Christina Hull Paxson is an economist, public health expert, the current President of Brown University. She was the Hughes Rogers Professor of Economics & Public Affairs at Princeton University as well as the Dean of Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. In March 2012 Paxson was elected the 19th president of Brown University, she succeeded Ruth Simmons on July 1, 2012 and was inaugurated on October 27, 2012. After spending her childhood in Forest Hills, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Paxson received her B. A. from Swarthmore College in 1982, where she majored in Economics, minored in English and Philosophy. A graduate student at Columbia University's Business School, Paxson transferred to Columbia's Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, receiving her M. A. and Ph. D. in economics, in 1985 and 1987 with a focus on labor. In 2000, she founded the Center for Health and Wellbeing at Princeton, an interdisciplinary research center based in the Woodrow Wilson School, she served as the chairman of Princeton’s Economics Department in academic year 2008–09.
She was the founding director of an NIA Center for the Economics and Demography of Aging at Princeton. During her time at Princeton, Paxson served as a visiting professor at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School. Paxson's most recent research focuses on the impact of childhood health and circumstances on economic and health outcomes over the lifecourse. Paxson has been a Senior Editor of The Future of Children, an interdisciplinary journal that works to build a bridge between cutting edge social science research and the policy community. In 2013, Paxson wrote a New Republic op-ed, arguing for ongoing relevance of the humanities from an economist's perspective. Paxson has maintained numerous institutional affiliations: in addition to being a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, she was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2017; the previous year, she became a member of the Board of Directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, in 2019 was named deputy chair of that organization.
In 2018, Paxson received an honorary doctorate from Williams College. She has been a member of the Kol Emet congregation, a Jewish Reconstructionist synagogue, committed to the growth of a spiritually and intellectually engaging Judaism. “Stature and Status: Height and Labor Market Outcomes”, Journal of Political Economy, 116: 499–532, June 2008. “Racial Disparities in Childhood Asthma in the US: Evidence from the National Health Interview Survey, 1997–2003”, Pediatrics 117: e868-e877, May 2006. “Orphans in Africa: Parental Death and School Enrollment”, Demography 41, pp. 483–508, August 2004. “Economic Status and Health in Childhood: The Origins of the Gradient”, American Economic Review 92, December 2002. “Economies of Scale, Household Size, the Demand for Food”, Journal of Political Economy 106: 897–930, October 1998. “Intertemporal Choice and Inequality”, Journal of Political Economy 102: 437–467, 1994. “Consumption and Income Seasonality in Thailand,” Journal of Political Economy 101: 39–72, February 1993.
“Using Weather Variability to Estimate the Response of Savings to Transitory Income in Thailand,” American Economic Review 82, March 1992. "Causes and Consequences of Early Life Health" Demography 47: S65-S85, March 2010. "The Long Reach of Childhood Health and Circumstance: Evidence from the Whitehall II Study", Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society 121: F183-F204, 2008. "The Impact of the AIDS Pandemic on Health Services in Africa: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys", Demography 48: 675-697, May 2009. "Making Sense of the Labor Market Height Premium: Evidence From the British Household Panel Survey", Economics Letters 102: 174-176, March 2008. "The Income Gradient in Children's Health: A Comment on Currie and Wheatley Price", Journal of Health Economics 27, 801-807, October 2007 "Socioeconomic Status and Health in Childhood: A Comment on Chen and Matthews", Social Science & Medicine, 189-214 "From Cradle to Grave? The Lasting Impact of Childhood Health and Circumstance", Journal of Health Economics 24, 365-389.
Brown University Office of the President Christina Paxson Biography from Brown University Paxson Curriculum Vitae Publications on the National Bureau of Economic Research
Teachers College, Columbia University
Teachers College, Columbia University is a graduate school of education and psychology in New York City. Founded in 1887, it has served as the Faculty and Department of Education of Columbia University since its affiliation in 1898. Teachers College is the largest graduate school of education in the United States. For 2020, U. S. News & World Report ranked Teachers College #7 among all graduate schools of education in the United States. In 2008, 2002, 1998, 1997, 1996 Teachers College was ranked #1 by the publication. Teachers College alumni and faculty have held prominent positions in academia, music, non-profit and social science research. In general, Teachers College has over 90,000 alumni in more than 30 countries. Notable alumni and former faculty include John Dewey, Carl Rogers, Margaret Mead, Georgia O'Keeffe, Edward Thorndike, Maxine Greene, William Heard Kilpatrick, Donna Shalala, William Schuman, Lee Huan, Shirley Chisholm, Mary Adelaide Nutting, Zhang Boling, Hamden L. Forkner, E. Gordon Gee, Chester Earl Merrow.
