Paris Diderot University
Paris Diderot University known as Paris 7, is a French university located in Paris, France. It was one of the heirs of the University of Paris, which ceased to exist in 1970. Professors from the faculties of Science, of Medicine and of Humanities chose to create a new multidisciplinary university, it adopted its current name in 1994 after the 18th-century French philosopher, art critic and writer Denis Diderot. With two Nobel Prize laureates, two Fields Medal winners and two former French Ministers of Education among its faculty or former faculty, the university is famous for its teaching in science in mathematics. Indeed, many fundamental results of the theory of probability have been discovered at one of its research centres, the Laboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires; the university is known for its teaching in psychology, which adopts a specific approach that draws from both psychopathology and psychoanalysis. The university hosts many other disciplines: with 2,300 educators and researchers, 1,100 administrative personnel and 26,000 students studying humanities, science or medicine.
Paris Diderot University is a founding member of the higher education and research alliance Sorbonne Paris Cité, a public institution for scientific co-operation, bringing together four renowned Parisian universities and four higher education and research institutes. Based at the Jussieu Campus, in the 5th arrondissement, the university moved to a new campus in the 13th arrondissement, in the Paris Rive Gauche neighbourhood; the first buildings were brought into use in 2006. The university has two in other places of the general area. In 2012, the university completed its move in its new ultramodern campus. There are: PRG - Main campus Jussieu Campus - former Main campus Charles V - English studies RFF Building - Administrative offices Javelot - Geography and social science Chateau des Rentiers - Linguistics Garancière - Odontology Xavier-Bichat - Medicine Lariboisière Saint-Louis - Medicine St Louis Hospital - Hematology Rue de Paradis - Medicine Paris Diderot University offers courses in many fields, each taught in a different sections of the university called UFR - Unité de Formation et de Recherche.
UFR of Life Sciences UFR of Chemistry UFR of Computer Sciences UFR of Mathematics UFR of Physics UFR of Science of the Earth and Planets UFR of English studies UFR of Cross-cultural and Applied Languages studies UFR of Geography and Social sciences UFR of Languages and Cultures in East Asia studies UFR of Letters and Cinema UFR of Linguistics UFR of Psychoanalytical Studies UFR of Social Sciences UFR of Medicine UFR of Odontology There are: 1 Diplôme universitaire de technologie 27 Different bachelor's degrees 32 Different master's degrees 1 Engineering school 24 different Ph. Ds Jaak Aaviksoo, Estonian Minister of Defense Claude Allègre, Minister of National Education from 1997 to 2000 and member of the Académie des sciences Artur Avila, 2014 Fields Medal Jean-Luc Bennahmias, French Member of the European Parliament Bernard Cerquiglini, rector of the Agence universitaire de la Francophonie Michel Ciment, French journalist and president of FIPRESCI Vincent Courtillot, member of the Académie des sciences Jean Dausset, Nobel Prize in Medicine 1980 Luc Ferry, French Minister of National Education from 2002 to 2004 Julia Kristeva, Bulgarian-French psychoanalyst and feminist Thierry Morand, French biocontainment expert and entrepreneur.
Élisabeth Roudinesco, French historian and psychoanalyst Jean-Michel Savéant, member of the Académie des sciences Laurent Schwartz, 1950 Fields Medal, Justin E. H. Smith and professor of history and philosophy of science George Fitzgerald Smoot, Nobel Prize in Physics 2006 for the discovery of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation Stefano Zacchiroli, Former Debian Project Leader. University homepage Map of facilities
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Beijing romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast. Beijing is an important world capital and global power city, one of the world's leading centers for politics and business, education, culture and technology, architecture and diplomacy. A megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's political and educational center, it is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions. It is a major hub for the national highway, expressway and high-speed rail networks.
The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010, and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world. Combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back three millennia; as the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries, was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A. D. Encyclopædia Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural center of an area as immense as China." With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital.
The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, parks, tombs and gates. It has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal— all tourist locations. Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. Many of Beijing's 91 universities rank among the best in China, such as the Peking University and Tsinghua University. Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is known as China's Silicon Valley and a center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship. Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names; the name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital", was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing. The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin.
