DC One Million
DC One Million is a comic book crossover storyline that ran through a self-titled, weekly miniseries and through special issues of all of the "DCU" titles published by American company DC Comics in November 1998. It featured a vision of the DC Universe in the 853rd century, chosen because, the century in which DC Comics would have published issue #1,000,000 of their comics if they had maintained a regular publishing schedule; the miniseries was drawn by Val Semeiks. The core of the event was a four-issue miniseries, in which the 20th-century Justice League of America and the 853rd-century Justice Legion Alpha cooperate to defeat a plot by the supervillain Vandal Savage and future Superman nemesis Solaris the Living Sun. Thirty-four other series being published by DC put out a single issue numbered #1,000,000, which either showed its characters' involvement in the central plot or gave a glimpse of what its characters' descendants/successors would be doing in the 853rd century. Hitman #1,000,000 was a parody of the entire storyline.
A trade paperback collection was subsequently published, consisting of the four-issue mini-series, tie-in issues necessary to follow the main plot. The series was followed by a one-shot titled DC One Million 80-Page Giant #1,000,000, a collection of further adventures in the life of the future heroes. In the 853rd century, the original Superman still lives, but has spent over fifteen thousand years in a self-imposed exile in his Fortress of Solitude in the heart of the Sun in order to keep it alive, during which everyone he knew and loved died. One of his descendants is the Superman of the 853rd century; the galaxy is protected by the Justice Legions, which were inspired by the 20th-century Justice League and the 31st-century Legion of Super-Heroes, among others. Justice Legion Alpha, which protects the solar system, includes Kal Kent and future analogues of Wonder Woman, Starman, the Flash and Batman. Advanced terraforming processes have made all the Solar System's planets habitable, with the ones most distant from the Sun being warmed by Solaris, a "star computer", once a villain but was reprogrammed by one of Superman's descendants.
Superman-Prime announces that he will soon return to humanity and, to celebrate, Justice Legion Alpha travels back in time to the late 20th century to meet Superman's original teammates in the JLA, bring them and Superman to the future to participate in games and displays of power as part of the celebration. Meanwhile, in Russia, Vandal Savage single-handedly defeats the Titans when they attempt to stop him purchasing nuclear-powered Rocket Red suits, he launches four Rocket Red suits in a nuclear strike on Washington D. C. Metropolis and Singapore. One member of the Justice Legion Alpha has been bribed into betraying his teammates by Solaris, who has returned to its old habits. Before the original heroes can be returned to their own time the future Hourman, an android and releases a virus programmed by Solaris to attack machines and humans; the virus affects the guidance systems of the Rocket Red suits and causes one of them to instead detonate over Montevideo, killing over one million people.
Tempest had escaped long before the suit exploded by using the ice that formed on the suit at high altitude, although he subsequently blacked out and fell into the sea. The virus drives humans insane, causing an increase in anger and paranoia worldwide. Believing that this was deliberately planned by the JLA to stop him, Savage launches an all-out war on superhumans using "blitz engines" he had created and hidden while allied with Hitler during World War II; the paranoia caused by the virus leads the Justice Legion Alpha and the contemporary heroes to attack each other, although the Justice Legion Alpha manage to coordinate themselves enough to stop the other Rocket Red suits from hitting their targets. The remnants of the JLA that stayed in the present and the Justice Legion Alpha overcome their paranoia when the future Superman and Steel realize the significance of the symbol they both wear; the two JLAs are able to stop the virus when it is discovered that it is a complex computer program looking for appropriate hardware.
To provide this hardware, the heroes are forced to build the body of Solaris and the virus flees from the Earth to this body, bringing Solaris to life. In a final act of repentance, the future Starman sacrifices himself to banish Solaris from the solar system; the future Superman forces himself through time using confiscated time travel technology he finds in the Watchtower dying in the process due to the drain on his powers. Meanwhile, in the 853rd century, the original JLA are fighting an alliance between Solaris and Vandal Savage. Savage has found a sample of kryptonite on Mars. Savage has hired Walker Gabriel to steal the time travel gauntlets of the 853rd century Flash to ensure the Justice Legion Alpha remains trapped in the past. However, he double-crosses Gabriel. Solaris, in a final attack, slaughters thousands of superhumans so that it can fire the kryptonite into the sun and kill Superman-Prime before he emerges; the JLA's Green Lantern — a hero who use
Zero Hour: Crisis in Time!
