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1. Summit – A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex, peak, and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may also refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder

2. North American Vertical Datum of 1988 – NAVD88 was established in 1991 by the minimum-constraint adjustment of geodetic leveling observations in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. It held fixed the height of the tidal bench mark, referenced to the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 local mean sea level height value, at Rimouski, Quebec. The definition of NAVD88 uses the Helmert orthometric height, which calculates the location of the geoid from modeled local gravity, the NAVD88 model is based on then-available measurements, and remains fixed despite later improved geoid models. NAVD88 replaced the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929, previously known as the Sea Level Datum of 1929, the elevation difference between points in a local area will show negligible change from one datum to the other, even though the elevation of both does change. NGVD29 used a model of gravity based on latitude to calculate the geoid and did not take into account other variations. Thus, the difference for points across the country does change between datums. Altitude Geodesy Sea Level Datum of 1929 Topographic elevation Topography Reference ellipsoid Geoid United States Geological Survey home page, U. S. National Geodetic Survey home page

3. Topographic prominence – It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peaks key col is a point on this contour line. By convention, the prominence of Mount Everest, the Earths highest mountain, is taken to equal the elevation of its summit above sea level, if the peaks prominence is P metres, to get from the summit to any higher terrain one must descend at least P metres. Together with the convention for Mount Everest, this implies that the prominence of any island or continental highpoint is equal to its elevation above sea level, for every ridge connecting the peak to higher terrain, find the lowest point on the ridge. The key col is defined as the highest of these cols, the prominence is the difference between the elevation of the peak and the elevation of the key col. The following mental exercise may illustrate the meaning of topographic prominence, imagine you are standing at the top of a peak and imagine that an imaginary sea level rises to your feet. Now slowly lower the sea level and an imaginary island appears beneath your feet. Your island will grow and will merge with other islands that emerge, the parent peak may be either close or far from the subject peak. The summit of Mount Everest is the parent peak of Aconcagua at a distance of 17,755 km, the key col may also be close or far from the subject peak. The key col for Aconcagua is the Bering Strait at a distance of 13,655 km, the key col for the South Summit of Mount Everest is about 100 m distant. Prominence is interesting to many mountaineers because it is a measurement that is strongly correlated with the subjective significance of a summit. Peaks with low prominences are either subsidiary tops of some higher summit or relatively insignificant independent summits, peaks with high prominences tend to be the highest points around and are likely to have extraordinary views. Only summits with a sufficient degree of prominence are regarded as independent mountains, for example, the worlds second-highest mountain is K2. While Mount Everests South Summit is taller than K2, it is not considered an independent mountain because it is a subsummit of the main summit, many lists of mountains take topographic prominence as a criterion for inclusion, or cutoff. John and Anne Nuttalls The Mountains of England and Wales uses a cutoff of 15 m, in the contiguous United States, the famous list of fourteeners uses a cutoff of 300 ft /91 m. Also in the U. S.2000 feet of prominence has become a threshold that signifies that a peak has major stature. This generates lists of peaks ranked by prominence, which are different from lists ranked by elevation. Such lists tend to emphasize isolated high peaks, such as range or island high points, one advantage of a prominence-ranked list is that it needs no cutoff, since a peak with high prominence is automatically an independent peak

4. Colorado prominent summits – The following sortable table comprises the 100 most topographically prominent mountain peaks of the U. S. State of Colorado. Topographic elevation is the distance above the reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earths sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface. The topographic prominence of a summit is the difference between that summit and the highest or key col to a higher summit. The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum distance to a point of equal elevation. This article defines a significant summit as a summit with at least 100 meters of prominence. An ultra-prominent summit is a summit with at least 1500 meters of topographic prominence, there are 126 ultra-prominent summits in the United States. All elevations include an adjustment from the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988, for further information, please see this United States National Geodetic Survey note. If an elevation or prominence is calculated as a range of values, the arithmetic mean is shown. com Peakbagger. com Peaklist. org Peakware. com Summitpost. org

5. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation

6. Routt County, Colorado – Routt County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,509, the county seat is Steamboat Springs. Routt County comprises the Steamboat Springs, CO Micropolitan Statistical Area, placer gold was found near Hahns Peak in 1864 as part of the Colorado Gold Rush. Routt County was created out of the portion of Grand County on January 29,1877. It was named in honor of John Long Routt, the last territorial, the western portion of Routt County was split off to form Moffat County on February 27,1911. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 2,368 square miles. The population density was 8 people per square mile, there were 11,217 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96. 90% White,0. 13% Black or African American,0. 49% Native American,0. 39% Asian,0. 09% Pacific Islander,0. 73% from other races, and 1. 28% from two or more races. 3. 22% of the population were Hispanic Latino of any race,24. 40% of all households were made up of individuals and 3. 70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was out with 22. 60% under the age of 18,10. 10% from 18 to 24,36. 50% from 25 to 44,25. 70% from 45 to 64. The median age was 35 years, for every 100 females there were 116.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 119.40 males, the median income for a household in the county was \$53,612, and the median income for a family was \$61,927. Males had an income of \$36,997 versus \$26,576 for females. The per capita income for the county was \$28,792, about 2. 80% of families and 6. 10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5. 20% of those under age 18 and 7. 70% of those age 65 or over. Routt County used to be a Republican leaning county, but it has started to trend heavily Democratic, in 2016, Hillary Clinton won the county 54-37. The last Republican to win the county was George W. Bush in 2000, bill Clinton won pluralities in 1992 and 1996. However, from 1968 to 1988, Republicans won majorities in the county, lyndon Johnson won Routt by a healthy margin of 63-37 in 1964

8. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci

9. Mountain range – A mountain range is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains. A mountain system or system of ranges, sometimes is used to combine several geological features that are geographically related. Mountain ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys, individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology. They may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earths land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the worlds longest mountain system. The Alpide belt includes Indonesia and southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, the belt also includes other European and Asian mountain ranges. The Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, mountain ranges outside of these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a range is stretched to include underwater mountains. The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, the sub-range relationship is often expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains, equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, and the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians. The position of mountains influences climate, such as rain or snow, when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the side, it warms again and is drier. Often, a shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are constantly subjected to forces which work to tear them down. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted and long after until the mountains are reduced to low hills, rivers are traditionally believed to be the principle erosive factor on mountain ranges, with their ability of bedrock incision and sediment transport. The rugged topography of a range is the product of erosion. The basins adjacent to a mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. The early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example and this mass of rock was removed as the range was actively undergoing uplift

10. Elkhead Mountains – The Elkhead Mountains are a mountain range in Colorado. The mountain range is considered to be low altitude within Colorado as the mountains are under 11,000 feet, located within Routt and Moffat counties, the mountain range is far from metropolitan areas and has few lakes and streams, so it attracts few visitors. The mountain range is a range and all of the peaks were formed by volcanic action. Almost all of the peaks within the Elkhead Mountains are a part of Routt National Forest, significant peaks are, Bears Ears, Sugar Loaf, Saddle Mountain, Black Mountain, Pilot Knob, and Meaden Peak. Park Range Mountain ranges of Colorado

11. Topographic map – Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation, however, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that even small-scale maps showing relief are commonly called topographic. The study or discipline of topography is a broader field of study. Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys, performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms. This is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which primarily show property, the first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle, as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure. Excluding borders, each sheet was 44 cm high and up to 66 cm wide, although the project eventually foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. TIGER was developed in the 1980s and used in the 1990, digital elevation models were also compiled, initially from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and then from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for security reasons. Initial applications were mostly professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments, by the mid-1990s, increasingly user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared. As of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt, the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional signs or symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads and these signs are usually explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps. In the United States, where the national series is organized by a strict 7. 5-minute grid. Topographic maps conventionally show topography, or land contours, by means of contour lines, contour lines are curves that connect contiguous points of the same altitude. In other words, every point on the line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level

12. Steamboat Springs, Colorado – The City of Steamboat Springs, often shortened as Steamboat, is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat and the most populous city of Routt County, Colorado, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 12,088, the city is an internationally known winter ski resort destination. The Steamboat Springs tourism industry is highlighted by Steamboat Ski Resort and it also contains the much smaller Howelsen Ski Area. It is located in the valley of the Yampa River, along U. S. Highway 40 just west of the Continental Divide. The area surrounding Steamboat Springs was originally inhabited by the Yampatikas Utes, trappers began to move through the area during the first decades of the 19th century. James Harvey Crawford, the founder of Steamboat Springs, first arrived in the spring of 1874, the Crawford family moved there in 1876, and for the first five years were the sole permanent residents of the town. The native Utes were forcibly removed from the area to a reservation in Utah by the U. S. Army starting in 1879. Milestones in the development of the town included the first sawmill in 1873, incorporation of the town in 1900. The economy of the region was based on ranching and mining. Steamboat is home to hot springs that are located throughout the area. Upon first hearing a sound, early trappers believed that a steamboat was coming down the river. When the trappers saw that there was no steamboat, and that the sound was coming from a hot spring, originally, skiing was the only method of transportation during harsh and snowy Rocky Mountain winters. In turn, the popularity of skiing as a winter pastime catalyzed development of the town, in 1913, Carl Howelsen, a Norwegian, moved to town and introduced ski jumping. Howelsen built the first jump on Howelsen Hill, now part of the Howelsen Ski Area and he also founded the annual Winter Carnival, a celebration still held each winter. The festival includes ski racing and jumping, dog sledding, and chariot events down Lincoln Avenue, light shows on both Mount Werner and Howelsen Hill are highlights. The Steamboat Ski Resort was largely established by two men, Jim Temple and John Fetcher. Temple led the effort to develop the area, Fetcher, a local rancher, was the main designer and builder. The resort opened on what was then called Storm Mountain in 1963, the company is one of the largest employers in Routt County and has more than 9,000 employees worldwide

