Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Katherine Marie Heigl is an American actress, film producer, former fashion model. She started her career as a child model with Wilhelmina Models before turning her attention to acting, making her film debut in That Night and appearing in My Father the Hero as well as Under Siege 2: Dark Territory. Heigl landed the role of Isabel Evans on The WB television series Roswell, for which she received nominations for Saturn and Teen Choice Awards. From 2005 to 2010, Heigl starred as Izzie Stevens on the ABC television medical drama Grey's Anatomy, a role which brought her significant recognition and accolades, including the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series in 2007, her best known film appearances include roles in Knocked Up, 27 Dresses, The Ugly Truth, Life As We Know It, New Year's Eve, The Big Wedding, Unforgettable. Heigl has starred in several films that have seen limited releases, including Jackie & Ryan, Home Sweet Hell, Jenny's Wedding, she portrayed the lead role on the short-lived NBC television series State of Affairs from 2014 to 2015, has lent her voice to the animated film The Nut Job and its 2017 sequel.
Additionally, Heigl has established herself as a cover model, appearing in numerous publications including Maxim, Vanity Fair and Cosmopolitan. She is married to singer Josh Kelley, with whom she has two daughters. Heigl was born in Washington, D. C. in Columbia Hospital for Women. She is the youngest of four children of Nancy, a personal manager, Paul Heigl, a financial executive, accountant, her father is of German and Irish descent, her mother is of German ancestry. Her siblings are Meg and Holt. Heigl lived in Northern Virginia and Denver, before her family moved to the town of New Canaan, when Katherine was five, where she lived the rest of her childhood. In 1986, her older brother Jason died of injuries suffered in a car accident, after being thrown from the back of a pickup truck while out for lunch with some of his high school classmates, his family donated his organs after death. Her brother's death led Heigl's parents to convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Heigl eight, was reared in that faith.
When Heigl was nine, her aunt, along with her parents, sent photos of her to a modeling agency. Within a few weeks, she was signed with Wilhelmina Models as a child model. Soon after she was signed with the agency, a client picked her for use in a magazine ad, where she made her modeling debut. At the time, Heigl was earning $75 an hour posing for Lord & Taylor catalogs; the first time Heigl appeared in a national television ad was for Cheerios cereal. Heigl made her film debut in That Night, she played Christina Sebastian in Steven Soderbergh's Depression-era drama King of the Hill before being cast in her first leading role in the 1994 comedy My Father the Hero. During this time, Heigl continued to attend New Canaan High School, balancing her film and modeling work with her academic studies. Heigl dropped out of New Canaan High School after her sophomore year to pursue her career in Hollywood. In 1995, she starred in the Steven Seagal action thriller: Dark Territory. Heigl portrayed a 16-year-old traveling by train through the mountains with her uncle Casey Ryback, an ex-SEAL counter-terrorist expert, in order to visit the grave of her deceased father.
The train is hijacked by mercenaries in Colorado. Much of her work in the film was opposite Sandra Taylor and Everett McGill. Despite an increased focus on acting, Heigl still modeled extensively, appearing in magazines such as Seventeen, she landed the lead role in Disney's made-for-television film Wish Upon a Star in 1996, portraying two body-swapping characters along with Danielle Harris. That year Heigl's parents divorced, her mother was diagnosed with cancer. After her high school graduation in 1997, Heigl moved into a four-bedroom house in Malibu Canyon, California with her mother, who became her manager. In 1998, she co-starred with Peter Fonda in a television movie re-working of the classic Shakespearean play The Tempest, set during the American Civil War, she starred in the horror film Bride of Chucky. In 1999, Heigl turned her attention to television when she accepted the role of Isabel Evans on the science fiction TV drama Roswell, a role, expanded in the show's second and third seasons.
