2007 America's Cup
The 2007 America's Cup was the thirty-second challenge for the America's Cup and was won by Alinghi in the 7th race. The Cup is Match Race in the sport of sailing; as per the Deed of Gift of the America's Cup the yacht club that holds the Cup is the one that chooses the location for the next challenge to take place. Alinghi, the syndicate representing the Société Nautique de Genève, the winners of the thirty-first edition, are based in Switzerland, a landlocked country, so Alinghi put the hosting rights out to a competitive bid process. During a preliminary selection the bids of Barcelona, Palma de Mallorca, Porto Cervo and Elba were eliminated; the four finalists were Cascais, Marseille and Valencia. On November 27, 2003 it was announced that the venue would be Spain. A new building, Veles e Vents designed by David Chipperfield, was built in the harbour of Valencia to house the central base for all the America's Cup teams. By winning the 32nd America's Cup, Alinghi changed what seemed to have become a tradition: that the winner of race three goes on to win the match.
Emirates Team New Zealand, despite winning the third heat, was not able to capture the Cup. The score of the 32nd America's Cup has differentiated the match from previous editions; the past three America's Cups – 1995, 2000 and 2003 – were all sweeps. Eleven challengers from nine countries submitted formal entries prior to the closing deadline of April 29, 2005. In preparation for the 2007 America's Cup, there were a series of regattas leading up to the Cup races, called "Acts" which culminated in the 2007 Louis Vuitton Cup; the winner, Emirates Team New Zealand, became the Challenger and raced against the Defender, for the America's Cup. In 2004, there were Act 1 held September 2004 in Marseille, France; these events featured fleet and match racing between America's Cup class yachts representing the syndicates that were vying for selection as challenger for the America's Cup in 2007. Points were awarded for each Act, the team with the highest score at the end of the year is declared the ACC Champion for that year.
In 2004, Emirates Team New Zealand narrowly won over second place American challenger BMW Oracle Racing and third place Swiss defender Team Alinghi. The schedule of Acts in 2005 included Acts 4 and 5 in Valencia, Acts 6 and 7 in Malmö, Sweden and Acts 8 and 9 in Trapani, Italy. All races were run on a windward-leeward course consisting of four legs with legs 1 and 4 being 3.3 nautical miles in length, legs 2 and 3 being 3.0 nautical miles for a total of 12.6 nautical miles. In the results table below, the team entering the starting area from the side has a slight advantage; the team was decided for the first race by the toss of a coin. Side advantage alternates race by race. Peter Evans sailed the training boat for Alinghi. Other team members included Peter Holmberg, Mike Drummond, Matt Mitchell, Brian Sharp, Mark Newbrook, Jordi Calafat, Nicholas Texier and Craig Satherwaite. Grant Simmer was Jochen Schümann the sports director. Ben Ainslie and Kelvin Harrap sailed the training boat for Team New Zealand.
America's Cup Louis Vuitton Cup Louis Vuitton Cup 2007 32nd America's Cup Official Website 3D visualization of the races Peter Lester NZ yachting commentator AC 32 Challenger Commission Official website of the Challenger Commission for the 32nd America's Cup in Valencia Team Alinghi Official website the America's Cup Defender BMW Oracle Racing Official website of Challenger of Record of the America's Cup CupInfo.com America's Cup News and Information for 2007 America's Cup News, articles & photos Valencia Sailing Website with original photos and commentary on all America's Cup related activity Cup In Europe web site Exhaustive information and commentary in French. Coupe de l'America French website about the competition. Mariantic America's Cup News & Views 2007AC.com - America's Cup Forums South African team website The effect of the America's cup on the city of Valencia article at ErasmusPC
1962 America's Cup
The 1962 America's Cup, the second to be sailed in 12-metre yachts, marked the first challenge for the Cup from a country other than Great Britain or Canada, was the first challenge from a country in the southern hemisphere. An Australian syndicate headed by Sir Frank Packer, representing the Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron, challenged with their yacht Gretel. Although the New York Yacht Club won the regatta four races to one represented by the yacht Weatherly, the challenger, Gretel won the second race, beating the Americans for the first time since the 1930s, only lost the fourth race by twenty-six seconds; the NYYC was so shocked at the closeness of the contest that they changed the rules to ban the use of American design and technology by Cup challengers. The NYYC ran a regatta to determine the yacht. Competing were Weatherly, with Emil Mosbacher, Jr. at the helm, Columbia, skippered by Paul V. Shields, Nefertiti, helmed by sailmaker and naval architect Ted Hood. Weatherly was chosen as the defender.