13. Mountain peaks of Colorado – This article comprises three sortable tables of major mountain peaks of the U. S. State of Colorado. The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three ways, The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level. The first table ranks the 55 highest major summits of Colorado by elevation. The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings, the second table below ranks the 50 most prominent summits of Colorado. The topographic isolation of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation, the third table below ranks the 50 most isolated major summits of Colorado. Of the highest major summits of Colorado, the following 55 peaks exceed 4000 meters elevation and 117 peaks exceed 3000 meters elevation, of the most prominent summits of Colorado, only Mount Elbert exceeds 2000 meters of topographic prominence. Three peaks are ultra-prominent summits with more than 1500 meters of prominence and 14 peaks exceed 1000 meters of topographic prominence

14. Mountain ranges of Colorado – The following table lists the major mountain ranges of the U. S. State of Colorado. All of these ranges are all subranges of the Rocky Mountains, topographic elevation is the vertical distance above the reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earths sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface. The topographic prominence of a summit is the difference between that summit and the highest or key col to a higher summit. The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum distance to a point of equal elevation. All elevations in this include an elevation adjustment from the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. For further information, please see this United States National Geodetic Survey note, if an elevation or prominence is calculated as a range of values, the arithmetic mean is shown. com Peakbagger. com Peaklist. org Peakware. com Summitpost. org

15. Geographic Names Information System – It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names, the database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited, variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are also recorded. Each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier, the database never removes an entry, except in cases of obvious duplication. The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features, the general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals. The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail. In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer, Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, William, Blue Highways, A Journey Into America, standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice, Vol.73, No. 170, page 51276 Report, Principles, Policies, and Procedures, Domestic Geographic Names, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28, November 2000. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes

17. Book Cliffs – The Book Cliffs are a series of desert mountains and cliffs in western Colorado and eastern Utah, in the western United States. They are so named because the cliffs of Cretaceous sandstone that cap many of the buttes appear similar to a shelf of books. Stretching nearly 200 miles from east to west, the Book Cliffs begin where the Colorado River descends south through De Beque Canyon into the Grand Valley to Price Canyon, the Book Cliffs appear mostly along the southern and western edge of the Tavaputs Plateau. The cliffs are composed of sedimentary materials. The Book Cliffs are within the Colorado Plateau geologic province, in the Colorado stretch of the Book Cliffs, abandoned coal mines are present, as significant coal resources were present in the region. These mines are now generally capped for safety, but several fatalities of recreational hikers have occurred at these mines since 1989. In some places, wild horses can be found in the Book Cliffs, for example, the Book Cliffs are one of the worlds best places to study sequence stratigraphy. In the 1980s, Exxon scientists used the Cretaceous strata of the Book Cliffs to develop the science of sequence stratigraphy. The Book Cliffs have preserved excellent strata of the basin of the ancient Western Interior Seaway that stretched north from the Gulf of Mexico to the Yukon in the Cretaceous time. Components of deltaic and shallow marine reservoirs are very well preserved in the Book Cliffs, large mammals found in the Book Cliffs include coyotes, mountain lions, bobcats, mule deer, pronghorn, American bison as an extension of the Henry Mountains bison herd and bighorn sheep. In January,2009, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources officials transplanted 31 bison from the Henry Mountains bison herd to the Book Cliffs, the new group joined 14 animals previously released in August,2008 from a private herd on the nearby Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation. Since this herd is located approximately 100 miles north of the Henry Mountains, across mostly harsh, desert terrain, it should perhaps be considered as a separate herd, Cretaceous Paleogeography - Showing Western Interior Seaway The Soils of Western Colorado Mesa, Delta and Montrose Counties