Heigl had auditioned for all three of the show's female leads before she was cast as Isabel, an alien-human hybrid. Heigl was featured in photo essays in magazines such as Life, TV Guide, Teen as well as FHM, she appeared in the FHM and Maxim calendars, FHM's annual "100 Sexiest Women in the World", was featured in the Girls of Maxim Gallery. In May 2006, Maxim awarded her #12 on their annual Hot 100List as well as voted the 19th "Sexiest Woman in the World" by readers of FHM magazine. While Roswell was in production, Heigl worked on several films, including 100 Girls, an independent 2001 film, Valentine, a horror film starring David Boreanaz and Denise Richards. Heigl accepted a role in Ground Zero, a television thriller scheduled to be telecast that fall, based on the bestselling James Mills novel The Seventh Power, in the spring of 2001, she co-starred as a brilliant and politically-concerned college student who helps to build a nuclear device t
A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died. The treatment of widows and widowers around the world varies. A widow is a woman; the state of having lost one's spouse to death is termed widowhood. These terms are not applied to a divorcé following the death of an ex-spouse; the term widowhood can be used for either sex, at least according to some dictionaries, but the word widowerhood is listed in some dictionaries. The word viduity is used; the adjective for either sex is widowed. In societies where the husband is the sole provider, his death can leave his family destitute; the tendency for women to outlive men can compound this, as can men in many societies marrying women younger than themselves. In some patriarchal societies, widows may maintain economic independence. A woman would carry on her spouse's business and be accorded certain rights, such as entering guilds. More widows of political figures have been among the first women elected to high office in many countries, such as Corazón Aquino or Isabel Martínez de Perón.
In 19th-century Britain, widows had greater opportunity for social mobility than in many other societies. Along with the ability to ascend socio-economically, widows—who were "presumably celibate"—were much more able to challenge conventional sexual behaviour than married women in their society. In some parts of Europe, including Russia, Greece and Spain, widows used to wear black for the rest of their lives to signify their mourning, a practice that has since died out. Many immigrants from these cultures to the United States as as the 1970s have loosened this strict standard of dress to only two years of black garments. However, Orthodox Christian immigrants may wear lifelong black in the United States to signify their widowhood and devotion to their deceased husband. In other cultures, widowhood customs are stricter. Women are required to remarry within the family of their late husband after a period of mourning. With the rise of HIV/AIDS levels of infection across the globe, rituals to which women are subjected in order to be "cleansed" or accepted into her new husband's home make her susceptible to the psychological adversities that may be involved as well as imposing health risks.
It may be necessary for a woman to comply with the social customs of her area because her fiscal stature depends on it, but this custom is often abused by others as a way to keep money within the deceased spouse's family. It is uncommon for widows to challenge their treatment because they are "unaware of their rights under the modern law…because of their low status, lack of education or legal representation.". Unequal benefits and treatment received by widows compared to those received by widowers globally has spurred an interest in the issue by human rights activists; as of 2004, women in United States who were "widowed at younger ages are at greatest risk for economic hardship." Married women who are in a financially unstable household are more to become widows "because of the strong relationship between mortality and wealth." In underdeveloped and developing areas of the world, conditions for widows continue to be much more severe. However, the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, while slow, is working on proposals which will make certain types of discrimination and treatment of widows illegal in the countries that have joined CEDAW.
The phenomenon that refers to the increased mortality rate after the death of a spouse is called the widowhood effect.. It is “strongest during the first three months after a spouse's death, when they had a 66-percent increased chance of dying.” Most widows and widowers suffer from this effect during the first 3 months of their spouse's death, however they can suffer from this effect on in their life for much longer than 3 months. There remains controversy over whether women or men have worse effects from becoming widowed, studies have attempted to make their case for which side is worse off, while other studies try to show that there are no true differences based on gender and other factors are responsible for any differences. A recent study shows that holding post-materialist views provides greater levels of well-being in widowhood. "postmaterialist values not only lead to a new way of living for singles, but free singles from feeling judged in doing so, hence encourage them to adapt accordingly.
". Of all unmarried groups, widowed people benefit the most from these values. A variable, deemed important and relative to the effects of widowhood is the gender of the widow. Research has shown that the difference falls in the burden of care and how the react after the spouse's death. For example, women carry more a burden than men and are less willing to want to go through this again. After being widowed, however and women can react differently and have a change in lifestyle. A study has sought to show that women are more to yearn for their late husband if he were to be taken away suddenly. Men on the other hand tend to be more to long for their late wife if she were to die after suffering a long, terminal illness. Another change that happens to most men is. For example, without a wife there, he is more to not watch what he eats like he would if she were there. I
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
MedStar Washington Hospital Center
MedStar Washington Hospital Center is the largest private hospital in Washington, D. C. A member of MedStar Health, the not-for-profit Hospital Center is licensed for 926 beds. Health services in primary and tertiary care are offered to adult and neonatal patients, it serves as a teaching hospital for Georgetown University School of Medicine. The Hospital Center occupies a 47-acre campus in Northwest Washington that it shares with three other medical facilities. Adjacent to MedStar Washington Hospital Center are the National Rehabilitation Hospital and the central branch of Children's National Medical Center; the MedStar Washington Hospital Center was founded on March 10, 1958, when three specialty hospitals: Central Dispensary and Emergency Center, Episcopal Eye and Throat Hospital and Garfield Hospital merged into one. On May 7, 1998, Medlantic Healthcare Group, the Hospital Center's not-for-profit parent company, merged with Helix Health, a group of four Baltimore, MD-based hospitals, making the combined company the largest health care provider in the mid-Atlantic region.