Weatherly was designed by Philip Rhodes, built by Luders Marine Construction Company at Stamford, Connecticut, USA, owned by a syndicate headed by Henry D. Mercer, Cornelius Walsh, Arnold D. Frese; the boat had performed poorly. For the 1962 trials, Weatherly was extensively modified by shortening the bow, reducing the wetted surface area, reducing weight wherever possible and moving the weight saved to increase the weight of the keel. Gretel was the first Australian 12-meter, she was designed by Alan Payne, built at Lars Halvorsen Sons Pty. Ltd. and owned by a syndicate headed by Sir Frank Packer plus Richard Dickson, William H. Northam, William G. Walkley, Noel Foley, she was helmed by Jock Sturrock. The Gretel's Brush with the Cuban Missile Crisis at History in Pieces Weatherly article at AC-Cyclopaedia Gretel article at AC-Cyclopaedia 1962 America's Cup at World Sailing
1851 America's Cup
The 100 Guineas Cup or Hundred Guinea Cup regatta of 1851 was the first competition for the America's Cup trophy. Cup of One Hundred Sovereigns, the value of the trophy was 100 pounds-sterling, hence its names, variations on 100 Pound Cup; the race was won by the yacht America, leading to the trophy being renamed "America's Cup". The 1851 competition was the first to compete for the trophy now called the America's Cup, hence the 1851 America's Cup or 0th America's Cup being zeroth, sequentially preceding the first America's Cup of 1870; the event "The America's Cup" would not be founded until 1857, when the deed of gift established the America's Cup racing regattas. The 1851 edition was a fleet race, unlike modern America's Cups finals, which are match races; the race originated with an invitation for the Great Exhibition of 1851 by the Earl of Winton Commodore of the Royal Yacht Squadron, inviting the formed New York Yacht Club to enjoy the facilities of the clubhouse of the RYS. John Cox Stevens, Commodore of the NYYC responded positively, anticipated racing.
Due to the RYS rules of the time, other races in the 1851 RYS Regatta were restricted to RYS members and their self-owned yachts, so the R. Y. S. £100 Cup was established, open to anyone to enter. At a RYS meeting on 9 May 1851, the race was scheduled for 22 August 1851; this race was to be the first of a series of challenge races for successive £100 Cups. At the time, it was normal practise for the winners to own the cups that were won, not to return them for the next race to be won by others; the trophy, worth 100 sovereigns in 1851, latterly affectionately known as the Auld Mug, distinguishing it from the racing regatta of the same name. The trophy, a bottomless ewer, is made out of 134 oz of silver, is 27 in tall; the ewer was a stock item obtained from jeweler Robert Garrard in 1848. After the race it was engraved with the names of the yachts that raced against America, save the runner-up, Aurora; the regatta, held on 22 August 1851, raced clockwise around the Isle of Wight in a fleet race.
The course was called "The Queen's Course". The course was near Cowes Castle on the Isle of Wight, where the Royal Yacht Squadron headquarters are located; the race took place as part of the 1851 Royal Yacht Squadron Regatta. The signal gun for sailing was fired at 10am, the winner saluted by a gun from the flag-ship at 8:34pm. 18 yachts were entered for the race. The yacht Fernande did not make the start, while Strella and Titania both got to the starting line, though did not start the race; those yachts that raced were America, Arrow, Bacchante, Brilliant, Eclipse, Gipsy Queen, Mona and Wyvern. DSQ/DNF – competitor did not finish under the time limit DSQ/DNS – competitor did not make it to the starting line DNS – did not start – competitor did not make it off the starting line DNF – did not finish DSQ – disqualified The trophy would be renamed "America's Cup" after the yacht America, that won the trophy. In 1857, the competition for "America's Cup" was declared, with the creation of the deed of gift.