An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries. Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng, prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation. Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with IATA Code PEK, Peking University, still use the former romanization; the single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is 京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ"; the earliest traces of human habitation in the Beijing municipality were found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago.
Paleolithic Homo sapiens lived there more about 27,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing, located in downtown Beijing; the first walled city in Beijing was Jicheng, the capital city of the state of Ji and was built in 1045 BC. Within modern Beijing, Jicheng was located around the present Guang'anmen area in the south of Xicheng District; this settlement was conquered by the state of Yan and made its capital. After the First Emperor unified China, Jicheng became a prefectural capital for the region. During the Three Kingdoms period, it was held by Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao before falling to the Wei Kingdom of Cao Cao; the AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern China was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was the capital of the Xianbei Former Yan Kingdom. After China was reunified during the Sui dynasty, Jicheng known as Zhuojun, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal.
Under the Tang dynasty, Jicheng as Youzhou, served as a military frontier command center. During the An-Shi Rebellion and again amidst the turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own shor
Columbia Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation
The Graduate School of Architecture and Preservation at Columbia University in New York City known as GSAPP, is regarded as one of the most important and prestigious architecture schools in the world. It is home to the well-regarded Masters of Science program in Urban Planning, Urban Design, Historic Preservation, Real Estate Development. Among the school's resources is the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, the United States' largest architectural library and home to some of the first books published on architecture, as well as the origin of the Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals. Recent deans of the school have included architect James Stewart Polshek, noted architectural theorist and deconstructivist architect Bernard Tschumi and Mark Wigley; the current dean is Amale Andraos. The Graduate School of Architecture and Preservation has evolved over more than a century, it was transformed from a department within the Columbia School of Mines into a formal School of Architecture by William Robert Ware in 1881—making it one of the first such professional programs in the country.
While the number of specialized programs being offered by the school has multiplied over the years, architecture remains the intellectual core of the school, providing the central focus for more than half of the students and faculty, in addition to conferring a unique identity onto each of the other affiliated programs. All programs share a commitment to research; the curriculum and philosophy stress the necessity of analyzing and challenging the underlying history and future directions of the design professions, applying this research and knowledge towards design and the built environment, as students are prepared to become accomplished practitioners in their respective fields of specialization. As of 2016, the program's ten-year average ranking, places it 2nd, overall, on DesignIntelligence's ranking of programs accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board. Additionally, DesignIntelligence's ten-year median ranking ranks the program 2nd, tied with Yale University. * denotes tie Amale Andraos - Founder of WORKac Architects and Current Dean Barry Bergdoll - Former Philip Johnson Chief Curator of Architecture and Design, MoMA Lise Anne Couture - Founder of Asymptote Architecture Andrew Dolkart - James Marston Fitch Professor of Historic Preservation.
Former Director of the Historic Preservation Program Kenneth Frampton- Ware Professor of Architecture Mario Gooden Juan Herreros - Founder of Abalos & Herreros Steven Holl Andrés Jaque Karla Maria Rothstein - Director of Columbia University's DeathLAB. Boring Peter Cook Member of Archigram Harvey Wiley Corbett Mark Cousins - Director of the History/ Theory Department at the AA London Manuel de Landa Neil Denari Hernan Diaz Alonso James Marston Fitch Frank Gehry Romaldo Giurgola Percival Goodman Alfred Dwight Foster Hamlin Wallace Harrison Thomas Hastings Henry Hornbostel Bjarke Ingels Gerhard Kallmann Ada Karmi-Melamede Austin W. Lord - Dean 1912-15 Greg Lynn Peter Marcuse Charles Follen McKim Michael McKinnell James Stewart Polshek - designed the William Jefferson Clinton Presidential Center in Little Rock, Arkansas Hani Rashid - Asymptote Jaquelin T. Robertson Michael Sorkin Robert A. M. Stern - Dean of Yale School of Architecture Marc Tsurumaki Raymond Unwin William Robert Ware - designed numerous Venetian Gothic buildings for Harvard University Michael Webb - member of Archigram Lauretta VinciarelliFor a comprehensive list of individuals associated with Columbia University as a whole, see the List of Columbia University people.
Max W. Strang Miami based architect known for his Regional Modernist design and waterfront residential homes. In 2013, Strang received the Silver Medal from the Miami Chapter of the American Institute of Architects Max Abramovitz – 1961 Rome Prize. Boring – was an American architect.