Helix/Medlantic was renamed MedStar Health on February 1, 1999. The Washington Hospital Center Heart program is a national leader in the research and treatment of cardiovascular disease. One of the Washington area's first heart transplants was done at the Hospital Center on May 22, 1987. Washington Hospital Center is home to Washington's only 256-slice Cardiac CT scanner and has the only onsite 24/7 cardiac catheterization team in the region, its Ventricular Assist Device program is certified by The Joint Commission. The MedStar Heart Institute at Washington Hospital Center has forged an alliance with the Cleveland Clinic Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart & Vascular Institute. In addition to its cardiac care specialties, the Hospital Center is respected as a top facility in other areas including cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, women's services and burn. MedStar Washington Hospital Center’s neurosciences program offers the full range of surgical and minimally invasive treatment and operates the first JCAHO-accredited Primary Stroke Center in the District.
The Hospital Center is home to the region's adult burn center. The Washington Cancer Institute is the District's largest cancer care provider, treating more cancer patients than any other program in the nation's capital; the Cancer Institute diagnosed more than 2,494 new cases during fiscal year 2008. There were more than 76,464 outpatient visits and more than 2,352 inpatient admissions during that period. WCI provides comprehensive, interdisciplinary care including surgical, radiation and medical oncology services as well as counseling for patients and families, cancer education, community outreach program and clinical research trials; the Cancer Institute is home to the area's only Gamma Knife and has the Trilogy Linear Accelerator. The Hospital Center's transplantation program ranks among the top five percent in the nation for patient outcomes and exceeds the national average; the program for kidney and heart is one of the busiest in the mid-Atlantic region. The Hospital Center's most wide-reaching presence is its MedSTAR Transport air ambulance service, which, as of 2008 had carried nearly 50,000 patients since its inception in 1983.
The American College of Surgeons recognizes the MedSTAR Trauma program as one of the nation's best Level I shock/trauma units. In fiscal year 2011, 40,192 inpatients were served—including 4,079 births—and 411,514 outpatients; the Hospital Center has a medical/dental staff of 1,407. There were nearly 25,000 cardiac catheterization procedures performed during FY 2012. There were 1,670 open-heart surgeries and ten heart transplants performed during the fiscal year 2011. There were 108 kidney transplants, four combination kidney/pancreas transplants and no pancreas transplant performed during fiscal year 2011. There were 2,157 helicopter transports and 705 trauma unit visits in FY 2011. There were 87,114 Emergency Department visits. Washington Hospital Center provided over $22 million in charity care during FY 2011. In 2012–13, the MedStar Washington Hospital Center was named among “America’s Best Hospitals” for Cardiology & Heart Surgery by U. S. News & World Report in the magazine’s 22nd annual survey of nearly 5,000 health care facilities.
Washington Hospital Center was the only D. C. hospital to be ranked in the areas of Cardiology & Heart Surgery in 2012/13 by U. S. News and World Report. Only 148 medical centers in the U. S. were ranked in one or more of 16 specialties designated in U. S. News & World Report's survey; the Washington D. C. metropolitan area, of which the Washington Hospital Center is part of, includes Alexandria and Arlington County, Va. and Bethesda and Rockville, Md. There are 59 hospitals in this area, of these, the Washington Hospital Center is ranked number two just below Inova Fairfax Hospital. ER One is a prototype hospital envisioned for the Washington D. C. area. The hospital is an all-scenarios facility, designed to handle, for example, a huge influx of contaminated patients from a terrorist attack; the emergency department can accommodate 220 patients in 24 hours, a figure that can double in emergency situations. ER One is capable of managing chemical, biological and radiological catastrophes. Additionally, ER One is a research facility, not just for doing research in the traditional hospital research sense, but as a prototype hospital, in order to research the design of hospitals.