The first challenge would take place in 1870 under the deed of gift. This would initiate the oldest championship in sport
2017 America's Cup
The 2017 America's Cup was the 35th staging of the America's Cup yacht race. The challenger, Emirates Team New Zealand, won by a score of 7 to 1 over the defender, Oracle Team USA, it was held on the Great Sound in Bermuda from June 17 to June 26. The races were conducted using hydrofoiling AC50 America's Cup Class yachts, which are larger than the AC45F yachts used in the 2015–16 America's Cup World Series, it was Oracle's second defence of the America's Cup, four years after its first successful defence. Emirates Team New Zealand will now hope to defend the cup in the 36th America's Cup; the 2017 America's Cup course was on the Great Sound in Bermuda, the venue at the Royal Naval Dockyard. In June 2014, media reported the venue of the 34th America's Cup, San Francisco, was no longer in consideration to host the 35th edition. San Diego and Bermuda were listed as being still in the running. In July 2014, americascup.com reported that Chicago was dropped from the running, on 2 December 2014, Bermuda was announced as the host of the 2017 America's Cup.
The Premier of Bermuda, Michael Dunkley, welcomed the teams and spectators at a press conference in New York. The financial package included in the bid by Bermuda was worth US$77 million, including a $15 million sponsorship fee, $25 million for infrastructure improvements, $12 million operating costs and a $25 million guarantee against commercial sponsorships. Dr. Grant Gibbons, Bermuda's Minister for Economic Development, stated that the America's Cup had a possibility of generating revenue of up to US$250 million in Bermuda. Security arrangements at the Dockyard were assumed by HM's Royal Bermuda Regiment after termination of contract between the local security provider and the AC35. On 1 October 2013, Australia's Hamilton Island Yacht Club was confirmed as the "Challenger of Record" for the 35th America's Cup, after submitting their paperwork only moments after the win by Oracle Team USA; the HIYC challenge was accepted by the Golden Gate Yacht Club, the Defender and Trustee of the America's Cup.
Australian businessman Bob Oatley, founder of Rosemount and owner of famed super maxi yacht Wild Oats XI, was confirmed to be the main financial backer of the Hamilton Island Yacht Club challenge. On 19 July 2014 Russell Coutts, Director of the America's Cup Event Authority, announced that the Hamilton Island Yacht club had withdrawn Team Australia from the 35th America's Cup. Team Australia claimed that the entry fee rules agreed to in the official protocol created too much risk due to the uncertainty of the unknown venue and schedule of the event; the Challenger of Record Committee represents all of the challengers' interests and negotiates with Oracle over mutual concerns. Luna Rossa replaced HIYC as the challenger of record. In April 2015, Luna Rossa withdrew its challenge bid, pulling out of the 2017 America's Cup in protest at rule changes reducing the size of the boats. On 5 June 2014, it was announced that the regatta would be sailed in 62-foot-long foiling catamarans, the AC62; the entry fee was $3 million.
Each challenging team could build only one boat. A nationality rule was agreed; this nationality rule had been lifted prior to the 2003 America's Cup. The rules specified; the neutral International adjudicating yachting panel was dropped in favour of a three-man panel appointed by the defender. In March 2015, the teams voted to reduce the size of the boats to the 45- to 50-foot range, leading to the withdrawal in protest of Luna Rossa; this in turn led to a joint statement from four teams attacking Team New Zealand which had supported Luna Rossa. The America's Cup was contested by its defender Oracle Team USA, who represent the Golden Gate Yacht Club; the challenger was Emirates Team New Zealand, for Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron, who had defeated the other four challengers to win the Louis Vuitton America’s Cup Challenger Playoffs trophy. Teams were allowed to take onedesign AC45s out of measurement by modifying crossbeams and rudders, adding hydraulic systems, as well as produce a maximum of six custom daggerboards to test on the existing platform ahead of building their race boat.
All teams took advantage of this opportunity: Oracle Racing modified three AC45s, selling their first development boat to SoftBank Team Japan as part of their technology-sharing agreement and subsequently conducted a two-boat testing program with their last two boats. Groupama Team France, Luna Rossa and Emirates Team New Zealand modified one AC45 each. Luna Rossa gifted their boat to Team New Zealand. Emirates Team New Zealand modified SL33 foiling wingsail catamarans to try new ideas for its race boat, in which they produced a number of distinct features absent from other boats in the fleet: The two four-handed grinding pedestals on their development AC45 were replaced by four cycling stations; the rise in foiling catamarans encouraged competing teams to enter into technical partnerships with companies specializing in aerospace technologies. Land Rover BAR allied with Red Bull Advanced Technologies, headed by ten-time Formula 1 World Constructor's
Louis Vuitton Cup
The Louis Vuitton Cup was a yachting competition connected with the America's Cup. Since 1983 until 2017, the Louis Vuitton Cup was used as the selection series in any year where multiple yachting syndicates are vying for the right to become the challenger for the America's Cup. Starting in 2017, a new Louis Vuitton Challenger’s Trophy was created—it was presented, for the first time, to the winner of the 2017 Louis Vuitton America’s Cup Challenger Playoffs, the competition held to determine the challenger in that year's America's Cup. Five out of the nine winners of the Louis Vuitton Cup competitions subsequently won the America's Cup itself. In 1970, for the first time in America's Cup history, multiple "international" challengers competed for the right to challenge the New York Yacht Club, the defender of the America's Cup For the 1983 America's Cup match, the Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron, the "Challenger of Record", contracted with New York Yacht Club member, Paul Madden, to create "The Challenger's Cup".
