Columbia is the female personification of the United States. It was a historical name applied to the Americas and to the New World; the association has given rise to the names of many persons, objects and companies. Images of the Statue of Liberty displaced personified Columbia as the female symbol of the United States by around 1920, although Lady Liberty was seen as an aspect of Columbia; the District of Columbia takes its name after the personification, as does the traditional patriotic hymn "Hail Columbia", the official vice-presidential anthem of the United States Vice President. Columbia is a New Latin toponym, in use since the 1730s with reference to the thirteen colonies of British America, it originated from the name of Italian explorer Christopher Columbus and from the ending -ia, common in Latin names of countries. The earliest type of personification of the Americas, seen in European art from the 16th century onwards, reflected the tropical regions in South and Central America from which the earliest travellers reported back.
These were most used in sets of female personifications of the Four Continents. America was depicted as a woman who, like Africa, was only dressed in bright feathers, which invariably formed her headress, she held a parrot, was seated on a caiman or alligator, with a cornucopia. Sometimes a severed head was a further attribute, or in prints scenes of cannibalism were seen in the background. Though versions of this depiction, tending as time went on to soften the rather savage image into an "Indian princess" type, in churches emphasizing conversion to Christianity, served European artists well enough, by the 18th century they were becoming rejected by settlers in North America, who wanted figures representing themselves rather than the Native Americans they were in conflict with. Massachusetts Chief Justice Samuel Sewall used the name Columbina for the New World in 1697; the name Columbia for America first appeared in 1738 in the weekly publication of the debates of the British Parliament in Edward Cave's The Gentleman's Magazine.
Publication of Parliamentary debates was technically illegal, so the debates were issued under the thin disguise of Reports of the Debates of the Senate of Lilliput and fictitious names were used for most individuals and placenames found in the record. Most of these were transparent anagrams or similar distortions of the real names and some few were taken directly from Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels while a few others were classical or neoclassical in style; such were Ierne for Ireland, Iberia for Spain, Noveborac for New York and Columbia for America—at the time used in the sense of "European colonies in the New World". By the time of the Revolution, the name Columbia had lost the comic overtone of its Lilliputian origins and had become established as an alternative, or poetic name for America. While the name America is scanned with four syllables, according to 18th-century rules of English versification Columbia was scanned with three, more metrically convenient. For instance, the name appears in a collection of complimentary poems written by Harvard graduates in 1761 on the occasion of the marriage and coronation of King George III.
Behold, Britannia! in thy favour'd Isle. View thy Prince, For ancestors renowned, for virtues more. A ship built in Massachusetts in 1773 received the name Columbia Rediviva and it became famous as an exploring ship and lent its name to new Columbias. No serious consideration was given to using the name Columbia as an official name for the independent United States, but with independence the name became popular and was given to many counties and towns as well as other institutions. In 1784, the former King's College in New York City had its name changed to Columbia College, which became the nucleus of the present-day Ivy League Columbia University. In 1786, South Carolina gave the name Columbia to its new capital city. Columbia is the name of at least nineteen other towns in the United States. In 1791, three commissioners appointed by President George Washington named the area destined for the seat of the United States government the Territory of Columbia, it was subsequently organized as the District of Columbia.
In 1792, the Columbia Rediviva sailing ship gave its name to the Columbia River in the American Northwest In 1798, Joseph Hopkinson wrote lyrics for Philip Phile's 1789 inaugural "President's March" under the new title of "Hail, Columbia". Once used as de facto national anthem of the United States, it is now used as the entrance march of the Vice President of the United States. In 1821 citizens of Boone County, Missouri chose the name for their new city of Columbia, Missouri In 1865 Jules Verne's novel From the Earth to the Moon, the spacecraft to the moon was fired from a giant Columbiad cannon. In part, the more frequent usage of the name Columbia reflected a rising American neoclassicism, exemplified in the tendency to use Roman terms and symbols; the selection of the eagle as the national bird, the heraldric use of the eagle, the use of the term Senate to describe the upper house of Congress and the naming of Capitol Hill and the Capitol building were all conscious evocations of Roman precedents.
The Kisarazu Naval Air Group was an aircraft and airbase garrison unit of the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific campaign of World War II. The Kisarazu Air Group was formed at Kisarazu Air Field, in Kisarazu, Chiba Prefecture Japan on April 1, 1936 as the first land-based bomber group of the Imperial Japanese Navy, it was equipped with six Type 96 Yokosuka B4Y biplane attack aircraft, plus two reserve aircraft. With the start of the war in China, the aircraft of the Tateyama Air Group and the Ōminato Air Group were transferred to the Kisarazu Air Group, bringing its combat strength up to twenty operational bombers and six reserve aircraft, its first combat mission was a bombing of the Republic of China capital of Nanjing on August 15, 1937. Subsequently, strategic bombing missions were taken against the cities of Shanghai and Chongqing, as well as tactical bombing missions in support of advancing Imperial Japanese Army forces. Due to the limited range of the Yokosuka B4Y, the Kisarazu Air Group was forced to deploy from bases in Shanghai and Nanjing.