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Santiago, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas. It is the center of Chile's largest and most densely populated conurbation, the Santiago Metropolitan Region, whose total population is 7 million; the city is located in the country's central valley. Most of the city lies between 500 650 m above mean sea level. Founded in 1541 by the Spanish conqueror Pedro de Valdivia, Santiago has been the capital city of Chile since colonial times; the city has a downtown core of 19th-century neoclassical architecture and winding side-streets, dotted by art deco, neo-gothic, other styles. Santiago's cityscape is shaped by several stand-alone hills and the fast-flowing Mapocho River, lined by parks such as Parque Forestal; the Andes Mountains can be seen from most points in the city. These mountains contribute to a considerable smog problem during winter; the city outskirts are surrounded by vineyards and Santiago is within an hour of both the mountains and the Pacific Ocean.
Santiago is the cultural and financial center of Chile and is home to the regional headquarters of many multinational corporations. The Chilean executive and judiciary are located in Santiago, but Congress meets in nearby Valparaíso. Santiago is named after the biblical figure St. James. Santiago will host the 2023 Pan American Games. In Chile, there are several entities which bear the name of "Santiago" that are confused; the Commune of Santiago, sometimes referred to as "downtown" or "Central Santiago", is an administrative division that comprises the area occupied by the city during its colonial period. The commune, administered by the Municipality of Santiago and headed by a mayor, is part of the Santiago Province headed by a provincial governor, in itself a subdivision of the Santiago Metropolitan Region headed by an intendant. Despite these classifications, when the term "Santiago" is used without another descriptor, it refers to what is known as Greater Santiago, a territorial extension defined by its urban continuity that includes the Commune of Santiago in addition to 36 other communes, which together comprise the majority of the Santiago Province and some areas of neighboring provinces.
The city and region's demonym is santiaguinas. According to certain archaeological investigations, it is believed that the first human groups reached the Santiago basin in the 10th millennium BC; the groups were nomadic hunter-gatherers, who traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during the time of the Andean snowmelt. About the year 800, the first sedentary inhabitants began to settle due to the formation of agricultural communities along the Mapocho River maize and beans, the domestication of camelids in the area; the villages established in the areas belonging to the Picunches or Promaucae people, were subject to the Inca Empire throughout the late fifteenth century and into the early sixteenth century. The Incas settled in the valley of mitimaes, the main installation settled in the center of the present city, with strongholds such as Huaca de Chena and the sanctuary of El Plomo hill; the area would have served as a basis for the failed Inca expeditions southward road junction as the Inca Trail.
Having been sent by Francisco Pizarro from Peru and having made the long journey from Cuzco, Extremadura conquistador Pedro de Valdivia reached the valley of the Mapocho on 13 December 1540. The hosts of Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill and began to interact with the Picunche people who inhabited the area. Valdivia summoned the chiefs of the area to a parliament, where he explained his intention to found a city on behalf of the king Carlos I of Spain, which would be the capital of his governorship of Nueva Extremadura; the natives accepted and recommended the foundation of the town on a small island between two branches of the river next to a small hill called Huelén. On 12 February 1541 Valdivia founded the city of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo in honor of St. James, patron saint of Spain, near the Huelén, renamed by the conqueror as "St. Lucia". Following colonial rule, Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new town to master builder Pedro de Gamboa, who would design the city grid layout.
In the center of the city, Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayor, around which various plots for the Cathedral and the governor's house were selected. In total, eight blocks from north to south, ten from east to west, were built; each solar was given to the settlers, who built houses of straw. Valdivia left months to the south with his troops, beginning the War of Arauco. Santiago was left unprotected; the indigenous hosts of Michimalonco used this to their advantage, attacked the fledgling city. On 11 September 1541, the city was destroyed by the natives, but the 55-strong Spanish Garrison managed to defend the fort; the resistance was led by a mistress to Valdivia. When she realized they were being overrun, she ordered the execution of all native prisoners, proceeded to put their heads on pikes and threw a few heads to the natives. In face of this barbaric act, the natives dispersed in terror; the city would be rebuilt, giving prominence to the newly founded Concepción, where the Royal Audiencia of Chile was founded in 1565.