In the 1880s, the Kitchen Education Association was founded by philanthropist Grace Hoadley Dodge, the daughter of a wealthy businessman William Dodge. The association's focus was to replace miniature kitchen utensils for other toys that were age appropriate for kindergarten-aged girls. In 1884, the KEA was rebranded to the Industrial Education Association, in the spirit of widening its mission to boys and parents as well. In 1887 William Vanderbilt Jr. offered a substantial financial sum and with the support of Dodge appointed, future longest-serving president of Columbia University and Nobel Peace Prize recipient, Nicholas Murray Butler as new president of the IEA. The IEA decided to provide schooling for the teachers of the poor children of New York City. Thus, in 1887-88, it employed six instructors and enrolled thirty-six juniors in its inaugural class as well as eighty-six special students. In order to reflect the broadening mission of education beyond the original philanthropic intent set forth by Dodge, the IEA changed its name to the New York School for the Training of Teachers.
In 1892, the school's name was again changed to Teachers College. The curriculum combined a humanitarian concern to help others with a scientific approach to human development. Beginning as a school to prepare teachers for the children of the poor, the College affiliated with Columbia University in 1898 as the University's Graduate School of Education; the founders early recognized that professional teachers need reliable knowledge about the conditions under which children learn most effectively. As a result, the College's program from the start included such fundamental subjects as educational psychology and educational sociology; the founders insisted that education must be combined with clear ideas about ethics and the nature of a good society. As the number of school children increased during the twentieth century, the problems of managing the schools became more complex; the college took on the challenge and instituted programs of study in areas of administration and politics. Other programs developed in such emerging fields as clinical and counseling psychology, organizational psychology, developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, curriculum development, instructional technology, media studies and school health care.
Teachers College was associated with philosopher and public intellectual John Dewey, who served as president of the American Psychological Association and the American Philosophical Association, was a professor at the facility from 1904 until his retirement in 1930. The school offers Master of Arts, Master of Education, Master of Science, Doctor of Education, Doctor of Philosophy degrees in over sixty programs of study. Despite the College's name, less than one-third of students are preparing to become teachers. Graduates go on to pursue careers in psychology and behavioral sciences and health promotion, educational policy, technology and comparative education, as well as educational leadership. According to former president Susan Fuhrman, Teachers College, Columbia University provides solutions to the difficult problems of urban education, reaffirming its original mission in providing a new kind of education for those left most in need by society or circumstance; the college continues its collaborative research with urban and suburban school systems that strengthen teaching in such fundamental areas as reading, science and the arts.
Teachers College houses a wide range of applied psychology degrees, including one of the nation's leading programs in Organizational Psychology. Every year 24 Captains from the United States Military Academy at West Point are selected for the Eisenhower Leader Development Program and complete the Organizational Psychology M. A. Program to become Tactical Officers at West Point. To date, Columbia is the only school in the Ivy League to offe
Paul Benjamin Auster is an American writer and film director. His notable works include The New York Trilogy, Moon Palace, The Music of Chance, The Book of Illusions, The Brooklyn Follies, Sunset Park, Winter Journal, 4 3 2 1, his books have been translated into more than forty languages. Paul Auster was born in Newark, New Jersey, to Jewish middle-class parents of Polish descent and Samuel Auster, he grew up in South Orange, New Jersey and Newark and graduated from Columbia High School in Maplewood. After graduating from Columbia University with B. A. and M. A. degrees in 1970, he moved to Paris, France where he earned a living translating French literature. Since returning to the U. S. in 1974, he has published poems and novels, as well as translations of French writers such as Stéphane Mallarmé and Joseph Joubert. Following his acclaimed debut work, a memoir entitled The Invention of Solitude, Auster gained renown for a series of three loosely connected stories published collectively as The New York Trilogy.