18. Elk Mountains (Colorado) – The Elk Mountains are a high, rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains of west-central Colorado in the United States. The range sits west of the Sawatch Range and northeast of the West Elk Mountains, much of the range is located within the White River National Forest and the Gunnison National Forest, as well as the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness and Raggeds Wilderness. The Elk Mountains rise nearly 9,000 ft. above the Roaring Fork Valley to the north, the highest peaks in the range are its fourteeners, Castle Peak, Maroon Peak, Capitol Peak, Snowmass Mountain, Pyramid Peak, and North Maroon Peak. Maroon Peak and North Maroon Peak are collectively known as the Maroon Bells, mount Sopris sits at the northwest end of the range and dominates the skyline of the lower Roaring Fork Valley and the town of Carbondale, Colorado, serving as an unofficial symbol of the area. State Highway 133 traverses McClure Pass, at the end of the range. The range has been the site of mining activity since the days of the Colorado Silver Boom, in the late 19th century, the western and southern flank of the range became the site of intense coal mining activity which continues to the present day. Treasure Mountain, overlooking the town of Marble, is home to the famous Yule Marble Quarry, quarried marble was used to create The Tomb of the Unknowns, the Lincoln Memorial, Denver Post Office and other buildings. The range receives a great deal of snowfall due to its position to the west of the continental divide and this is exploited by the ski areas in the vicinity of Aspen, which are located on the flanks of smaller mountains alongside the Roaring Fork Valley

19. Aspen Mountain (Colorado) – Aspen Mountain is a mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 10, 705-foot peak is located in White River National Forest,1.4 miles south-southeast of downtown Aspen in Pitkin County, Colorado, United States. The north face of the mountain is the location of the Aspen Mountain ski area, the mountain flank was the site of intense mining activity in the late 1880s and early 1890s, with many remains of mining activity below and on the surface of the mountain. In the middle 20th century it became the site of recreational downhill skiing, in 1946, the newly formed Aspen Skiing Company, founded by Walter Paepcke, built the first chairlift to the top of the mountain and opened the ski area that bears the name of the mountain. Nowadays, people use a gondola, which holds six people. Aspen Mountain is alternatively called Ajax by the locals

20. Capitol Peak (Colorado) – Capitol Peak is a high and prominent mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. Capitol Peak lies on the ridge connecting the heart of the Elk Mountains with Mount Sopris to the northwest. Capitol Peak is notable for its impressive vertical relief, rising nearly 9,000 feet above the Roaring Fork Valley, Capitol Peak is one of the most difficult of Colorados fourteeners to climb. The only non-technical route, the Northeast Ridge, requires crossing the famously exposed Knife Edge, fatalities have occurred on this route. Other routes require technical climbing, for example, the Northwest Buttress Route. These routes have significant rockfall danger due to a deal of loose rock, however. A Climbing Guide to Colorados Fourteeners, photo Journal of a trip up Snowmass Mountain and Capitol Peak Capitol Peak. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09

21. Castle Peak (Colorado) – Castle Peak is the ninth highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U. S. state of Colorado. The prominent 14, 279-foot fourteener is the highest summit of the Elk Mountains, the summit of Castle Peak is the highest point of both counties. Castle Peak takes its name from its castellated summit, the best climbing months are June, July, August, September through the Montezuma Glacier, a permanent snowfield between Castle and Conundrum Peaks. There are two routes for ascent. The Northwest Ridge features a moderate snow climb followed by an easy ridge scramble and it should not be attempted late in the summer when the 200 feet of loose dirt and scree meet the climber near the top of the Castle-Conundrum saddle. The Northeast Ridge features an easy climb, but slightly harder scrambling and route-finding once on the ridge. Conundrum Peak is a subsummit of Castle Peak. It has two closely spaced summits, the northern is higher, with elevation of 14, 040+ feet and it is 0.4 miles north of Castle Peak, and has 200 feet of clean topographic prominence. This does not meet the usual 300-foot prominence criterion for a separate peak, however

23. Mount Sopris – Mount Sopris is a twin-summit mountain in the northwestern Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. Mount Sopris is located in western Pitkin County, south of Carbondale and southwest of the confluence of the Crystal, Mount Sopris is notable for having two summits, East Sopris and West Sopris, that are one-half mile apart and have the same elevation of 12,965 feet. It is named for Richard Sopris, a mayor of Denver. In 2011 J. P. McDaniels petitioned to rename East Sopris Mount John Denver after the Colorado singer, a local poll in Aspen and Carbondale said 74 percent of the respondents were against the proposal. Mount Sopris is not a volcano, but it is possible that an ancient volcano sat above it, due to subsequent continued erosion, any evidence is now gone. In either case, the rock makes up Sopris never reached the surface, cooling and crystallizing in situ. Nearby prominent peaks Mount Gunnison and Crested Butte are believed to have formed similarly, Mount Sopris dominates the skyline of Carbondale and the lower Roaring Fork Valley, serving as an unofficial symbol of the area. It is prominently visible from State Highway 82 in the vicinity of Carbondale, in terms of local relief, it is one of the largest peaks in the state of Colorado. For example, West Sopris rises 6,400 ft above the valley to the west in only 2.7 mi, in fact a vertical rise of over 6,000 feet in less than 3 miles is rare and impressive anywhere in the contiguous United States. The Mount Sopris Trail ascends to East Sopris via its east ridge and it starts near Dinkle Lake, on the northeast side of the mountain, and passes between the two Thomas Lakes just before reaching timberline. The ascent involves about 4,300 ft of vertical gain and 12 mi of hiking, it is a trail hike. Mount Sopris on Summitpost, an excellent article with many further links Rock Glacier on Mount Sopris at NASA Earth Observatory