"Zero Hour: Crisis in Time!" is a comic book crossover storyline published by DC Comics in 1994, consisting of an eponymous five-issue central miniseries and a number of tie-in books. In it, the former hero Hal Jordan, who had until been a member of the intergalactic police force known as the Green Lantern Corps, mad with grief after the destruction of his home town of Coast City and having obtained immense power as Parallax, attempted to destroy, remake, the DC Universe; the crossover involved every DC Universe monthly series published at the time. The issues of the series itself were numbered in reverse order, beginning with issue #4 and ending with #0; the series was penciled by Dan Jurgens, with inks by Jerry Ordway. This series is noted for its motif of the DC Universe "fading out" as events reached their climax. Zero Hour: Crisis in Time! was intended by DC as a belated follow-up to their landmark limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths, was indeed subtitled " Crisis in Time!". It promised to do for the inconsistent future timelines of the DC Universe what Crisis had done for its parallel worlds: unify them into a new one.
This event served as an opportunity to reconcile some of the problems left unaddressed by Crisis and other problems, unintentionally caused by it. In particular, the revised characters of the post-Crisis universe had been rolled out with DC continuing to feature the old versions until the new versions were launched, some of them a year or several after the first wave of revised characters were published; the character of Hawkman was one of the most problematic, since the revised version did not first appear until 1989. This raised the question of what version of Hawkman had been seen since 1986; the Legion of Super-Heroes faced similar problems with the eliminations of Superboy and Supergirl from DC continuity. These and other retcons were not always well received by readers and introduced new problems; the story begins when characters from alternate realities such as Alpha Centurion, an alternate version of Batgirl, Triumph started appearing in the main DC Universe, to everybody's confusion.
A wave of "nothingness" is seen moving from the end of time to its beginning, erasing entire historical ages in the process. The apparent villain of the story presented in the miniseries was a character named Extant Hawk of the duo Hawk and Dove. Extant had acquired temporal powers. In a confrontation with members of the Justice Society of America, Extant aged several of them, leaving them either feeble or dead. However, the true power behind the destruction of the universe — caused by temporal rifts of entropy — turned out to be Hal Jordan, regarded as the most distinguished Green Lantern in history. Calling himself Parallax, Jordan had gone insane, was now trying to remake the universe, undoing the events which had caused his breakdown and his own murderous actions following it; the collective efforts of the other superheroes managed to stop Jordan/Parallax from imposing his vision of a new universe, the timeline was recreated anew, albeit with subtle differences compared to the previous one, after the young hero Damage, with help from the other heroes, triggered a new Big Bang.
Although Jordan was weakened from using so much energy he managed to survive when Green Arrow shot an arrow into his heart. This "blanking out/recreation" of the DC Universe was reflected in many of the tie-in issues. DC published a fold-out timeline inside the back cover of Zero Hour #0 which identified various events and key stories which were part of its newly singular timeline and when they occurred. Although fixed dates were given for the debut of historical characters such as the JSA, the debut of the Post-Crisis Superman was presented as "10 years ago" and subsequent dates were expressed the same way, suggesting that the calendar years of these events were fluid and relative to the present rather than fixed, as a way to keep the characters at their present ages; the Legion of Super-Heroes continuity was rebooted following Zero Hour, the various Hawkman characters were merged into one. Each ongoing series at the time was given an opportunity to retell the origin of its hero to establish the official version in this revised continuity, in a "#0" issue published in the subsequent weeks after Zero Hour.