Although these books allude to the detective genre they are not conventional detective stories organized around a mystery and a series of clues. Rather, he uses the detective form to address existential issues and questions of identity, space and literature, creating his own distinctively postmodern form in the process. According to Auster, "...the Trilogy grows directly out of The Invention of Solitude."The search for identity and personal meaning has permeated Auster's publications, many of which concentrate on the role of coincidence and random events or the relationships between people and their peers and environment. Auster's heroes find themselves obliged to work as part of someone else's inscrutable and larger-than-life schemes. In 1995, Auster co-directed the films Smoke and Blue in the Face. Auster's more recent works, from Oracle Night to 4 3 2 1, have met with critical acclaim, he was on the PEN American Center Board of Trustees from 2004 to 2009, Vice President during 2005 to 2007.
In 2012, Auster was quoted as saying in an interview that he would not visit Turkey, in protest of its treatment of journalists. The Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan replied: "As if we need you! Who cares if you come or not?" Auster responded: "According to the latest numbers gathered by International PEN, there are nearly one hundred writers imprisoned in Turkey, not to speak of independent publishers such as Ragıp Zarakolu, whose case is being watched by PEN Centers around the world". Auster's most recent book, A Life in Words, was published in October 2017 by Seven Stories Press, it brings together three years of conversations with the Danish scholar I. B. Siegumfeldt about each one of his works, both fiction and non-fiction, it is a primary source for understanding Auster's approach to his work. Auster is willing to give Iranian translators permission to write Persian versions of his works in exchange for a small fee. Much of the early scholarship about Auster's work saw links between it and the theories of such French writers as Jacques Lacan, Jacques Derrida, others.
Auster himself has denied these influences and has asserted in print that "I've read only one short essay by Lacan, the "Purloined Letter," in the Yale French Studies issue on poststructuralism—all the way back in 1966." Other scholars have seen influences in Auster's work of the American transcendentalists of the nineteenth century, as exemplified by Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. The transcendentalists believed that the symbolic order of civilization has separated us from the natural order of the world, that by moving into nature, as Thoreau did, as he described in Walden, it would be possible to return to this natural order. Edgar Allan Poe, Samuel Beckett, Nathaniel Hawthorne have had a strong influence on Auster's writing. Auster has referred to characters from Poe and Hawthorne in his novels, for example William Wilson in City of Glass or Hawthorne's Fanshawe in The Locked Room, both from The New York Trilogy. Paul Auster's reappearing subjects are: coincidence frequent portrayal of an ascetic life a sense of imminent disaster an obsessive writer as central character or narrator loss of the ability to understand loss of language loss of money – having a lot, but losing it little by little without earning some new money any more depiction of daily and ordinary life failure absence of a father writing and story telling, metafiction intertextuality American history American space "Over the past twenty-five years," opined Michael Dirda in The New York Review of Books in 2008, "Paul Auster has established one of the most distinctive niches in contemporary literature."
Dirda has extolled his loaded virtues in The Washington Post: Ever since City of Glass, the first volume of his New York Trilogy, Auster has perfected a limpid, confessional style used it to set disoriented heroes in a familiar world suffused with mounting uneasiness, vague menace and possible hallucination. His plots – drawing on elements from suspense stories, existential récit, autobiography – keep readers turning the pages, but sometimes end by leaving them uncertain about what they've just been through. Writing about Auster's most recent novel, 4 3 2 1, Booklist critic Donna Seaman remarked:Auster has been turning readers' heads for three decades, bending the conventions of storytelling, blurring the line between fiction and autobiography, infu
Bernard Malamud was an American novelist and short story writer. Along with Saul Bellow, Joseph Heller, Philip Roth, he was one of the best known American Jewish authors of the 20th century, his baseball novel, The Natural, was adapted into a 1984 film starring Robert Redford. His 1966 novel The Fixer, about antisemitism in the Russian Empire, won both the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize. Bernard Malamud was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Bertha and Max Malamud, Russian Jewish immigrants. A brother, born in 1917, lived a hard and lonely life and died in his fifties. Malamud entered adolescence at the start of the Great Depression. From 1928 to 1932, Bernard attended Erasmus Hall High School in Brooklyn. During his youth, he enjoyed relating their plots to his school friends, he was fond of Charlie Chaplin's comedies. Malamud worked for a year at $4.50 a day as a teacher-in-training, before attending college on a government loan. He received his B. A. degree from City College of New York in 1936.