24. Pyramid Peak (Colorado) – Pyramid Peak is a fourteen thousand foot mountain in the U. S. state of Colorado. It is the 47th highest mountain peak in Colorado, and 78th highest peak in the United States and it is located in the Elk Mountains in southeastern Pitkin County, approximately 12 miles southwest of Aspen. The summit somewhat resembles a square pyramid and is visible from the Roaring Fork River valley north of Aspen along the canyon of Maroon Creek. Like many of the peaks in the Elks, Pyramid Peak is quite steep, especially compared to more gentle fourteeners such as Mount Elbert. For example, the summit rises 4,000 feet above Crater Lake to the northwest in only 1.2 miles. The standard climbing routes on Pyramid Peak are the northeast and northwest ridges and these routes involve difficult route finding, high exposure, and a great deal of loose rock. Hence they are two of the most difficult and dangerous of all of the routes on the Colorado fourteeners. List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado fourteeners Pyramid Peak

25. Snowmass Mountain – Snowmass Mountain is a fourteen thousand foot mountain in the U. S. state of Colorado and the thirty-fourth highest mountain peak in the state. Snowmass Mountain is named for the large snowfield that lies on its eastern slopes, Hagerman Peak sits between Snowmass Mountain and Snowmass Peak and is also often mistaken for Snowmass Mountain. The route most commonly used to climb Snowmass Mountain is the Snowmass Creek approach, the route to the summit starts at Snowmass Lake, which is itself an 8. 1-mile hike up Snowmass Creek from the parking area. Most people hike to the lake, camp the night and then proceed to the top and this route is recommended in the spring and early summer when the snowfield still covers much of the route, however an ice axe is recommended for travel on the snowfield. Later in the summer there is more travel on talus and more danger from rockfall, an alternative in snow-free conditions is to hike up to the saddle between the peak and Hagerman Peak. From that point there are climbers trails which proceed on the side of the ridge to the summit. A different and much less used route climbs the west side of Snowmass Mountain from Geneva Lake, Snowmass Mountain Snowmass Peak List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado fourteeners Snowmass Mountain on 14ers. com Snowmass Mountain. Photo Journal from a trip up Snowmass Mountain and on to Capitol Peak Aspen Ski & Snow Report

26. Snowmass Peak – Snowmass Peak in the U. S. state of Colorado dominates the view from Snowmass Lake. It is often mistaken for Snowmass Mountain, the thirty-fourth highest mountain peak in the state, Snowmass Peak is not really a peak but the lower end of Hagerman Peaks east ridge. Natural forced perspective causes the illusion that Snowmass Peak is higher than Hagerman Peak though it is actually 221 ft shorter than Hagermans summit. This illusion combined with its striking rise behind Snowmass Lake justifies it being a point on USGS topographical maps. It is located in the Elk Mountains, within the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness of the White River National Forest and it lies along the border between Pitkin and Gunnison counties, west of Aspen and southwest of the town of Snowmass Village. The route used to climb Snowmass Peak is the Trail Rider Pass trail to Hagerman Peak and this trail can be accessed by Snowmass Creek approach off Divide Road Snowmass Village or the Geneva Lake trail. It is possible to reach the summit by horse between Hagerman Peak and Snowmass Mountain, but is more difficult

