Columbia, South Carolina

Columbia is the capital and second largest city of the U. S. state of South Carolina, with a population estimate of 133,451 as of 2018. The city serves as the county seat of Richland County, a portion of the city extends into neighboring Lexington County, it is the center of the Columbia metropolitan statistical area, which had a population of 767,598 as of the 2010 United States Census, growing to 832,666 by July 1, 2018, according to 2018 U. S. Census estimates; this makes it the 70th largest metropolitan statistical area in the nation, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau as of July 1, 2018. The name Columbia is a poetic term used for the United States, originating from the name of Christopher Columbus; the city is located 13 miles northwest of the geographic center of South Carolina, is the primary city of the Midlands region of the state. It lies at the confluence of the Saluda River and the Broad River, which merge at Columbia to form the Congaree River. Columbia is home to the University of South Carolina, the state's flagship university and the largest in the state, is the site of Fort Jackson, the largest United States Army installation for Basic Combat Training.

Columbia is located 20 miles west of the site of McEntire Joint National Guard Base, operated by the U. S. Air Force and is used as a training base for the 169th Fighter Wing of The South Carolina Air National Guard. Columbia is the location of the South Carolina State House, the center of government for the state. In 1860, the city was the location of the South Carolina Secession Convention, which marked the departure of the first state from the Union in the events leading up to the Civil War. At the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of the area that became Columbia were a people called the Congaree. In May 1540, a Spanish expedition led by Hernando de Soto traversed what is now Columbia while moving northward; the expedition produced the earliest written historical records of the area, part of the regional Cofitachequi chiefdom. From the creation of Columbia by the South Carolina General Assembly in 1786, the site of Columbia was important to the overall development of the state; the Congarees, a frontier fort on the west bank of the Congaree River, was the head of navigation in the Santee River system.

A ferry was established by the colonial government in 1754 to connect the fort with the growing settlements on the higher ground on the east bank. Like many other significant early settlements in colonial America, Columbia is on the fall line from the Piedmont region; the fall line is the spot where a river becomes unnavigable when sailing upstream and where water flowing downstream can power a mill. State Senator John Lewis Gervais of the town of Ninety Six introduced a bill, approved by the legislature on March 22, 1786, to create a new state capital. There was considerable argument over the name for the new city. According to published accounts, Senator Gervais said he hoped that "in this town we should find refuge under the wings of COLUMBIA", for, the name which he wished it to be called. One legislator insisted on the name "Washington", but "Columbia" won by a vote of 11–7 in the state senate; the site was chosen as the new state capital in 1786, due to its central location in the state.

The State Legislature first met there in 1790. After remaining under the direct government of the legislature for the first two decades of its existence, Columbia was incorporated as a village in 1805 and as a city in 1854. Columbia received a large stimulus to development when it was connected in a direct water route to Charleston by the Santee Canal; this canal connected the Cooper rivers in a 22-mile-long section. It was first chartered in 1786 and completed in 1800, making it one of the earliest canals in the United States. With increased railroad traffic, it ceased operation around 1850; the commissioners designed a town of 400 blocks in a 2-mile square along the river. The blocks were sold to speculators and prospective residents. Buyers had to build a house at least 30 feet long and 18 feet wide within three years or face an annual 5% penalty; the perimeter streets and two through streets were 150 feet wide. The remaining squares were divided by thoroughfares 100 feet wide; the commissioners comprised the local government until 1797 when a Commission of Streets and Markets was created by the General Assembly.

Three main issues occupied most of their time: public drunkenness and poor sanitation. As one of the first planned cities in the United States, Columbia began to grow rapidly, its population was nearing 1,000 shortly after the start of the 19th century. In 1801, South Carolina College was founded in Columbia; the original building survives. The city was chosen as the site of the institution in part to unite the citizens of the Upcountry and the Lowcountry and to discourage the youth from migrating to England for their higher education. At the time, South Carolina sent more young men to England; the leaders of South Carolina wished to monitor the development of the school. Columbia received its first charter as a town in 1805. An intendant and six wardens would govern the town. John Taylor, the first elected intendant served in both houses of the General Assembly, both houses of Congress, as governor. By 1816, there were a population of more than one thousand. Columbia became chartered as a city in 1854, with an elected mayor and six