In 1942, he obtained a master's degree from Columbia University. He was excused from military service in World War II because he was the sole support of his widower father, he first worked for the Bureau of the Census in Washington D. C. taught English in New York high school night classes for adults. Starting in 1949, Malamud taught four sections of freshman composition each semester at Oregon State University, an experience fictionalized in his 1961 novel A New Life; because he lacked the Ph. D. he was not allowed to teach literature courses, for a number of years his rank was that of instructor. In those days, OSC, a land grant university, placed little emphasis on the teaching of humanities or the writing of fiction. While at OSC, he devoted three days out of every week to his writing, emerged as a major American author. In 1961, he left OSC to teach creative writing at Bennington College, a position he held until retirement. In 1967, he was made a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
In 1942, Malamud met Ann De Chiara, an Italian-American Roman Catholic, a 1939 Cornell University graduate. They married on November 1945, despite the opposition of their respective parents. Ann reviewed his writing. Ann and Bernard had two children and Janna. Janna Malamud Smith is the author of a memoir about her father, titled My Father Is A Book. Raised Jewish, Malamud was in adulthood an agnostic humanist. Malamud died in Manhattan in 1986, at the age of 71, he is buried in Mt. Auburn Cemetery in Massachusetts. In his writing, Malamud depicts an honest picture of the despair and difficulties of the immigrants to America, their hope of reaching their dreams despite their poverty. Malamud wrote and carefully, he is four collections of short stories. The posthumously published Complete Stories is 629 pages long. Maxim Lieber served as his literary agent in 1942 and 1945, he completed his first novel, The Light Sleeper, in 1948, but burned the manuscript. His first published novel was The Natural, which has become one of his best remembered and most symbolic works.
The story traces the life of Roy Hobbs, an unknown middle-aged baseball player who achieves legendary status with his stellar talent. This novel was made into a 1984 movie starring Robert Redford. Malamud's second novel, The Assistant, set in New York and drawing on Malamud's own childhood, is an account of the life of Morris Bober, a Jewish immigrant who owns a grocery store in Brooklyn. Although he is struggling financially, Bober takes in a drifter of dubious character; this novel was followed by The Magic Barrel, his first published collection of short stories. It won Malamud the first of two National Book Awards. In 1967, his novel The Fixer, about anti-semitism in the Russian Empire, won both the National Book Award for Fiction and the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, his other novels include Dubin's Lives, a powerful evocation of middle age which uses biography to recreate the narrative richness of its protagonists' lives, The Tenants a meta-narrative on Malamud's own writing and creative struggles, set in New York City, deals with racial issues and the emergence of black/African American literature in the American 1970s landscape.
Malamud was renowned for his short stories oblique allegories set in a dreamlike urban ghetto of immigrant Jews. Of Malamud, Flannery O'Connor wrote: "I have discovered a short-story writer, better than any of them, including myself." He published his first stories in 1943, "Benefit Performance" in Threshold and "The Place Is Different Now" in American Preface. In the early 1950s, his stories began appearing in Harper's Bazaar, Partisan Review, Commentary. Writing in the second half of the twentieth century, Malamud was well aware of the social problems of his day: rootlessness, abuse and more, but he depicted love as redemptive and sacrifice as uplifting. In his writings, success depends on cooperation between antagonists. For example, in "The Mourners" landlord and tenant learn from each other's anguish. In "The Magic Barrel", the matchmaker worries about his "fallen" daughter, while the daughter and the rabbinic student are drawn together by their need for love and salvation. Philip Roth: "A man of stern morality," Malamud was driven by "the need to consider long
Peter Francis Straub is an American novelist and poet. His horror fiction has received numerous literary honors such as the Bram Stoker Award, World Fantasy Award, International Horror Guild Award. Straub was born in Milwaukee, the son of Elvena and Gordon Anthony Straub. At the age of seven, Straub was struck by a car, he was hospitalized for several months, temporarily used a wheelchair after being released until he had re-learned how to walk. Straub has said. Straub read voraciously from an early age, he attended Milwaukee Country Day School on a scholarship, during his time there, began writing. Straub earned an honors B. A. in English at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1965, an MA at Columbia University a year later. He taught English at Milwaukee Country Day moved to Dublin, Ireland, in 1969 to work on a Ph. D. and to start writing professionally. After mixed success with two attempts at literary mainstream novels in the mid-1970s, Straub dabbled in the supernatural for the first time with Julia.