27. Treasure Mountain (Colorado) – Treasure Mountain, elevation 13,535 ft, is a summit in the Elk Mountains of western Colorado. The mountain is in the Raggeds Wilderness southeast of Marble, the massif has been the site of marble mining and a legend of lost French gold. Treasure Mountain forms a massif with Treasury Mountain, elevation 13,462 feet. Another Treasure Mountain, el.11,834 feet is located in Mineral County, the Ruby Range extends southward from Treasury Mountain forming the east boundary of the Raggeds Wilderness. The Yule Lakes are a series of lakes situated on the slopes which drain into Yule Creek. The watershed is part of Crystal River basin which drains the slopes of Treasure Mountain and is the northeastern boundary of Raggeds Wilderness. Yule Pass, south of Treasury Mountain separates the Raggeds Wilderness of the Sopris Ranger District from the Gunnison Ranger District, Yule Pass is to the east of the headwaters of Yule Creek. The Colorado Yule marble comes from the Leadville Limestone of Mississippian age quarried near the mountain and it was formed by contact metamorphism in the Tertiary period following the intrusion and uplift of nearby granitic Treasure Mountain dome. Yule marble was used in the building of the Lincoln Memorial, the Yule marble quarry is at an elevation of 9,300 ft on the west side of Treasure Mountain along Yule Creek. The original name of the peak was Citadel Mountain, the current name came from an ill-fated French mining expedition described in folklore documented in the 1930s and 1940s. The folklore states that the expedition was organized in the late 1700s by Napoleon Bonaparte, the expedition was reported to have consisted of 300 men and 450 horses. They left New Orleans and traveled through Leavenworth, Kansas en route to the Rocky Mountains, the folklore claims that a large amount of gold was discovered and amassed by the expedition near Wolf Creek Pass. The local Native Americans were reportedly friendly, but relations deteriorated. In the folklore, the French buried gold and escaped the area, one survivor by the name of Le Blanc made it back to Kansas. He was the historian and was reported to have made two maps of the hidden treasure. A later expedition failed to find the treasure, william Yule, many years later, claimed to possess a copy of the original map and explored the area south and west of the mountain. The mountain was named after the legend of the missing treasure, List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado

28. Front Range – It is the first mountain range encountered moving west along the 40th parallel north across the Great Plains of North America. The Front Range runs north-south between Casper, Wyoming and Pueblo, Colorado and rises nearly 10,000 feet above the Great Plains, Longs Peak, Mount Evans, and Pikes Peak are its most prominent peaks, visible from the Interstate 25 corridor. The area is a destination for mountain biking, hiking, climbing. Millions of years ago the present-day Front Range was home to ancient mountain ranges, deserts, beaches and this urban corridor benefits from the weather-moderating effect of the Front Range mountains, which help block prevailing storms. About 1 billion years ago, the earth was producing massive amounts of rock that would one day amalgamate, drift together and combine. In the Colorado region, this molten rock spewed and cooled, over the next 500 million years, little is known about changes in the sedimentation after the granite was produced. However, at about 500 –300 million years ago, the region began to sink, eroded granite produced sand particles that began to form strata, layers of sediment, in the sinking basin. Sedimentation would continue to place until about 300 million years ago. Around 300 million years ago, the sinking suddenly reversed, over the next 150 million years, during uplift the mountains would continue to erode and cover themselves in their own sediment. Wind, gravity, rainwater, snow, and ice-melt supplied rivers that ultimately carved through the granite mountains, the sediment from these mountains lies in the Fountain Formation today. Red Rocks Amphitheater outside of Denver, Colorado, is set into the Fountain Formation. At 280 million years ago, sea levels were low and present-day Colorado was part of the super-continent Pangaea, sand deserts covered most of the area spreading as dunes seen in the rock record, known today as the Lyons Sandstone. These dunes appear to be cross-bedded and show various fossil footprints,30 million years later, the sediment deposition was still taking place with the introduction of the Lykins Formation. This formation can be best attributed to its layers of muddy limestone. 250 million years ago, the Ancestral Rockies were burying themselves while the shoreline was present during the break-up of Pangaea and this formation began right after Earth’s largest extinction 251 million years ago at the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Ninety percent of the marine life was destroyed and a great deal on land as well. After 100 million years of deposition, a new environment brought rise to a new formation, the Morrison Formation contains some of the best fossils of the Late Jurassic. It is especially known for its tracks and sauropod bones among other dinosaur fossils

29. Mummy Range – The Mummy Range is a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado in the United States. The range is a subrange of the Front Range located in southwestern Larimer County northwest of the town of Estes Park. It is located largely within Rocky Mountain National Park, extending north from Trail Ridge Road approximately 15 miles, prominent peaks in the range include Hagues Peak, Ypsilon Mountain, Mummy Mountain, and Mount Chiquita. Some offer reasonably challenging technical routes but all can be ascended by steep hiking, Colorado mountain ranges U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Mummy Range Hiking info and photos of Ypsilon Lake, which sits at the base of Ypsilon Mountain