Design elements include mass decontamination, surge capacity, preparedne
St. Elizabeths Hospital
St. Elizabeths Hospital opened in 1855 as the first federally operated psychiatric hospital in the United States. Housing over 8,000 patients at its peak in the 1950s, the hospital at one point had a functioning medical-surgical unit, a school of nursing, accredited internships and psychiatric residencies, its campus was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1990. St. Elizabeths is in southeast Washington, D. C. Since 2010, hospital functions have been limited to a portion of the east campus operated by the District of Columbia Department of Mental Health; the remainder of the east campus is slated for redevelopment by the District of Columbia, which owns the site. The west campus is owned by the federal government and is being redeveloped for use as headquarters for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security and its child agencies; the hospital was created in August 1852 when the United States Congress appropriated $100,000 for the construction of a mental hospital in Washington, D. C.. S. Army and U.
S. Navy; as early as the 1830s, local residents including Dr. Thomas Miller, a local doctor and president of the D. C. Board of Health, had been petitioning Congress for a facility to care for the mentally ill in the City of Washington, their efforts were given a significant boost when Dorothea Dix, a pioneering advocate for people living with mental illnesses, helped convince legislators of the need for the hospital. In 1852 she wrote the legislation. Dix, on friendly terms with President Millard Fillmore, was asked to assist the secretary of the interior in getting the hospital started, her first recommendation resulted in the appointment of Dr. Charles H. Nichols as the hospital's first superintendent. After his appointment in the fall of 1852, Nichols and Dix began formulating a plan for the design and operation of the hospital as well as finding an appropriate location for it, based upon guidelines created by Thomas Story Kirkbride, his 1854 manual recommended specifics such as site, number of patients, the need for a rural location proximate to a city.
He recommended that the location have good soil for farming and gardens for the patients. Dr. Nichols oversaw the design and building of St. Elizabeths, which began in 1853, it was built in three phases, the west wing first the east wing, the center portion. The center portion was built to house all administrative operations as well as the superintendents' residential quarters. All three sections of the hospital were together in keeping with Kirkbride's design. Two other buildings, the West Lodge for men and the East Lodge for women were built to house and care for African American patients. Soon after the hospital opened to patients in January 1855, it became known as the Government Hospital for the Insane. During the Civil War the West Lodge built for male African American patients, was used as a general hospital by the U. S. Navy; the unfinished east wing of the main building was used by the U. S. Army as a general hospital for sick and wounded soldiers; the Army hospital took the name of St. Elizabeths Army Medical Hospital to differentiate it from the mental hospital in the west wing of the same building.
The name St. Elizabeths was derived from the colonial-era name for the tract of land on which the hospital was built. After the Civil War and the closing of the Army's hospital, the St. Elizabeths name was used unofficially and intermittently until 1916, when Congress passed legislation changing the name from the Government Hospital for the Insane to St. Elizabeths Hospital, inexplicably omitting the possessive apostrophe, it transferred hospital to the United States Department of Interior. In the late 19th century the hospital temporarily housed animals that were brought back from expeditions for the Smithsonian Institution, because of lack of housing for the animals at the yet-to-be-built National Zoo. By 1940 St. Elizabeths Hospital was transferred to Federal Security Agency, after abolition of Service hospital was transferred to Department of Health and Welfare. At its peak, the St. Elizabeths campus employed 4,000 people. Beginning in the 1950s, large institutions such as St. Elizabeths were being criticized for hindering the treatment of patients.
Community-based health care, as specified in the passage of the 1963 Community Mental Health Act, led to deinstitutionalization. The act provided for local outpatient facilities and drug therapy as a more effective means of allowing patients to live near-normal lives; the first community-based center for mental health was established at St. Elizabeths in 1969; the patient population of St. Elizabeths declined. By the 1960s and 1970s, the hospital was transferred to the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Health and Human Services. By 1996 only 850 patients remained at the hospital, years of neglect had become apparent. By 2002 all remaining patients on the Federal western campus were transferred to other facilities. Although it continues to operate, it does so on a far smaller scale; as of January 31, 2009, the current patient census was 404 in-patients. In recent years half of St. Elizabeths patients are civilly committed to the hospital for treatment.
Forensic patients are those who are adjudicated to be criminally insane or considered incompetent to stand trial. Civil pat
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th