He wrote If You Could See Me Now, came to widespread public attention with his fifth novel, Ghost Story, a critical success and was loosely adapted into a 1981 film starring Fred Astaire. Several horror novels followed, with growing success, including The Talisman and Black House, two fantasy-horror collaborations with Straub's long-time friend and fellow author Stephen King. After a fallow period, Straub re-emerged in 1988 with a nonsupernatural Vietnam novel. Koko was followed in the early'90s by the related novels Mystery and The Throat, which together with Koko make up the "Blue Rose Trilogy"; these complex and intertwined novels extended Straub's explorations into metafiction and unreliable narrators. The ambitious mainstream thriller The Hellfire Club was published in 1996. Mr. X followed in 1999 with a doppelgänger theme. In 2001, Straub and King reteamed for Black House, a loose sequel to The Talisman tying that book in with King's Dark Tower Series. 2003 saw the publication of a new Straub novel Lost Boy, Lost Girl followed by the related In the Night Room.
Both of these novels won Stoker awards. Straub edited the Library of America volume H. P. Lovecraft: Tales, his novel Mr. X had paid tribute to Lovecraft. Straub has published several books of poetry. My Life in Pictures appeared in 1971 as part of a series of six poetry pamphlets Straub published with his friend Thomas Tessier under the Seafront Press imprint while living in Dublin. In 1972 the more substantial chapbook Ishmael was published by Turret Books in London. Straub's third book of poetry, Open Air, appeared that same year from Irish University Press; the collection Leeson Park and Belsize Square: Poems 1970 – 1975 was published by Underwood-Miller in October 1983. This collection reprints much of Ishmael along with uncollected poems, but none of the poems from Open Air. A critical essay on Straub's horror work can be found in S. T. Joshi's book The Modern Weird Tale. At the Foot of the Story Tree by Bill Sheehan discusses Straub's work before 2000. Straub sits on the contributing editorial board of the literary journal Conjunctions, he guest-edited Conjunctions: 39, an issue on New Wave Fabulism.
In 2007, Straub's personal papers were acquired by the Fales Library at New York University. February 2010 saw the release of A Dark Matter. In 2016, co-author Stephen King said that he and Straub have plans to write a third Talisman book in the future. King says that the collaboration for the series was “natural,” and that the two were excited to work together. On Straub’s contribution to horror fiction, King says, “he brought a poet’s sensibility to the field, creating a synthesis of horror and beauty” and “he writes a beautiful prose line that features narrative clarity, sterling characterization, surprising bursts of humor.” 1973: Marriages 1974: Under Venus 1975: Julia 1977: If You Could See Me Now 1979: Ghost Story 1980: Shadowland 1983: Floating Dragon 1984: The Talisman 1988: Koko 1990: Mystery 1993: The Throat 1995: The Hellfire Club 1999: Mr. X 2001: Black House 2003: Lost Boy, Lost Girl 2004: In the Night Room 2010: A Dark Matter 1990: Houses Without Doors 2000: Magic Terror 2007: 5 Stories.
Neil deGrasse Tyson
Neil deGrasse Tyson is an American astrophysicist and science communicator. Since 1996, he has been the Frederick P. Rose Director of the Hayden Planetarium at the Rose Center for Earth and Space in New York City; the center is part of the American Museum of Natural History, where Tyson founded the Department of Astrophysics in 1997 and has been a research associate in the department since 2003. Tyson studied at the University of Texas at Austin and Columbia University. From 1991 to 1994 he was a postdoctoral research associate at Princeton University. In 1994, he joined the Hayden Planetarium as a staff scientist and the Princeton faculty as a visiting research scientist and lecturer. In 1996, he became director of the planetarium and oversaw its $210 million reconstruction project, completed in 2000. From 1995 to 2005, Tyson wrote monthly essays in the "Universe" column for Natural History magazine, some of which were published in his books Death by Black Hole and Astrophysics for People in a Hurry.