Paul Madden contracted with Louis Vuitton to be the first sponsor of this Cup series that led up to the main event. Louis Vuitton offered a trophy to the winner of the challenger selection series; the initial Louis Vuitton Cup was contested off Newport, United States, with Australia II prevailing, thereby earning the right to meet the NYYC’s defending yacht Liberty in that year’s America’s Cup. With the exception of the America's Cup races in 1988 and 2010, the winner of the Louis Vuitton Cup has been awarded the right to challenge the current defender for the America's Cup. During the 1992 and 1995 regattas Citizen Watch offered a trophy to the winner of the defender selection series as the defense’s counterpart to the Louis Vuitton cup. Due to the large number of challengers in recent decades the Louis Vuitton Cup has had to eliminate challengers in two phases. A round-robin points accruing phase, a pair of semi-finals involving the top four, followed by a final between the top two; the semi-finals and finals are a best of nine races between two boats.
Between the 2004 and 2007 Cups, Louis Vuitton sponsored thirteen "acts" of competition, with the first three acts not awarding points toward rankings. Some challengers do not enter the competition by the start of the acts. Rules for the current races stipulate that ranking points awarded for each act of competition will increase as they get closer to the final. For acts taking place in 2005, standard points were awarded, with 11 ranking points for a first-place finish, points awarded decreasing based on placing. Acts in 2006 double the points, with 22 ranking points for first place, the final act 13 which takes place in 2007 will award triple points, giving 33 points to the winner. History shows that the Louis Vuitton Cup series enhances the chances of the challenger due to the intense racing against different opponents which improves the tactics and crew co-ordination of the winner. Differences in boat speed are becoming less and less, placing an greater premium on reliability, superior tactics, crewing.
In the weeks leading up to the America's Cup competition, the defender has to practice using in-house racing which can never be as intense as real competition. In July 2007, Louis Vuitton announced termination of all its sponsorship activities associated with the America's Cup after 25 years of involvement, arguing the organisation of the America's Cup was taken over by business under the rule of Ernesto Bertarelli, leader of Alinghi, winner in 2003. Louis Vuitton instead sponsored Louis Vuitton Trophy. After Oracle Racing won the America's Cup for the Golden Gate Yacht Club in the 2010 Deed-of-Gift race against Alinghi, Louis Vuitton again sponsored the challenger series for the 34th America's Cup, held in 2013 on the San Francisco Bay. Louis Vuitton sponsored the heats to the 2013 and 2017 America's Cups. Participation was compulsory to take part in the Louis Vuitton Cup. America's Cup Official Website for the America's Cup CupInfo.com America's Cup News and Information Citizen Cup - the defender series for America's Cup
2010 America's Cup
The 33rd America's Cup between Société Nautique de Genève defending with team Alinghi against Golden Gate Yacht Club, their racing team BMW Oracle Racing was the subject of extensive court action and litigation, surpassing in acrimony the controversial 1988 America's Cup. Since the two parties were unable to agree otherwise, the match took place as a one-on-one deed of gift match in gigantic, specialized multi-hull racing yachts with no other clubs or teams participating; the Golden Gate Yacht Club won the match 2–0 as their yacht USA 17 powered by a rigid wing-sail proved to be faster than Société Nautique de Genève's yacht Alinghi 5. The litigation leading up to the match included which club would be the challenger, the dates and venue for the regattas, certain rules governing the regattas, the construction of the boats; when Société Nautique de Genève defended the trophy in the 32nd America's Cup, they accepted a challenge from Club Náutico Español de Vela a Spanish organization formed expressly for the purpose of challenging for the cup and keeping the regatta in Valencia.