However, the constant danger faced by Concepción, due to its proximity to the War of Arauco and
École normale supérieure (Paris)
The École normale supérieure is one of the French grandes écoles and a school of PSL University since 2010. It was conceived during the French Revolution and was intended to provide the Republic with a new body of professors, trained in the critical spirit and secular values of the Enlightenment, it has since developed into an institution which has become a platform for a select few of France's students to pursue careers in government and academia. Founded in 1794 and reorganised by Napoleon, ENS has two main sections and a competitive selection process consisting of written and oral examinations. During their studies, ENS students hold the status of paid civil servants; the principal goal of ENS is the training of professors and public administrators. Among its alumni there are 13 Nobel Prize laureates including 8 in Physics, 12 Fields Medalists, more than half the recipients of the CNRS's Gold Medal, several hundred members of the Institut de France, scores of politicians and statesmen; the school has achieved particular recognition in the fields of mathematics and physics as one of France's foremost scientific training grounds, along with notability in the human sciences as the spiritual birthplace of authors such as Julien Gracq, Jean Giraudoux, Assia Djebar, Charles Péguy, philosophers such as Henri Bergson, Jean-Paul Sartre, Louis Althusser, Simone Weil, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Alain Badiou, social scientists such as Émile Durkheim, Raymond Aron, Pierre Bourdieu, "French theorists" such as Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida.
The school's students are referred to as normaliens. The ENS is a grande école and, as such, is not part of the mainstream university system, although it maintains extensive connections with it; the vast majority of the academic staff hosted at ENS belong to external academic institutions such as the CNRS, the EHESS and the University of Paris. This mechanism for constant scientific turnover allows ENS to benefit from a continuous stream of researchers in all fields. ENS full professorships are competitive. Generalistic in its recruitment and organisation, the ENS is the only grande école in France to have departments of research in all the natural and human sciences, its status as one of the foremost centres of French research has led to its model being replicated elsewhere, in France, in Italy, in Romania, in China and in former French colonies such as Morocco, Mali and Cameroon. The current institution finds its roots in the creation of the Ecole normale de l'an III by the post-revolutionary National Convention led by Robespierre in 1794.
The school was created based on a recommendation by Joseph Lakanal and Dominique-Joseph Garat, who were part of the commission on public education. The Ecole normale was intended as the core of a planned centralised national education system; the project was conceived as a way to reestablish trust between the Republic and the country's elites, alienated to some degree by the Reign of Terror. The decree establishing the school, issued on 9 brumaire, states in its first article that "There will be established in Paris an Ecole normale, from all the parts of the Republic, citizens educated in the useful sciences shall be called upon to learn, from the best professors in all the disciplines, the art of teaching." The inaugural course was given on 20 January 1795 and the last on 19 May of the same year at the Museum of Natural History. The goal of these courses was to train a body of teachers for all the secondary schools in the country and thereby to ensure a homogenous education for all; these courses covered all the existing sciences and humanities and were given by scholars such as: scientists Monge, Daubenton and philosophers Bernardin de Saint-Pierre and Volney were some of the teachers.
The school was closed as a result of the arrival of the Consulate but this Ecole normale was to serve as a basis when the school was founded for the second time by Napoleon I in 1808. On 17 March 1808, Napoleon created by decree a pensionnat normal within the imperial University of France charged with "training in the art of teaching the sciences and the humanities"; the establishment was opened in its strict code including a mandatory uniform. By a sister establishment had been created by Napoleon in Pisa under the name of Scuola normale superiore, which continues to exist today and still has close ties to the Paris school. Up to 1818, the students are handpicked by the academy inspectors based on their results in the secondary school. However, the "pensionnat" created by Napoleon came to be perceived under the Restoration as a nexus of liberal thought and was suppressed by then-minister of public instruction Denis-Luc Frayssinous in 1824. An École préparatoire was created on 9 March 1826 at the site of collège Louis-le-Grand.
This date can be taken as the definitive date of creation of the current school. After the July Revolution, the school regained its original name of École normale and in 1845 was renamed École normale supérieure. During the 1830s, under the direction of philosopher Victor Cousin, the school enhanced its status as an institution to prepare the agrégation by expanding the duration of study to three years, was divided into its present-day "