During the same period, he wrote a monthly column in StarDate magazine, answering questions about the universe under the pen name "Merlin". Material from the column appeared in his books Merlin's Tour of the Universe and Just Visiting This Planet. Tyson served on a 2001 government commission on the future of the U. S. aerospace industry, on the 2004 Moon and Beyond commission. He was awarded the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal in the same year. From 2006 to 2011, he hosted the television show NOVA ScienceNow on PBS. Since 2009, Tyson has hosted the weekly podcast StarTalk. A spin-off called StarTalk, began airing on National Geographic in 2015. In 2014, he hosted the television series Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, a successor to Carl Sagan's 1980 series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage; the U. S. National Academy of Sciences awarded Tyson the Public Welfare Medal in 2015 for his "extraordinary role in exciting the public about the wonders of science." Tyson was born in Manhattan into a family living in the Bronx.
His mother, Sunchita Maria Tyson, was a gerontologist for the U. S. Department of Health and Welfare, is of Puerto Rican descent, his African-American father, Cyril deGrasse Tyson, was a sociologist, human resource commissioner for New York City mayor John Lindsay, the first Director of Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited. Tyson has two siblings: Lynn Antipas Tyson. Tyson's middle name, deGrasse, is from the maiden name of his paternal grandmother, born as Altima de Grasse in the British West Indies island of Nevis. Tyson grew up in the Castle Hill neighborhood of the Bronx, in Riverdale. From kindergarten throughout high school, Tyson attended public schools in the Bronx: P. S. 36, P. S. 81, the Riverdale Kingsbridge Academy, The Bronx High School of Science where he was captain of the wrestling team and editor-in-chief of the Physical Science Journal. His interest in astronomy began at the age of nine after visiting the sky theater of the Hayden Planetarium, he recalled that "so strong was that imprint that I'm certain that I had no choice in the matter, that in fact, the universe called me."
During high school, Tyson attended astronomy courses offered by the Hayden Planetarium, which he called "the most formative period" of his life. He credited Dr. Mark Chartrand III, director of the planetarium at the time, as his "first intellectual role model" and his enthusiastic teaching style mixed with humor inspired Tyson to communicate the universe to others the way he did. Tyson obsessively studied astronomy in his teen years, even gained some fame in the astronomy community by giving lectures on the subject at the age of fifteen. Astronomer Carl Sagan, a faculty member at Cornell University, tried to recruit Tyson to Cornell for undergraduate studies. In his book, The Sky Is Not the Limit, Tyson wrote: My letter of application had been dripping with an interest in the universe; the admission office, unbeknownst to me, had forwarded my application to Carl Sagan's attention. Within weeks, I received a personal letter... Tyson revisited this moment on his first episode of Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey.
Pulling out a 1975 calendar belonging to the famous astronomer, he found the day Sagan invited the 17-year-old to spend a day in Ithaca. Sagan had offered to put him up for the night. Tyson said, "I knew I wanted to become a scientist, but that afternoon, I learned from Carl the kind of person I wanted to become."Tyson chose to attend Harvard where he majored in physics and lived in Currier House. He was a member of the crew team during his freshman year, but returned to wrestling, lettering in his senior year, he was active in dance, in styles including jazz, Afro-Caribbean, Latin Ballroom. Tyson earned an AB degree in physics at Harvard College in 1980 and began his graduate work at the University of Texas at Austin, from which he received an MA degree in astronomy in 1983. By his own account, he did not spend as much time in the research lab, his professors encouraged him to consider alternate careers and the committee for his doctoral dissertation was dissolved, ending his pursuit of a doctorate from the University of Texas.