When SNG and CNEV published their protocol for the 33rd America's Cup challenge, there was widespread consternation over its terms, with some teams and yacht clubs calling it the worst protocol in the history of the event. The Golden Gate Yacht Club filed its own challenge for the Cup and filed a court case asking that CNEV be removed as Challenger of Record as being unqualified under the Deed of Gift. GGYC asked that it be named as the rightful Challenger of Record, being the first club to file a conforming challenge. There followed a long and acrimonious legal battle, with the New York Court of Appeals deciding on April 2, 2009, that CNEV did not qualify as valid challenger, that the GGYC was thus the rightful Challenger of Record. Following its successful defense of the Cup on July 3, 2007, Société Nautique de Genève accepted a challenge for the 33rd America's Cup from Club Náutico Español de Vela, a newly formed yacht club, created for the purpose of challenging for the Cup. CNEV had no boats, no clubhouse, only four members, had never run a regatta of any type.
On July 5, 2007 SNG and CNEV released the protocols for the next Cup regatta. The protocol was the subject of much criticism, with some teams and yacht clubs calling it the worst protocol in the history of the event; the Golden Gate Yacht Club initiated legal action against SNG in the New York Supreme Court alleging violations of the Deed of Gift of the America's Cup.. The suit alleged that CNEV did not meet the terms of the Deed of Gift as a legitimate yacht club that would qualify to be the challenger of record, in particular because it had never held an annual regatta, according to GGYC, was a requirement under the Deed of Gift. At the same time, GGYC issued a challenge for the Cup; because of the precedent set in the 1988 America's Cup where the San Diego Yacht Club defended against a monohull yacht with a catamaran, any non mutual-consent challenger must specify the largest multi-hull possible under the terms of the Deed of Gift, if it is to have any chance of winning. GGYC specified its yacht as having a 90-ft length-waterline, 90-ft beam.
However, GGYC stated that they wanted "consensual negotiations in the spirit of the Deed of Gift toward a Protocol comparable in scope, similar in terms, to that used for the 32nd America's Cup." As the legal proceedings progressed, SNG continued to work with the other teams on the protocol, by December 2007 twelve challengers had met the entry deadline and were preparing to race in a multi-challenge 33rd America's Cup. But despite extensive negotiations and proposals made by both sides, GGYC and SNG were unable to agree upon a mutual consent Protocol; the lawsuit therefore continued and the court ruled in favor of GGYC on November 27, 2007, holding that CNEV was not a valid challenger, declaring GGYC the proper and legal challenger. SNG was instructed to meet GGYC's challenge under the Deed of Gift terms unless they could agree on other terms by mutual consent; this order was confirmed on March 13, 2008SNG appealed the decision against CNEV, on July 29, 2008, the Appellate Division of the New York Supreme Court 2008 reversed the lower court ruling in a 3–2 decision.
The lower court had ruled in favor of GGYC because CNEV had not held an annual regatta when it filed its challenge for the Cup. But the Appellate Division ruled that the phrase "having for its annual regatta," as used in the Deed of Gift, is ambiguous. Therefore, CNEV could satisfy the requirement by "intend to hold an annual regatta and do so prior to the date of its proposed match." Pending the final outcome of the litigation, SNG had set a deadline of December 15, 2008 for entries in the 33rd America's Cup regatta. On December 8, 2008 GGYC sent a letter to SNG to inform them that GGYC would not submit an entry since it did not consider SNG's regatta "a legitimate America's Cup" and vowed to focus on winning the legal case in the New York Court of Appeals. A number of organizations submitted amicus curiae briefs to the court. In particular, on December 31, 2008, the New York Yacht Club, the oldest and longest holder of the America's Cup, filed a brief supporting GGYC's position. On April 2, 2009, the New York Court of Appeals in Albany, New York decided 6–0 in favor of GGYC, holding that a yacht club could not qualify as challenger unless it had
1901 America's Cup
The 1901 America's Cup was the 11th challenge for the Cup. It took place in the New York City harbor and consisted of a best of five series of races between the defender Columbia, entered by the New York Yacht Club for the second time, Sir Thomas Lipton's Shamrock II, representing the Royal Ulster Yacht Club. Columbia won all three races, the last being won with handicap, defending the cup