Summit [videos]
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it.
Climbers on the world's highest summit, Mount Everest, at 8,850 metres (29,035 ft) above sea level.
View from the summit of Switzerland's highest, Monte Rosa
The summit of Mount Damavand, Iran, in winter
Jeff Davis Peak, one of the highest peaks entirely within Nevada, United States
Colorado ((listen)) is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the
Ten Mile Range and Dillon Reservoir near Breckenridge, Colorado
A view of the arid high plains in Southeastern Colorado
The Calhan Paint Mines on the Colorado Eastern Plains
United States [videos]
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic
Death of Captain Cook by Johann Zoffany (1795)
Mountain range [videos]
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A
The Himalayas, the highest mountain range on Earth, seen from space
An 1865 lithograph showing the High Tatras mountain range in Slovakia and Poland by Karel Kořistka appearing in a book by August Heinrich Petermann.
The Andes, the world's longest mountain range on the surface of a continent, seen from the air
Hillary and Norgay Montes on Pluto (14 July 2015)
The City of Steamboat Springs, often shortened to just Steamboat, is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat
Downtown Steamboat Springs, in May 2006
Steamboat Springs is a mix of older architecture and newer resort developments, especially near the ski resort on the eastern edge of town.
The Routt County Courthouse in Steamboat Springs, Colorado.
The ski resort at Steamboat Springs
United States Geological Survey [videos]
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United
Clarence King, first director of the USGS
The USGS headquarters in Reston, Virginia
1892 15-minute map (or topographic sheet) of the Mount Marcy area of the Adirondacks in New York State from the first decades of the USGS
Image: USGS Station
Front Range [videos]
The Front Range is a mountain range of the Southern Rocky Mountains of North America located in the central portion of
Front Range Peaks in the Indian Peaks Wilderness
Sandstone slabs along the eastern edge of the front range
Front Range near Estes Park, Colorado.
Cheyenne Mountain [videos]
Cheyenne Mountain is a triple-peaked mountain in El Paso County, Colorado, southwest of downtown Colorado Springs. The
Image: Cheyenne Mountain 1
Image: Broadmoor lake panorama to west
Image: Will Rogers Shrine of the Sun, Cheyenne Mountain Zoo
Topographic map [videos]
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative
A topographic map with contour lines
Part of the same map in a perspective shaded relief view illustrating how the contour lines follow the terrain
Section of topographical map of Nablus area (West Bank) with contour lines at 100-meter intervals. Heights are colour-coded
Curvimeter used to measure the length of a curve
Book Cliffs [videos]
The Book Cliffs are a series of desert mountains and cliffs in western Colorado and eastern Utah, in the western United
The Spring Canyon sandstones in the Book Cliffs above the town of Helper, Utah. There are several sedimentary cycles visible in the cliffs (perhaps up to seven or eight)
Book Cliffs and Mt. Garfield (on right, approximate altitude 6,600') in Mesa County, Colorado
A flute cast, one of many sedimentary structures found in the Book Cliffs
The Elk Mountains are a high, rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains of west-central Colorado in the United
The Maroon Bells, Elk Mountains.
Maroon Lake, Elk Mountains.
Medicine Bow – Routt National Forest [videos]
Medicine Bow – Routt National Forest is the official title to a U.S. Forest Service managed area extending over
Medicine Bow National Forest
The Snowy Range in Medicine Bow - Routt National Forest
Capitol Peak is a high and prominent mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North
Capitol Peak, from Capitol Lake
Capitol Peak Knife Edge
Mount Sopris [videos]
Mount Sopris is a twin-summit mountain in the northwestern Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America.
Mount Sopris as viewed from State Highway 82.
Looking North West from Mt. Sopris
Pyramid Peak is a fourteen thousand foot mountain in the U.S. state of Colorado. It is the 47th highest mountain peak
Pyramid Peak as seen from Maroon Peak in 2009
View of Pyramid Peak from Aspen Highlands
Mount Chiquita [videos]
Mount Chiquita is a mountain summit in the Mummy Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 13,075-foot (3,985
Image: Mount Chiquita by RO
Sundance Mountain (12,466 feet) on left, Mount Chaplin (12,454 and Mount Chiquita reflect in one of the Sheep Lakes in Horseshoe Park shortly after the ice had melted in the spring. Courtesy of Rocky Mountain National Park.
Bald Mountain is a high and prominent mountain summit in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Image: Bald Mountain, Summit County, Colorado viewed from Dillon Reservoir
A view of Bald Mountain from the top of the Kensho SuperChair at Breckenridge Ski Resort
Maroon Bells [videos]
The Maroon Bells are two peaks in the Elk Mountains, Maroon Peak and North Maroon Peak, separated by about a third of a
Maroon Lake and Maroon Bells, pre-dawn photo, 19 September 2012.
Routt County is one of the 64 counties in the U.S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,509.
The Elkhead Mountains are a mountain range in Colorado. The mountain range is considered to be low altitude within
Mt. Garfield is the high point of the Book Cliffs, north of Grand Junction, and overlooking the town of Palisade. Two
Mt. Garfield from East Orchard Mesa, Colorado.