Tyson was a lecturer in astronomy at the University of Maryland from 1986 to 1987 and in 1988, he was accepted into the astronomy graduate program at Columbia University, where he earned an MPhil degree in astrophysics in 1989, a PhD degree in astrophysics in 1991 under the supervision of Professor R. Michael Rich. Rich obtained funding to support Tyson's doctoral re
William Goldman was an American novelist and screenwriter. He first came to prominence in the 1950s as a novelist before turning to screenwriting, he won Academy Awards for his screenplays Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid and All the President's Men. His other works include his thriller novel Marathon Man and comedy-fantasy novel The Princess Bride, both of which he adapted for the film versions. Author Sean Egan has described Goldman as "one of the late twentieth century's most popular storytellers." Goldman was born in Chicago and grew up in a Jewish family in the Chicago suburb of Highland Park, the son of Marion and Maurice Clarence Goldman. Goldman's father was a successful businessman, working in Chicago and in partnership, but his alcoholism sank his business, he "came home to live and he was in his pajamas for the last five years of his life," according to Goldman. His father killed himself. Goldman received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Oberlin College in 1952, he was drafted into the Army shortly after.
He knew how to type, so he was assigned to the Pentagon where he worked as a clerk. He matriculated at Columbia University, where he earned a Master of Arts degree in 1956. Throughout this period, he struggled to have them published. Goldman began to write when he took a creative-writing course in college, according to his memoir Adventures in the Screen Trade, his grades in the class were "horrible". He was an editor of Oberlin's literary magazine, he would submit short stories to the magazine anonymously, he did not intend to become a screenwriter. His main interests were poetry, short stories, novels. In 1956, he completed an MA thesis at Columbia University on the comedy of manners in America, his brother James Goldman was a playwright and screenwriter, they shared an apartment in New York with their friend John Kander. Kander was working on his PhD in music, the Goldman brothers wrote the libretto for his dissertation. Kander was the composer of more than a dozen musicals, including Cabaret and Chicago, all three of them won Academy Awards.
On 25 June 1956, Goldman began writing his first novel The Temple of Gold, completing it in less than three weeks. He sent the manuscript to agent Joe McCrindle, it sold well enough in paperback to launch Goldman on his career. He wrote his second novel Your Turn to Curtsy, My Turn to Bow in a little more than a week, it was followed by Soldier based on Goldman's time in the military. It sold well in paperback and was turned into a film, though Goldman had no involvement in the screenplay. Goldman and his brother received a grant to do some rewriting on the musical Tenderloin, they both collaborated on their own play Blood and Stanley Poole, on the A Family Affair, written with John Kander. Both plays had short runs. Goldman found that he suffered writer's block, his writer's block continued, but he had an idea for the novel No Way to Treat a Lady based on the Boston Strangler. He wrote it in two weeks, it was published under the pseudonym Harry Longbaugh—a variant spelling of the Sundance Kid's real name, which Goldman had been researching since the late 1950s.
He finished Boys and Girls Together, which became a best seller. Cliff Robertson read an early draft of No Way to Treat a Lady and hired Goldman to adapt the short story Flowers for Algernon for the movies. Before he had finished the script, Robertson recommended him to do some rewriting on the spy spoof Masquerade which Robertson was starring in. Goldman did that finished the Algernon script. However, Robertson hired Stirling Silliphant instead to work on what became Charly. Producer Elliot Kastner had optioned the film rights to Girls Together. Goldman suggested that Kastner make a film of the Lew Archer novels of Ross Macdonald and offered to do an adaptation. Kastner agreed, Goldman chose The Moving Target; the result was a big hit. Goldman returned to novels, writing The Thing of It Is.... He taught at Princeton and wished to write something, but he could not come up with an idea for a novel. Instead, he wrote Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, his first original screenplay, which he had been researching for eight years.
He sold it for $400,000, the highest price paid for an original screenplay at that time. The movie was released in 1969, a critical and commercial success which earned Goldman an Oscar for Best Original Screenplay; the money enabled Goldman to take some time off and research the non-fiction The Season: A Candid Look at Broadway. Goldman adapted In the Spring the War Ended into a screenplay. Neither were scripts of The Thing of It Is, which came close to being made several times in the early 70s, Papillon, which he worked on for six months and three drafts, he returned to novels with Father's Day, a sequel to The Thing of It Is…. He wrote the screenplay for The Hot Rock. Goldman's next novel was The Princess Bride; that same year, he contracted