They went on to # 1, for new series, the following month. Several series took new directions following Zero Hour. A major part of Batman's origin was retconned after the events in Zero Hour. In this version, Batman never caught or confr
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet. In the Solar System there are six planetary satellite systems containing 185 known natural satellites. Four IAU-listed dwarf planets are known to have natural satellites: Pluto, Haumea and Eris; as of September 2018, there are 334 other minor planets known to have moons. The Earth–Moon system is unique in that the ratio of the mass of the Moon to the mass of Earth is much greater than that of any other natural-satellite–planet ratio in the Solar System. At 3,474 km across, the Moon is 0.27 times the diameter of Earth. The first known natural satellite was the Moon, but it was considered a "planet" until Copernicus' introduction of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in 1543; until the discovery of the Galilean satellites in 1610, there was no opportunity for referring to such objects as a class. Galileo chose to refer to his discoveries as Planetæ, but discoverers chose other terms to distinguish them from the objects they orbited.
The first to use of the term satellite to describe orbiting bodies was the German astronomer Johannes Kepler in his pamphlet Narratio de Observatis a se quatuor Iouis satellitibus erronibus in 1610. He derived the term from the Latin word satelles, meaning "guard", "attendant", or "companion", because the satellites accompanied their primary planet in their journey through the heavens; the term satellite thus became the normal one for referring to an object orbiting a planet, as it avoided the ambiguity of "moon". In 1957, the launching of the artificial object Sputnik created a need for new terminology. Sputnik was created by Soviet Union, it was the first satellite ever; the terms man-made satellite and artificial moon were quickly abandoned in favor of the simpler satellite, as a consequence, the term has become linked with artificial objects flown in space – including, sometimes those not in orbit around a planet. Because of this shift in meaning, the term moon, which had continued to be used in a generic sense in works of popular science and in fiction, has regained respectability and is now used interchangeably with natural satellite in scientific articles.
When it is necessary to avoid both the ambiguity of confusion with Earth's natural satellite the Moon and the natural satellites of the other planets on the one hand, artificial satellites on the other, the term natural satellite is used. To further avoid ambiguity, the convention is to capitalize the word Moon when referring to Earth's natural satellite, but not when referring to other natural satellites. Many authors define "satellite" or "natural satellite" as orbiting some planet or minor planet, synonymous with "moon" – by such a definition all natural satellites are moons, but Earth and other planets are not satellites. A few recent authors define "moon" as "a satellite of a planet or minor planet", "planet" as "a satellite of a star" – such authors consider Earth as a "natural satellite of the sun". There is no established lower limit on what is considered a "moon"; every natural celestial body with an identified orbit around a planet of the Solar System, some as small as a kilometer across, has been considered a moon, though objects a tenth that size within Saturn's rings, which have not been directly observed, have been called moonlets.
Small asteroid moons, such as Dactyl, have been called moonlets. The upper limit is vague. Two orbiting bodies are sometimes described as a double planet rather than satellite. Asteroids such as 90 Antiope are considered double asteroids, but they have not forced a clear definition of what constitutes a moon; some authors consider the Pluto–Charon system to be a double planet. The most common dividing line on what is considered a moon rests upon whether the barycentre is below the surface of the larger body, though this is somewhat arbitrary, because it depends on distance as well as relative mass; the natural satellites orbiting close to the planet on prograde, uninclined circular orbits are thought to have been formed out of the same collapsing region of the protoplanetary disk that created its primary. In contrast, irregular satellites are thought to be captured asteroids further fragmented by collisions. Most of the major natural satellites of the Solar System have regular orbits, while most of the small natural satellites have irregular orbits.
The Moon and Charon are exceptions among large bodies in that they are thought to have originated by the collision of two large proto-planetary objects. The material that would have been placed in orbit around the central body is predicted to have reaccreted to form one or more orbiting natural satellites; as opposed to planetary-sized bodies, asteroid moons are thought to form by this process. Triton is another exception; the capture of an asteroid from a heliocentric orbit is not always permanent. According to simulations, temporary satellites should be a common phenomenon; the only observed example is 2006 RH120, a temporary satellite of Earth for nine months in 2006 and 2007. Most regular moons (natural satellites following close and prograde orbits with small orb
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one-third of the land surface of the world is semi-arid; this includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location. Deserts are formed by weathering processes as large variations in temperature between day and night put strains on the rocks which break in pieces. Although rain occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods. Rain falling on hot rocks can cause them to shatter and the resulting fragments and rubble strewn over the desert floor are further eroded by the wind; this wafts them aloft in sand or dust storms.
