spec X X spec 2. One kind of X-bar consists of an X-bar and an adjunct, in order, Not all XPs contain X′s with adjuncts. X X / \ or / \ X adjunct adjunct X3, however, in any given language, usually only one handedness for each rule is observed. The above example maps naturally onto the left-to-right phrase order used in English, note that a complement-containing X may be distinguished from an adjunct-containing X by the fact that the complement has an X as a sibling, whereas an adjunct has X-bar as a sibling. The noun phrase the cat might be rendered like this, NP / \ Det N | | the N | cat The word the is a determiner, the head is the determiner which projects into a determiner phrase. The word cat is the phrase which acts as the complement of the determiner phrase. More recently, it has suggested that D is the head of the noun phrase. Note that branches with empty specifiers, adjuncts and heads are often omitted, the DetP and NP above have no adjuncts or complements, so they end up being very linear.
In English, specifiers precede the X-bar that contains the head, determiners always precede their nouns if they are in the same noun phrase. Other languages use different word order, for more complex utterances, different theories of grammar assign X-bar theory elements to phrase types in different ways
In probability theory and related fields, a Markov process, named after the Russian mathematician Andrey Markov, is a stochastic process that satisfies the Markov property. e. Conditional on the present state of the system, its future, a Markov chain is a type of Markov process that has either discrete state space or discrete index set, but the precise definition of a Markov chain varies. Andrey Markov studied Markov processes in the early 20th century, publishing his first paper on the topic in 1906, random walks on the integers and the Gamblers ruin problem are examples of Markov processes and were studied hundreds of years earlier. These two processes are Markov processes in time, while random walks on the integers and the Gamblers ruin problem are examples of Markov processes in discrete time. The algorithm known as PageRank, which was proposed for the internet search engine Google, is based on a Markov process. The adjective Markovian is used to something that is related to a Markov process.
A Markov chain is a process with the Markov property. The term Markov chain refers to the sequence of variables such a process moves through. It can thus be used for describing systems that follow a chain of linked events, the systems state space and time parameter index need to be specified. In addition, there are extensions of Markov processes that are referred to as such. Moreover, the index need not necessarily be real-valued, like with the state space. Notice that the state space continuous-time Markov chain is general to such a degree that it has no designated term. While the time parameter is usually discrete, the space of a Markov chain does not have any generally agreed-on restrictions. However, many applications of Markov chains employ finite or countably infinite state spaces, besides time-index and state-space parameters, there are many other variations and generalizations. For simplicity, most of this article concentrates on the discrete-time, discrete state-space case, the changes of state of the system are called transitions.
The probabilities associated with state changes are called transition probabilities. The process is characterized by a space, a transition matrix describing the probabilities of particular transitions. By convention, we assume all possible states and transitions have been included in the definition of the process, so there is always a next state, and the process does not terminate
Phrase structure rules
They are used to break down a natural language sentence into its constituent parts, known as syntactic categories, including both lexical categories and phrasal categories. A grammar that uses phrase structure rules is a type of phrase structure grammar, phrase structure rules are usually of the following form, A → B C meaning that the constituent A is separated into the two subconstituents B and C. Some examples for English are as follows, S ⟶ NP VP NP ⟶ N1 N1 ⟶ N1 The first rule reads, the second rule reads, A noun phrase consists of an optional Det followed by an N. The third rule means that an N can be preceded by an optional AP, the round brackets indicate optional constituents. If the rules are correct, any sentence produced in this way ought to be grammatically correct, phrase structure rules break sentences down into their constituent parts. These constituents are often represented as tree structures, the tree for Chomskys sentence can be rendered as follows, A constituent is any word or combination of words that is dominated by a single node.
Thus each individual word is a constituent, the subject NP Colorless green ideas, the minor NP green ideas, and the VP sleep furiously are constituents. Phrase structure rules and the structures that are associated with them are a form of immediate constituent analysis. In transformational grammar, systems of phrase structure rules are supplemented by transformation rules, an important aspect of phrase structure rules is that they view sentence structure from the top down. The category on the left of the arrow is a greater constituent, constituents are successively broken down into their parts as one moves down a list of phrase structure rules for a given sentence. This top-down view of sentence structure stands in contrast to work done in modern theoretical syntax. In Minimalism for instance, sentence structure is generated from the bottom up, the operation Merge merges smaller constituents to create greater constituents until the greatest constituent is reached. In this regard, theoretical syntax abandoned phrase structure rules long ago, phrase structure rules as they are commonly employed result in a view of sentence structure that is constituency-based.
Thus grammars that employ phrase structure rules are constituency grammars, as opposed to dependency grammars, what this means is that for phrase structure rules to be applicable at all, one has to pursue a constituency-based understanding of sentence structure. The constituency relation is a one-to-one-or-more correspondence, for every word in a sentence, there is at least one node in the syntactic structure that corresponds to that word. The dependency relation, in contrast, is a relation, for every word in the sentence. The distinction is illustrated with the trees, The constituency tree on the left could be generated by phrase structure rules. The sentence S is broken down into smaller and smaller constituent parts, the dependency tree on the right could not, in contrast, be generated by phrase structure rules
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in Philadelphia, United States. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, the university coat of arms features a dolphin on the red chief, adopted directly from the Franklin familys own coat of arms. Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities and it was home to many other educational innovations. The first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate school. With an endowment of $10.72 billion, Penn had the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, all of Penns schools exhibit very high research activity. In fiscal year 2015, Penns academic research budget was $851 million, over its history, the university has produced many distinguished alumni. S. House of Representatives,8 signers of the United States Declaration of Independence, in addition, some 30 Nobel laureates,169 Guggenheim Fellows, and 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, have been affiliated with Penn.
In addition, Penn has produced a significant number of Fortune 500 CEOs, in 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time and it was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, however, a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklins autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard and Mary, Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern.
The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklins group to assume their debts and, accordingly, on February 1,1750 the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13,1751, the Academy of Philadelphia, using the hall at 4th and Arch Streets. A charity school was chartered July 13,1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original New Building donors, June 16,1755, the College of Philadelphia was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution, the institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Rev. William Smiths Loyalist tendencies, the result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791 the Legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new Board of Trustees
Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university in Stanford, adjacent to Palo Alto and between San Jose and San Francisco. Its 8, 180-acre campus is one of the largest in the United States, Stanford has land and facilities elsewhere. The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Stanford was a former Governor of California and U. S. Senator, he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students 125 years ago on October 1,1891, Stanford University struggled financially after Leland Stanfords death in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would be known as Silicon Valley. The university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country. There are three schools that have both undergraduate and graduate students and another four professional schools.
Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. Stanford faculty and alumni have founded a number of companies that produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue. It is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires,17 astronauts and it is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Sixty Nobel laureates and seven Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child. The institution opened in 1891 on Stanfords previous Palo Alto farm, despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I, the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, which was established in 1962, in 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped.
Besides the central campus described below, the university operates at more remote locations, some elsewhere on the main campus. Stanfords main campus includes a place within unincorporated Santa Clara County. The campus includes land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park, Woodside. The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, the United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP codes,94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail
Willard Van Orman Quine
Willard Van Orman Quine was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century. He filled the Edgar Pierce Chair of Philosophy at Harvard from 1956 to 1978, a 2009 poll conducted among analytic philosophers named Quine as the fifth most important philosopher of the past two centuries. This led to his famous quip that philosophy of science is philosophy enough, in philosophy of mathematics, he and his Harvard colleague Hilary Putnam developed the Quine–Putnam indispensability thesis, an argument for the reality of mathematical entities. According to his autobiography, The Time of My Life, Quine grew up in Akron and his father, Cloyd R. was a manufacturing entrepreneur and his mother, Harriett E. was a schoolteacher and a housewife. He received his B. A. in mathematics from Oberlin College in 1930 and his thesis supervisor was Alfred North Whitehead. He was appointed a Harvard Junior Fellow, which excused him from having to teach for four years.
During the academic year 1932–33, he travelled in Europe thanks to a Sheldon fellowship, meeting Polish logicians and members of the Vienna Circle and it was through Quines good offices that Tarski was invited to attend the September 1939 Unity of Science Congress in Cambridge. To attend that Congress, Tarski sailed for the USA on the last ship to leave Danzig before the Third Reich invaded Poland, Tarski survived the war and worked another 44 years in the USA. For the academic year 1964–1965, Quine was a fellow on the faculty in the Center for Advanced Studies at Wesleyan University, in 1980 Quine received an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Humanities at Uppsala University, Sweden. Quine was an atheist when he was a teenager and he had four children by two marriages. Guitarist Robert Quine was his nephew, Quine was politically conservative, but the bulk of his writing was in technical areas of philosophy removed from direct political issues. Quines Ph. D. thesis and early publications were on formal logic, only after World War II did he, by virtue of seminal papers on ontology and language, emerge as a major philosopher.
By the 1960s, he had worked out his naturalized epistemology whose aim was to answer all questions of knowledge and meaning using the methods. Quine roundly rejected the notion that there should be a first philosophy and these views are intrinsic to his naturalism. Quine could lecture in French, Spanish and German, like the logical positivists, Quine evinced little interest in the philosophical canon, only once did he teach a course in the history of philosophy, on Hume. This distinction was central to logical positivism, like other Analytic philosophers before him, Quine accepted the definition of analytic as true in virtue of meaning alone. Unlike them, however, he concluded that ultimately the definition was circular, in other words, Quine accepted that analytic statements are those that are true by definition, argued that the notion of truth by definition was unsatisfactory. Quines chief objection to analyticity is with the notion of synonymy, the objection to synonymy hinges upon the problem of collateral information