Aspen Mountain is a mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 10,705-foot
Aspen Mountain, seen from the northwest showing the lower ski runs of the Aspen Mountain ski area
Castle Peak is the ninth highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U.S. state of Colorado. The
View from NNE above Montezuma Basin
Chair Mountain [videos]
Chair Mountain is a prominent mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Chair Mountain
Snowmass Mountain [videos]
Snowmass Mountain is a fourteen thousand foot mountain in the U.S. state of Colorado and the thirty-fourth highest
Snowmass Mountain, July 2007
Snowmass Peak [videos]
Snowmass Peak in the U.S. state of Colorado dominates the view from Snowmass Lake. It is often mistaken for Snowmass
Snowmass Peak rises up out of Snowmass Lake
Treasure Mountain, elevation 13,535 ft (4,125 m), is a summit in the Elk Mountains of western Colorado. The mountain is
Elk Mountain (Routt County, Colorado) [videos]
Elk Mountain is a summit in Routt County, Colorado. The mountain lies to the northwest of Steamboat Springs and is
Image: Elk Mountain (Routt County, Colorado)
Hahns Peak [videos]
Hahns Peak is a summit in Routt County, Colorado, in the United States. With an elevation of 10,774 feet (3,284 m),
Image: Hahns Peak
Flat Tops is a mountain range located in Colorado within the Routt and White River National Forests. The area is home
The Flat Tops as seen from State Highway 131 in Routt County
Kenosha Mountains [videos]
The Kenosha Mountains or Kenosha Mountain are a subrange (or long mountain) of the Front Range located in Park and
Kenosha Mountains viewed from Platte Peak looking southeast.
Buffalo Peak [videos]
Buffalo Peak is a mountain summit in the Kenosha Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Image: Buffalo Peak, Jefferson County, viewed from Pikes Peak
Green Mountain (Kenosha Mountains) [videos]
Green Mountain is a prominent mountain summit in the Kenosha Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America.
Image: Green Mountain (Kenosha Mountains) and Thunder Butte viewed from Pikes Peak 2
Mummy Range [videos]
The Mummy Range (elevation approximately 13,000 ft) is a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado in
Mummy Range seen from Lake Estes
Fairchild Mountain [videos]
Fairchild Mountain is a high mountain summit in the Mummy Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Image: Fairchild Mountain viewed from Trail Ridge Road
Hagues Peak [videos]
Hagues Peak is the highest summit of the Mummy Range in the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 13,573-foot (4,137 m)
Image: Hagues Peak viewed from Trail Ridge Road
Ypsilon Mountain [videos]
Ypsilon Mountain, elevation 13,520 ft (4,121 m), is in the Mummy Range of Rocky Mountain National Park in northern
Image: RMNP Ypsilon Lake Trail
Never Summer Mountains [videos]
The Never Summer Mountains are a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains in north central Colorado in the United States
Nokhu Crags, at the northern end of the Never Summer Mountains
Iron Mountain (Never Summer Mountains) [videos]
Iron Mountain is a mountain summit in the Never Summer Mountains of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Image: Iron Mountain (Never Summer Mountains) July 2016 2
Mount Richthofen [videos]
Mount Richthofen is the highest summit of the Never Summer Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Mount Richthofen viewed from Rocky Mountain National Park
Static Peak is a mountain peak in the Colorado State Forest State Park in the Never Summer Mountain Range. It is
Static Peak viewed from Rocky Mountain National Park
Rampart Range [videos]
The Rampart Range is a mountain range located in Douglas, El Paso, and Teller counties, Colorado, USA. It is part of
Image: Spruce Mtn Open Space 02 PANO Rampart Range
Blodgett Peak [videos]
Blodgett Peak is a mountain summit in El Paso County, Colorado. Blodgett Peak is located in Pike National Forest. and
Blodgett Peak seen from the Blodgett Peak Open Space
Devils Head is a mountain summit in the Rampart Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 9,749-foot (2,971 m)
Argentine Peak [videos]
Argentine Peak is a high mountain summit in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 13,743-foot
Argentine Peak, July 2006
Bard Peak [videos]
Bard Peak is a high and prominent mountain summit in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The
Bard Peak as seen from Mount Parnassus.
Topographic prominence [videos]
In topography, prominence characterizes the height of a mountain or hill's summit by the vertical distance between it
Topographic prominence of three peaks near Great Pond Mountain, Maine, USA. Red triangles mark the peaks, the lowest contour line encircling each peak are shown in black and the green dots mark the key cols. The prominences are Atkins Hill: 430 − 310 = 120 ft, Cave Hill: 570 − 530 = 40 ft, Mead Mountain: 671 − 530 = 141 ft. The parent peak of each peak is Great Pond Mountain.
Figure 1. Vertical arrows show the topographic prominence of three peaks on an island. The dashed horizontal lines show the lowest contours that do not encircle higher peaks. Curved arrows point from a peak to its parent.
Figure 2. Showing two closed contour lines meeting at Peak A's key col.
Figure 3. Diagram of a mountain range showing peaks and cols, from which mountain parentage and prominences can be determined.
Geographic Names Information System [videos]
The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more
The logo of the United States Geological Survey