From August 27, 1937 the Kisarazu Air Group was equipped with Type 95 Nakajima A4N biplane fighters for protection against Chinese fighters. The Kisarazu Air Group was withdrawn from combat on January 5, 1940. Following its return to its home base at Kisarazu Air Field, the Kisarazu Air Group served as a training unit until March 1942. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor and the start of hostilities with the United States, it performed patrol duties protecting the entrance to Tokyo Bay. From March 1942, the Kisarazu Air Group was re-equipped with Type 1 Mitsubishi G4M bombers, continued training with the new equipment until the end of August 1942. On August 22, 1942, a detachment of nineteen Mitsubishi G4M1’s arrived in Rabaul, New Britain, joining elements from the Misawa Naval Air Group and the Fourth Air Group; this combined force bombed American positions at Henderson Field on Guadalcanal on August 25, 1942. On the following mission on August 26, one Mitsubishi G4M1 was damaged by defending USMC Grumman F4F fighters and was forced to ditch in the sea on its return.
Another mission against Henderson Field was undertaken on August 29. During a bombing mission against Allied ships near Guadalcanal, the Kisarazu Air Group shared credit for sinking the American destroyer USS Colhoun. On September 2, 1942 nine aircraft each from the Kisarazu and the Misawa Air Groups again bombed Henderson Field, causing little damage and suffering no losses. However, on a subsequent mission on September 12, two aircraft were lost to Allied aircraft and a third was damaged in an emergency landing at Buka. Another aircraft was lost in combat over Guadalcanal on September 21; the Kisarazu Air Group continued its bombing of Henderson Field and other targets on Guadalcanal on October 14, October 15, October 17 and October 21, with the loss of one more aircraft. On October 25, the Kisarazu Air Group flew its final combat mission. On November 1, 1942, the remainder of the unit was re-designated as the 707th Naval Air Group, one month all aircraft and airmen were moved to the 705th Naval Air Group.
Higher unit Yokosuka Naval District 1st Combined Air Group Yokosuka Naval District 26th Air Flotilla Renamed 707th Naval Air Group on 1 November 1942. Incorporated to the 705th Naval Air Group on 1 December 1942. Commanding officers Captain Ryūzō Takenaka Vacant post Captain Ryūzō Takenaka Captain Tomeo Kaku Captain Masafumi Arima Captain Tadao Katō Captain Prince Kuni Asaakira Captain Tomizō Maebara Captain Naoshirō Fujiyoshi Captain Yasuo Konishi Bibliography The Japanese Modern Historical Manuscripts Association, Organizations and personnel affairs of the Imperial Japanese Army & Navy, University of Tokyo Press, Tōkyō, Japan, 1971, ISBN 978-4-13-036009-8. Seiki Sakamoto/Hideki Fukukawa, Encyclopedia of organizations of the Imperial Japanese Navy, K. K. Fuyo Shobo Shuppan, Japan, 2003, ISBN 4-8295-0330-0. Rekishi Dokuhon Vol. 33, Document of the war No. 48 Overview of Imperial Japanese Navy Admirals, Shin-Jinbutsuoraisha Co. Ltd. Tōkyō, Japan, 1999, ISBN 4-404-02733-8. Model Art, No. 406, Special issue Camouflage & Markings of Imperial Japanese Navy Bombers in W.
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George Francis Frazier Jr. was an American journalist. Boston-raised, Frazier graduated from Harvard College in 1932, he wrote for the Boston newspapers and for Esquire magazine, as well as many other venues, including the New York papers. Beginning as a jazz critic, his Sweet and Low Down column, debuting in the Boston Herald on January 27, 1942, was the first regular jazz column in an American big-city daily, he soon left jazz criticism for general journalism. He concluded his career as a much-revered columnist for The Boston Globe. Called "Acidmouth" by his publishers at Down Beat, he was known for his arch style, acerbic wit, erudite Olympian pronouncements on men's fashion, general je ne sais quoi. Frazier wrote the song "Harvard Blues", recorded in 1941 by Count Basie and included on the compilation The Count Basie Story, Disc 3 - Harvard Blues. Thanks to his writing, Frazier earned a place on the master list of Nixon political opponents, it feels like snow, he said, it was all there, all the sadness and all the silveryness in a single sentence.
All I'm trying to say is that most boutique customers should be lined up before a firing squad at dawn and that there should be a minute of silence to thank God for the existence of people like Miles Davis. Duende was George Frazier's favorite word, it is, of course, the precise word to describe his life and his writings: translated—grace and class. "The Art of Wearing Clothes", article by George Frazier, Esquire magazine, September 1960 "Whose Civil Rights", column by George Frazier, Boston Herald, August 30, 1963 Small sample of Frazier's jazz criticism from 1942, JazzBoston "Warlord of the Weejuns", Frazier's liner notes for the 1965 album Miles Davis' Greatest Hits Fountain, Charles. Another Man's Poison: The Life and Writings of Columnist George Frazier. Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 0-87106-857-5. Whitman, Alden. "George Frazier, Writer, 63, Dies. The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2017. Rodricks, Dan. "So just who has duende?". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved June 6, 2010. Vacca, Richard. "Of Datelines and Down Beats: Jazz, George Frazier, Late-Night Boston".
JazzBoston. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2010. Negri, Gloria. "Mimsi Harbach, 87. The Boston Globe. Retrieved June 6, 2010. Maroney, Edward F.. "". The Barnstable Patriot. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved June 6, 2010. Fountain, Charles. "George Frazier's duende". The Boston Globe. Retrieved June 16, 2011