Wind-blown sand grains striking any solid object in their path can abrade the surface. Rocks are smoothed down, the wind sorts sand into uniform deposits; the grains are piled high in billowing sand dunes. Other deserts are flat, stony plains where all the fine material has been blown away and the surface consists of a mosaic of smooth stones; these areas are known as desert pavements and little further erosion takes place. Other desert features include rock outcrops, exposed bedrock and clays once deposited by flowing water. Temporary lakes may form and salt pans may be left when waters evaporate. There may be underground sources of water in the form of seepages from aquifers. Where these are found, oases can occur. Plants and animals living in the desert need special adaptations to survive in the harsh environment. Plants tend to be tough and wiry with small or no leaves, water-resistant cuticles and spines to deter herbivory; some annual plants germinate and die in the course of a few weeks after rainfall while other long-lived plants survive for years and have deep root systems able to tap underground moisture.
Animals need to find enough food and water to survive. Many stay in the shade or underground during the heat of the day, they tend to be efficient at conserving water, extracting most of their needs from their food and concentrating their urine. Some animals remain in a state of dormancy for long periods, ready to become active again during the rare rainfall, they reproduce while conditions are favorable before returning to dormancy. People have struggled to live in the surrounding semi-arid lands for millennia. Nomads have moved their flocks and herds to wherever grazing is available and oases have provided opportunities for a more settled way of life; the cultivation of semi-arid regions encourages erosion of soil and is one of the causes of increased desertification. Desert farming is possible with the aid of irrigation, the Imperial Valley in California provides an example of how barren land can be made productive by the import of water from an outside source. Many trade routes have been forged across deserts across the Sahara Desert, traditionally were used by caravans of camels carrying salt, gold and other goods.
Large numbers of slaves were taken northwards across the Sahara. Some mineral extraction takes place in deserts, the uninterrupted sunlight gives potential for the capture of large quantities of solar energy. English desert and its Romance cognates all come from the ecclesiastical Latin dēsertum, a participle of dēserere, "to abandon"; the correlation between aridity and sparse population is complex and dynamic, varying by culture and technologies. In English before the 20th century, desert was used in the sense of "unpopulated area", without specific reference to aridity. Phrases such as "desert island" and "Great American Desert", or Shakespeare's "deserts of Bohemia" in previous centuries did not imply sand or aridity. A desert is a region of land, dry because it receives low amounts of precipitation has little coverage by plants, in which streams dry up unless they are supplied by water from outside the area. Deserts receive less than 250 mm of precipitation each year; the potential evapotranspiration may be large but the actual evapotranspiration may be close to zero.
Semideserts are regions which receive between 250 and 500 mm and when clad in grass, these are known as steppes. Deserts have been defined and classified in a number of ways combining total precipitation, number of days on which this falls and humidity, sometimes additional factors. For example, Arizona, receives less than 250 mm of precipitation per year, is recognized as being located in a desert because of its aridity-adapted plants; the North Slope of Alaska's Brooks Range receives less than 250 mm of precipitation per year and is classified as a cold desert. Other regions of the world have cold deserts, including areas of the Himalayas and other high-altitude areas in other parts of the world. Polar deserts cover much of the ice-free
Brainiac 5 is a fictional character who exists in the 30th and 31st centuries of the DC Universe. He is a long-standing member of the Legion of Super-Heroes. Brainiac 5 is from the planet Colu; the first live-action version of the character appeared in the tenth and final season of Smallville, played by James Marsters. Brainiac 5 is introduced in the third season of Supergirl, portrayed by Jesse Rath, he became part of the main cast in the fourth season. Brainiac 5 first appeared in name in Action Comics #276 and was created by Jerry Siegel and Jim Mooney. Brainiac 5 is a green-skinned, blond-haired teenage native of the planet Colu, who claimed to be descended from the original Brainiac, one of Superman's deadliest enemies, he wished to join the Legion as atonement for his great-great-grandfather's misdeeds. When Brainiac 1 was revealed to be an android created by the Computer Tyrants, Brainiac 5 "discovered" he was descended from Brainiac 2, the leader of the rebellion against the tyrants, as well as being the clone of the original Brainiac.