Derlin-1 known as degradation in endoplasmic reticulum protein 1 is a membrane protein that in humans is encoded by the DERL1 gene. Derlin-1 is located in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in retrotranslocation of specific misfolded proteins and in ER stress. Derlin-1 is expressed in thyroid, bone marrow and many other tissues; the protein belongs to the Derlin-family proteins consisting of derlin-1, derlin-2 and derlin-3 that are components in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway. The derlins mediate degradation of misfolded lumenal proteins within ER, are named ‘der’ for their ‘Degradation in the ER’. Derlin-1 is a mammalian homologue of the yeast DER1 protein, a protein involved in the yeast ERAD pathway. Moreover, derlin-1 is a member of the rhomboid-like clan of polytopic membrane proteins. Overexpression of derlin-1 are associated with many cancers, including colon cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. In 2004 the DERL1 gene was discovered independently by two research groups when they were exploring the machinery of retrotranslocation in the ER in the cell.

One evidence for the existence of DERL1 was provided by Professor Tom A. Rapoport and his research group at Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts. Another evidence of the DERL1 gene was discovered by Professor Hidde L. Ploegh and his research group, at Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts; as the mammalian DERL1 gene was found to be a homologue of the yeast DER1 gene found in 1996, it was named after the yeast gene. The human DERL1 gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 8 at region 2 band 4, from base pair 123,013,164 to 123,042,423. ER stress is caused by an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in ER and is critical for cell function; the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins activates an unfolded protein response which regulate the homeostasis of the cell. One of the strategies cells possess to ER stress as a quality control system is the ERAD pathway, by which Derlin-1 is a component of; as a part of an ER membrane protein complex derlin-1 detects misfolded proteins in ER and mediate them for their degradation in the ERAD pathway.

Under ER stress, the carboxyl-terminus region of derlin-1 captures specific misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. Derlin-1 interacts with VIMP, an ER membrane protein that recruits the cytosolic ATPase p97 and its cofactor; the interaction of derlin-1 with p97 via VIMP is essential for export of misfolded proteins. P97 is required for the transport of the misfolded proteins through the ER membrane and back to the cytosolic side for their degradation; this process is referred to as retrotranslocation. Hence, one of the functions of derlin-1 is to reroute specific misfolded protein to the cytosol for their degradation. Prior to the cytosolic degradation, the retrotranslocated misfolded proteins interacts with HRDI E3 ubiquitin ligase; this ligase ubiquitinates the misfolded proteins promoting their degradation in the cytosol by the ubiquitin-protease system. The molecular mechanism by which derlin-1 reroutes the misfolded proteins from ER to their degradation are not understood. Derlin 1 is up-regulated in metastatic canine mammary tumors as part of the unfolded protein response.

Derlin-1 has been shown to interact with the following proteins: HRD1 VIMP US11 Derlin-2 Derlin-3

Riverview Tower

The Riverview Tower is an office high-rise located at 900 Gay Street in Knoxville, United States. Completed in 1985, the 24-story structure is Knoxville's second-tallest building, along with its sister building, the First Tennessee Plaza, anchors Knoxville's downtown office market. Since 2003, BB&T has been the building's primary tenant; the Riverview Tower occupies the northern half of Gay Street's 900-block, bounded by Gay Street, Hill Avenue, State Street, Main Street. The Andrew Johnson Building occupies the southwestern section of the block, the two buildings share a central courtyard; the building contains 367,000 square feet of office space, includes a 420-space parking garage. Along with BB&T, tenants include IBM, Union Planters, Lawler-Wood, various financial groups and law firms; the building was planned in the early 1980s as office space for the City & County Bank, headed by C. H. Butcher. Butcher's brother, Jake Butcher, was head of the United American Bank, which had built the First Tennessee Plaza in the late-1970s.

Before the Riverview Tower was completed, the FDIC raided the Butcher brothers' banks, leading to the banks' collapse and the Butcher brothers' subsequent convictions on charges of bank fraud. The FDIC purchased the Riverview from the building's developer, Lawler-Wood, in 1985; the first tenants moved into the Riverview in 1987. In 1990, Florida real estate developer Martin O'Boyle bought the Riverview from the FDIC for $18.5 million, using money he had borrowed from Providence-based Textron Collective Investment Trust. As a result of a lawsuit with O'Boyle in 1995, Textron became the building's owner. In 2001, Textron sold the building to Lawler-Wood, for $22.2 million. Lawler-Wood sold the Riverview to Texas real estate investment firm Behringer Harvard for $41 million in 2005. List of tallest buildings in Knoxville BH Property Details: Riverview Tower — Behringer Harvard site.