Brainiac 5's ingenuity led to the invention of, amongst other things, the Legion flight ring, the anti-lead serum that allowed Mon-El to leave the Phantom Zone and the force field belt which became the signature device of the character. Another of Brainiac 5's creations had less beneficial effects: the super computer Computo, which attempted to take over the world, killing one of Triplicate Girl's three selves in the process, he destroyed his creation with "an anti-matter force", but this highlighted one of his major flaws: a habit of initiating projects without considering the dangers. A much example was his transformation of fellow scientist Professor Jaxon Rugarth into the psychotic, all-powerful Infinite Man in conjunction with honorary Legionnaire Rond Vidar; as time went on, Brainiac 5 began to be portrayed as unstable. Long attracted to Supergirl, Brainiac 5 created a robot duplicate of her in his sleep, convincing himself this was the real Supergirl. A few years the Legion encountered Pulsar Stargrave, a villain who convinced Brainiac 5 that he was the Coluan's long-lost father.
Brainiac 5 joined Stargrave to battle the sorcerer Mordru, but the android's influence would haunt him long after that. It was claimed in Superboy #225 that Stargrave was the original Brainiac android, but the truth of this is uncertain; when Stargrave murders Ultra Boy's ex-girlfriend An Ryd, Brainiac 5 frames Ultra Boy for the murder. Chameleon Boy, who suspected Brainiac 5 from the beginning, finds proof when Brainiac's madness leads him to an attempt to destroy the universe using the Miracle Machine, a device that turns thoughts into reality, he is stopped by Matter-Eater Lad, who eats the machine, both are committed to a mental institution. Brainiac 5 recovers his sanity and rejoins the group. Shortly afterward, however, he is accused of having murdered Ultra Boy's ex-girlfriend himself. To prove his innocence, he defeats him, he manages to cure Matter-Eater Lad's insanity. Around this time, he corrects another of his mistakes by finding a way of controlling Computo. Brainiac 5 enters a state of deep melancholy upon the thousand-year anniversary of Supergirl's death at the hands of the Anti-Monitor during Crisis on Infinite Earths and flew down to hell and finished his life.
However, as the Crisis eliminated Supergirl from existence, Brainiac 5 has no recollection of her. Beyond this, Brainiac 5's history was unaffected by the Crisis, although it would be some time before he received an origin that reflected the new Brainiac 1. Following the death of the pocket universe Superboy, Brainiac 5 is one of a number of Legionnaires who swear revenge on the Time Trapper. To this end, he recreated the Infinite Man; the Infinite Man and Time Trapper destroy each other, but Brainiac 5 quits the Legion after being accused of murdering Professor Rugarth. He rejoins in Legion of Super-Heroes #63, shortly before the "Five Year Gap". Five years after the end of the "Magic Wars", things had radically changed for the heroes, most notably the disbanding of the Legion and an ongoing war with the Khund Empire, which had resulted in Earth's government signing a deal with the Dominators; when Legion of Super-Heroes began, Brainiac 5 was dedicated to finding a cure to the Validus Plague, a virulent disease that had afflicted an entire planet and crippled the former Lightning Lad, Garth Ranzz.
Soon after the start of Legion a retcon removed the Superman family of characters completely from Legion continuity. Supergirl was replaced by a Daxamite descendant of Lar Gand's brother. Unlike Supergirl, she was a native of the 30th century. Brainiac 5 and Laurel did have a relationship, but the couple separated and she became the common law wife of Rond Vidar. Brainiac 5 joined other Legionnaires in searching for the space pirate Roxxas, was present when the team reformed; the reassembled Legion repelled a Khund invasion fleet, confronted Darkseid, but shortly thereafter, was swept into the war against the corrupt Earthgov and the Dominators. During the Dominators' subjugation of Earth, the members of their classified "Batch SW6" escaped captivity. Batch SW6 appeared to be a group of teenage Legionnaire clones, created from samples taken just prior to Ferro Lad's death at the hands of the Sun-Eater, they were revealed to be time-paradox duplicates, every bit as legitima
Artificial life is a field of study wherein researchers examine systems related to natural life, its processes, its evolution, through the use of simulations with computer models and biochemistry. The discipline was named by Christopher Langton, an American theoretical biologist, in 1986. There are three main kinds from software. Artificial life researchers study traditional biology by trying to recreate aspects of biological phenomena. Artificial life studies the fundamental processes of living systems in artificial environments in order to gain a deeper understanding of the complex information processing that define such systems; these topics are broad, but include evolutionary dynamics, emergent properties of collective systems, biomimicry, as well as related issues about the philosophy of the nature of life and the use of lifelike properties in artistic works. The modeling philosophy of artificial life differs from traditional modeling by studying not only "life-as-we-know-it" but "life-as-it-might-be".
A traditional model of a biological system will focus on capturing its most important parameters. In contrast, an alife modeling approach will seek to decipher the most simple and general principles underlying life and implement them in a simulation; the simulation offers the possibility to analyse new and different lifelike systems. Vladimir Georgievich Red'ko proposed to generalize this distinction to the modeling of any process, leading to the more general distinction of "processes-as-we-know-them" and "processes-as-they-could-be". At present, the accepted definition of life does not consider any current alife simulations or software to be alive, they do not constitute part of the evolutionary process of any ecosystem. However, different opinions about artificial life's potential have arisen: The strong alife position states that "life is a process which can be abstracted away from any particular medium". Notably, Tom Ray declared that his program Tierra is not simulating life in a computer but synthesizing it.
The weak alife position denies the possibility of generating a "living process" outside of a chemical solution. Its researchers try instead to simulate life processes to understand the underlying mechanics of biological phenomena. Cellular automata were used in the early days of artificial life, are still used for ease of scalability and parallelization. Alife and cellular automata share a tied history. Artificial neural networks are sometimes used to model the brain of an agent. Although traditionally more of an artificial intelligence technique, neural nets can be important for simulating population dynamics of organisms that can learn; the symbiosis between learning and evolution is central to theories about the development of instincts in organisms with higher neurological complexity, as in, for instance, the Baldwin effect. This is a list of artificial life/digital organism simulators, organized by the method of creature definition. Program-based simulations contain organisms with a complex DNA language Turing complete.
This language is more in the form of a computer program than actual biological DNA. Assembly derivatives are the most common languages used. An organism "lives" when its code is executed, there are various methods allowing self-replication. Mutations are implemented as random changes to the code. Use of cellular automata is common but not required. Another example could be multi-agent system/program. Individual modules are added to a creature; these modules modify the creature's behaviors and characteristics either directly, by hard coding into the simulation, or indirectly, through the emergent interactions between a creature's modules. These are simulators which emphasize user creation and accessibility over mutation and evolution. Organisms are constructed with pre-defined and fixed behaviors that are controlled by various parameters that mutate; that is, each organism contains a collection of numbers or other finite parameters. Each parameter controls several aspects of an organism in a well-defined way.
These simulations have creatures that learn and grow using a close derivative. Emphasis is although not always, more on learning than on natural selection. Mathematical models of complex systems are of three types: black-box, grey-box. In black-box models, the individual-based mechanisms of a complex dynamic system remain hidden. Black-box models are nonmechanistic, they ignore a composition and internal structure of a complex system. We cannot investigate interactions of subsystems of such a non-transparent model. A white-box model of complex dynamic system has ‘transparent walls’ and directly shows underlying mechanisms. All events at micro-, meso- and macro-levels of a dynamic system are directly visible at all stages of its white-box model evolution. In most cases mathematical modelers use the heavy black-box mathematical methods, which cannot produce mechanistic models of complex dynamic systems. Grey-box models combine black-box and white-box approaches. Creation of a white-box model of complex system is associated with the problem of the necessity of an a priori basic knowledge of the modeling subject.
The deterministic logical cellu
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam