The Columbus Dispatch
The Columbus Dispatch is a daily newspaper based in Columbus, Ohio. Its first issue was published on July 1, 1871, has been the only mainstream daily newspaper in the city since The Columbus Citizen-Journal ceased publication in 1985. In a sale announced on June 3, 2015, ownership of the Dispatch was transferred to GateHouse Media; the Dispatch Broadcast Group, comprising WBNS-AM-FM-TV in Columbus and WTHR in Indianapolis, will remain in the hands of the Wolfe family. As of October 26, 2015, Bradley M. Harmon is the newspaper's publisher. Alan D. Miller is the editor; the paper was founded in June 1871 by a group of 10 printers with US$900 in financial capital. The paper published its first issue as The Daily Dispatch on July 1, 1871, as a four-page paper which cost 4¢ per copy; the paper was an afternoon paper for the city of Columbus, which at the time had a population of 32,000. For its first few years, the paper rented a headquarters on North High Street and Lynn Alley in Columbus, it began with 800 subscribers.
On April 2, 1888, the paper published its first full-page advertisement, for the Columbus Buggy Company. In 1895, the paper moved its headquarters to the northeast corner of Gay and High streets, a larger building on a site, a grocer. On April 10, the paper published a 72-page edition to mark the move. On December 17, 1899, the paper published its first Sunday edition, a 36-page paper which cost 3¢, the daily editions were reduced in price to 2¢. Two years on March 3, 1901, the paper published its first color comic strips; the paper, renamed The Columbus Evening Dispatch, changed hands several times in its early years. In 1905, it was purchased by brothers Harry Preston Wolfe and Robert Frederick Wolfe, who ran a shoe company, it was not the Wolfes' first entry into journalism. The Dispatch would remain in the hands of the Wolfe family for 110 years. On December 16, 1906, the paper published its first color ad, for Beggs Store. On April 9, 1907, the Dispatch offices were destroyed in a fire, the building was demolished and rebuilt.
In the interlude, the paper ran its offices out of 34/36 North High Street. The paper's editorial staff traditionally has had a conservative slant; until it endorsed Hillary Clinton over Donald Trump, the paper's last endorsement of a Democrat as a Presidential candidate had been for the re-election of Woodrow Wilson in 1916. The Dispatch endorsed Democratic gubernatorial candidate Ted Strickland in the 2006 Ohio elections, but endorsed John Kasich, the Republican candidate running against his reelection, in 2010A competing paper, The Columbus Citizen-Journal was beholden to the Columbus Dispatch for its printing facilities, controversy surrounded the C-J's demise in 1985. On June 16, 2015, the Dispatch was purchased by the New Media Investment Group; the sections of the Dispatch include the Front Section, Nation & World, Metro & State, Business and Life & Arts. The Food section is included in the Wednesday paper; the Weekender section is included in the Thursday paper. A Faith & Values section is included in the Friday paper.
Sunday sections include Arts & Leisure, At Home and comics. The Columbus Dispatch owns the magazines Columbus Monthly, Columbus CEO, Columbus Weddings, Columbus Monthly Home & Garden, Columbus Alive, Columbus Parent. James Thurber Official website
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Rossen Milanov is a Bulgarian conductor. He is Music Director of the Princeton Symphony Orchestra & New Jersey's Symphony in C, he is Principal Conductor of Orquesta Sinfonica del Principado de Asturias, in Spain and the former Music Director of Bulgaria's New Symphony Orchestra. He is the Music Director of the Chautauqua Symphony Orchestra. Milanov was born in Bulgaria, he studied oboe and orchestral conducting at the Bulgarian National Academy of Music, he earned his master's degree in oboe performance at Duquesne University. He studied conducting at The Curtis Institute of Music and The Juilliard School, where he received the Bruno Walter Memorial Scholarship. From 1994–1999, Milanov was Conductor of The Juilliard School’s Pre-College Orchestra, he acted as Music Director of the Chicago Youth Symphony Orchestra from 1997–2001. He spent over 11 years with The Philadelphia Orchestra, first as Assistant Conductor from 2000–2003 as Associate Conductor from 2003–2011, as Artistic Director of the ensemble’s summer home at the Mann Center for the Performing Arts from 2006–2010.
Milanov was Chief Conductor of the Symphony Orchestra of the Bulgarian National Radio Symphony Orchestra from 2003-2008. In September 2014, Rossen Milanov was named the next Music Director of the Columbus Symphony Orchestra, effective in the 2015-16 season and with a four-year contract; the following month, the Chautauqua Institution's Chautauqua Symphony Orchestra named Milanov its Music Director starting in the summer of 2015. In 2005, Milanov was named Bulgaria’s Musician of the Year, he has received the Bulgarian Ministry’s Award for Extraordinary Contribution to Bulgarian Culture and the 2011 ASCAP award for his programming with the Princeton Symphony Orchestra. Milanov has collaborated with Yo-Yo Ma, Itzhak Perlman, Joshua Bell and Christian Tetzlaff, he has conducted premieres by Richard Danielpour, Gabriel Prokofiev, Nicholas Maw, as well as emerging composers through Symphony in C’s annual Young Composer’s Competition. He has appeared with such ensembles as the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, Grant Park Music Festival, Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, Baltimore Symphony Orchestra, Orchestra of St. Luke's, BBC Symphony Orchestra, Royal Scottish National Orchestra, Scottish Chamber Orchestra, Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra, Residentie Orkest, Orquesta Nacional de México, NHK Symphony Orchestra, Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra, Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra, Orquesta Sinfónica Nacional de Colombia and New Zealand Symphony Orchestra.
Milanov works as a ballet conductor and has collaborated with choreographers Mats Ek at Zurich Opera and Stockholm’s Royal Ballet, Sabrina Matthews and Nils Christe at Stockholm’s Royal Ballet, Benjamin Millepied and Andonis Foniadakis at the Geneva Opera, Jorma Elo in Philadelphia. Milanov has worked with opera companies including Komische Oper Berlin, The Philadelphia Orchestra, The Curtis Opera Theatre. Milanov is Music Director of the training orchestra Symphony in C and the New Symphony Orchestra in his home city of Sofia, Bulgaria, he appears at Carnegie Hall for Link Up, a program by The Weill Music Institute. Milanov has recorded Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 15, Brahms’s Symphony No. 1, Joseph Jongen’s Sinfonia Concertante with The Philadelphia Orchestra – released as A Grand Celebration on the Gothic label in 2008. His work with Russian composer Alla Pavlova with the Moscow Philharmonic Orchestra was released on Naxos Records in 2006, he released a recording of Stravinsky’s Petrushka and Manuel de Falla’s El sombrero de tres picos with Orquesta Sinfonica del Principado de Asturias on Classic Concert Records
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which combines instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as the violin, viola and double bass, brass instruments such as the horn, trumpet and tuba, woodwinds such as the flute, oboe and bassoon, percussion instruments such as the timpani, bass drum, snare drum and cymbals, each grouped in sections. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes appear in a fifth keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and, for performances of some modern compositions, electronic instruments. A full-size orchestra may sometimes be called philharmonic orchestra; the actual number of musicians employed in a given performance may vary from seventy to over one hundred musicians, depending on the work being played and the size of the venue. The term chamber orchestra refers to smaller-sized ensembles of about fifty musicians or fewer. Orchestras that specialize in the Baroque music of, for example, Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, or Classical repertoire, such as that of Haydn and Mozart, tend to be smaller than orchestras performing a Romantic music repertoire, such as the symphonies of Johannes Brahms.
The typical orchestra grew in size throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, reaching a peak with the large orchestras called for in the works of Richard Wagner, Gustav Mahler. Orchestras are led by a conductor who directs the performance with movements of the hands and arms made easier for the musicians to see by use of a conductor's baton; the conductor sets the tempo and shapes the sound of the ensemble. The conductor prepares the orchestra by leading rehearsals before the public concert, in which the conductor provides instructions to the musicians on their interpretation of the music being performed; the leader of the first violin section called the concertmaster plays an important role in leading the musicians. In the Baroque music era, orchestras were led by the concertmaster or by a chord-playing musician performing the basso continuo parts on a harpsichord or pipe organ, a tradition that some 20th century and 21st century early music ensembles continue. Orchestras play a wide range of repertoire, including symphonies and ballet overtures, concertos for solo instruments, as pit ensembles for operas and some types of musical theatre.
Amateur orchestras include those made up of students from an elementary school or a high school, youth orchestras, community orchestras. The term orchestra derives from the Greek ὀρχήστρα, the name for the area in front of a stage in ancient Greek theatre reserved for the Greek chorus; the typical symphony orchestra consists of four groups of related musical instruments called the woodwinds, brass and strings. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes be grouped into a fifth section such as a keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and electric and electronic instruments; the orchestra, depending on the size, contains all of the standard instruments in each group. In the history of the orchestra, its instrumentation has been expanded over time agreed to have been standardized by the classical period and Ludwig van Beethoven's influence on the classical model. In the 20th and 21st century, new repertory demands expanded the instrumentation of the orchestra, resulting in a flexible use of the classical-model instruments and newly developed electric and electronic instruments in various combinations.
The terms symphony orchestra and philharmonic orchestra may be used to distinguish different ensembles from the same locality, such as the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra. A symphony orchestra will have over eighty musicians on its roster, in some cases over a hundred, but the actual number of musicians employed in a particular performance may vary according to the work being played and the size of the venue. Chamber orchestra refers to smaller-sized ensembles; the term concert orchestra may be used, as in the BBC Concert Orchestra and the RTÉ Concert Orchestra. The so-called "standard complement" of doubled winds and brass in the orchestra from the first half of the 19th century is attributed to the forces called for by Beethoven; the composer's instrumentation always included paired flutes, clarinets, bassoons and trumpets. The exceptions to this are his Symphony No. 4, Violin Concerto, Piano Concerto No. 4, which each specify a single flute. Beethoven calculated the expansion of this particular timbral "palette" in Symphonies 3, 5, 6, 9 for an innovative effect.
The third horn in the "Eroica" Symphony arrives to provide not only some harmonic flexibility, but the effect of "choral" brass in the Trio movement. Piccolo and trombones add to the triumphal finale of his Symphony No. 5. A piccolo and a pair of trombones help deliver the effect of storm and sunshine in the Sixth known as the Pastoral Symphony; the Ninth asks for a second pair of horns, for reasons similar to the "Eroica".
Detroit Symphony Orchestra
The Detroit Symphony Orchestra is an American orchestra based in Detroit, Michigan. Its main performance center is Orchestra Hall at the Max M. Fisher Music Center in Detroit's Midtown neighborhood; the DSO performs throughout the metro Detroit area in both paid neighborhood series concerts and free community concerts. The DSO performed the first concert of its first subscription season at 8:00 p.m. on Monday, Dec. 19, 1887 at the Detroit Opera House. The conductor was Rudolph Speil, he was succeeded in subsequent seasons by a variety of conductors until 1900 when Hugo Kalsow was appointed and served until the orchestra ceased operations in 1910. The Detroit Symphony resumed operations in 1914 when ten Detroit society women each contributed $100 to the organization and pledged to find 100 additional subscribers, they soon hired a music director, Weston Gales, a 27-year-old church organist from Boston, who led the first performance of the reconstituted orchestra on February 26, 1914, again at the old Detroit Opera House.
The appointment of the Russian pianist Ossip Gabrilowitsch as music director in 1918 brought instant status to the new orchestra. A friend of composers Gustav Mahler and Sergei Rachmaninoff, Gabrilowitsch demanded a new auditorium be built as a condition of his accepting the position. Orchestra Hall was completed for the new music director in 1919 in four months and twenty-three days. Under Gabrilowitsch, the Detroit Symphony Orchestra became one of the most prominent orchestras in the country, performing with the leading artists of the day. In 1922, the orchestra gave the world's first radio broadcast of a symphony orchestra concert with Gabrilowitsch conducting and guest artist Artur Schnabel at the piano. From 1934 to 1942, the orchestra performed for millions across the country as the official orchestra of The Ford Sunday Evening Hour national radio show. In 1939, three years after Gabrilowitsch's premature death, the orchestra moved from Orchestra Hall to the Masonic Temple Theatre due to major financial problems caused by the Great Depression.
In the 1940s, the orchestra moved to three different performing venues. In 1946, the orchestra moved to the Wilson Theater, renamed Music Hall. In 1956, the orchestra moved to Ford Auditorium on the waterfront of the Detroit River, where it remained for the next 33 years; the orchestra once again enjoyed national prestige under music director Paul Paray, winning numerous awards for its 70 recordings on the Mercury label. Paray was followed by noted music directors Sixten Ehrling, Aldo Ceccato, Antal Doráti, Günther Herbig. In popular music, members of the orchestra provided the recorded string accompaniments on many of Motown Records's classic hits of the 1960s under the direction of the orchestra's concertmaster of the time, Gordon Staples. Two Motown albums featured the strings with the Funk Brothers; the combined ensemble was known as the San Remo Golden Strings and enjoyed two hit singles: "Hungry for Love" and "I'm Satisfied". In 1966, members of the orchestra were seen recording in the Motown studio on West Grand Boulevard with The Supremes for the ABC TV documentary "Anatomy of Pop: The Music Explosion."
The song they perform is the hit "My World Is Empty Without You" by Holland and Holland. There were two full albums released by the group: "Hungry for Love" and "Swing" both on the Gordy label. In 1970, the DSO instituted the Detroit Symphony Youth Orchestra as a training group, under Paul Freeman. In 1989, following a 20-year rescue and restoration effort, the Detroit Symphony Orchestra returned to Orchestra Hall. Further renovations to the hall were completed in 2003, including a $60 million addition and a recital hall and education wing, the Max M. Fisher Music Center. A fine arts high school, the Detroit School of Arts, was added to the DSO campus in 2004. Neeme Järvi began his music directorship in 1990, served through 2005, the second-longest in the orchestra's history. Järvi now has the title of music director emeritus with the orchestra. Following Järvi's departure, the DSO named Peter Oundjian as its principal guest conductor and artistic advisor for a 2-year period, from 2006 to 2008.
After a five-year search, the DSO announced on October 7, 2007, the appointment of Leonard Slatkin as its twelfth music director. Prior to Slatkin's appointment, Peter Oundjian was the DSO's Artistic Advisor, continues to hold the title of Principal Guest Conductor. In February 2010, the orchestra announced the extension of Slatkin's contract as DSO music director through the 2012–2013 season. Slatkin took a salary reduction to help relieve the orchestra's financial difficulties. In December 2014, the DSO announced an extension of Slatkin's contract as music director through the 2017-2018 season, after which time he is scheduled to relinquish the music directorship of the orchestra and to become its first-ever music director laureate, the latter post through the 2019-2020 season; the symphony has produced many recordings on the Victor, Decca, Mercury, RCA, Chandos and DSO labels. The DSO recording of Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring was the first CD to win the Grand Prix du Disque award.
The DSO records for the Naxos label. Recent and upcoming releases include music of Rachmaninoff, Aaron Copland, John Williams. In early 2010, George Blood Audio and Video began transferring recordings, dating back to the 1959-1960 concert season, to the digital medium. Anne Parsons, a 30-year veteran arts administrator with deep connections in the national funding community, has served as President & CEO of the DSO since 2004. A labor dispute prompted DSO musicians to strike on Oct
Columbus is the state capital of and the most populous city in the U. S. state of Ohio. With a population of 879,170 as of 2017 estimates, it is the 14th-most populous city in the United States and one of the fastest growing large cities in the nation; this makes Columbus the third-most populous state capital in the US and the second-most populous city in the Midwest. It is the core city of the Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses ten counties. With a population of 2,078,725, it is Ohio's second-largest metropolitan area. Columbus is the county seat of Franklin County; the municipality has annexed portions of adjoining Delaware and Fairfield counties. Named for explorer Christopher Columbus, the city was founded in 1812 at the confluence of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, assumed the functions of state capital in 1816; the city has a diverse economy based on education, insurance, defense, food, logistics, energy, medical research, health care, hospitality and technology.
Columbus Region is home to the Battelle Memorial Institute, the world's largest private research and development foundation. As of 2018 the city has the headquarters of four corporations in the U. S. Fortune 500: American Electric Power, Cardinal Health, L Brands and Big Lots, just out of the top 500. In 2016, Money Magazine ranked Columbus as one of "The 6 Best Big Cities", calling it the best in the Midwest, citing a educated workforce and excellent wage growth. In 2012, Columbus was ranked in BusinessWeek's 50 best cities in the United States. In 2013, Forbes gave Columbus an "A" grade as one of the top cities for business in the U. S. and that year included the city on its list of Best Places for Business and Careers. Columbus was ranked as the No. 1 up-and-coming tech city in the nation by Forbes in 2008, the city was ranked a top-ten city by Relocate America in 2010. In 2007, fDi Magazine ranked the city no. 3 in the U. S. for cities of the future, the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium was rated no. 1 in 2009 by USA Travel Guide.
The area including modern-day Columbus once comprised the Ohio Country, under the nominal control of the French colonial empire through the Viceroyalty of New France from 1663 until 1763. In the 18th century, European traders flocked to the area, attracted by the fur trade; the area found itself caught between warring factions, including American Indian and European interests. In the 1740s, Pennsylvania traders overran the territory. In the early 1750s, the Ohio Company sent George Washington to the Ohio Country to survey. Fighting for control of the territory in the French and Indian War became part of the international Seven Years' War. During this period, the region suffered turmoil and battles; the 1763 Treaty of Paris ceded the Ohio Country to the British Empire. After the American Revolution, the Virginia Military District became part of Ohio Country as a territory of Virginia. Colonists from the East Coast moved in, but rather than finding an empty frontier, they encountered people of the Miami, Wyandot and Mingo nations, as well as European traders.
The tribes resisted expansion by the fledgling United States. The decisive Battle of Fallen Timbers resulted in the Treaty of Greenville, which opened the way for new settlements. By 1797, a young surveyor from Virginia named Lucas Sullivant had founded a permanent settlement on the west bank of the forks of the Scioto River and Olentangy River. An admirer of Benjamin Franklin, Sullivant chose to name his frontier village "Franklinton"; the location was desirable for its proximity to navigable rivers—but Sullivant was foiled when, in 1798, a large flood wiped out the new settlement. He persevered, the village was rebuilt. After Ohio achieved statehood in 1803, political infighting among prominent Ohio leaders led to the state capital moving from Chillicothe to Zanesville and back again. Desiring to settle on a location, the state legislature considered Franklinton, Dublin and Delaware before compromising on a plan to build a new city in the state's center, near major transportation routes rivers.
Named in honor of Christopher Columbus, the city was founded on February 14, 1812, on the "High Banks opposite Franklinton at the Forks of the Scioto most known as Wolf's Ridge." At the time, this area was a dense forestland, used only as a hunting ground. The "Burough of Columbus" was established on February 10, 1816. Nine people were elected to fill the various positions of Mayor and several others. In 1816-1817, Jarvis W. Pike would serve as the 1st Mayor. Although the recent War of 1812 had brought prosperity to the area, the subsequent recession and conflicting claims to the land threatened the new town's success. Early conditions were abysmal with frequent bouts of fevers and an outbreak of cholera in 1833; the National Road reached Columbus from Baltimore in 1831, which complemented the city's new link to the Ohio and Erie Canal and facilitated a population boom. A wave of European immigrants led to the creation of two ethnic enclaves on the city's outskirts. A large Irish population settled in the north along Naghten Street, while the Germans took advantage of the cheap land to the south, creating a community that came to be known as t
Luciano Pavarotti, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI was an Italian operatic tenor who crossed over into popular music becoming one of the most commercially successful tenors of all time. He made numerous recordings of complete operas and individual arias, gaining worldwide fame for the quality of his tone, established himself as one of the finest tenors of the 20th century, achieving the honorific title The King Of High C's; as one of the Three Tenors who performed their first concert during the 1990 FIFA World Cup before a global audience, Pavarotti became well known for his televised concerts and media appearances. From the beginning of his professional career as a tenor in 1961 in Italy to his final performance of "Nessun dorma" at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Pavarotti was at his best in bel canto operas, pre-Aida Verdi roles, Puccini works such as La bohème, Tosca and Madama Butterfly, he sold over 100 million records, the first Three Tenors recording became the best-selling classical album of all time.
Pavarotti was noted for his charity work on behalf of refugees and the Red Cross, amongst others. He died from pancreatic cancer on 6 September 2007. Luciano Pavarotti was born in 1935 on the outskirts of Modena in Northern Italy, the son of Fernando Pavarotti, a baker and amateur tenor, Adele Venturi, a cigar factory worker. Although he spoke fondly of his childhood, the family had little money. According to Pavarotti, his father had a fine tenor voice but rejected the possibility of a singing career because of nervousness. World War II forced the family out of the city in 1943. For the following year they rented a single room from a farmer in the neighbouring countryside, where the young Pavarotti developed an interest in farming. After abandoning the dream of becoming a football goalkeeper, Pavarotti spent seven years in vocal training. Pavarotti's earliest musical influences were his father's recordings, most of them featuring the popular tenors of the day – Beniamino Gigli, Giovanni Martinelli, Tito Schipa, Enrico Caruso.
Pavarotti's favourite tenor and idol was Giuseppe Di Stefano and he was deeply influenced by Mario Lanza, saying: "In my teens I used to go to Mario Lanza movies and come home and imitate him in the mirror". At around the age of nine he began singing with his father in a small local church choir. After what appears to have been a normal childhood with a typical interest in sports—in Pavarotti's case football above all, he graduated from the Scuola Magistrale and faced the dilemma of a career choice, he was interested in pursuing a career as a professional football goalkeeper, but his mother convinced him to train as a teacher. He subsequently taught in an elementary school for two years but allowed his interest in music to win out. Recognising the risk involved, his father gave his consent only reluctantly. Pavarotti began the serious study of music in 1954 at the age of 19 with Arrigo Pola, a respected teacher and professional tenor in Modena who offered to teach him without remuneration. According to conductor Richard Bonynge, Pavarotti never learned to read music.
In 1955, he experienced his first singing success when he was a member of the Corale Rossini, a male voice choir from Modena that included his father, which won first prize at the International Eisteddfod in Llangollen, Wales. He said that this was the most important experience of his life, that it inspired him to become a professional singer. At about this time Pavarotti first met Adua Veroni, they married in 1961. When his teacher Arrigo Pola moved to Japan, Pavarotti became a student of Ettore Campogalliani, who at that time was teaching Pavarotti's childhood friend, Mirella Freni, whose mother worked with Luciano's mother in the cigar factory. Like Pavarotti, Freni went on to become a successful opera singer. During his years of musical study, Pavarotti held part-time jobs in order to sustain himself – first as an elementary school teacher and as an insurance salesman; the first six years of study resulted all in small towns and without pay. When a nodule developed on his vocal cords, causing a "disastrous" concert in Ferrara, he decided to give up singing.
Pavarotti attributed his immediate improvement to the psychological release connected with this decision. Whatever the reason, the nodule not only disappeared but, as he related in his autobiography: "Everything I had learned came together with my natural voice to make the sound I had been struggling so hard to achieve". Pavarotti began his career as a tenor in smaller regional Italian opera houses, making his debut as Rodolfo in La bohème at the Teatro Municipale in Reggio Emilia in April 1961, he made his first international appearance in La traviata in Yugoslavia. Early in his career, on 23 February 1963, he debuted at the Vienna State Opera in the same role. In March and April 1963 Vienna saw Pavarotti again as Duca di Mantova in Rigoletto; the same year saw his first concert outside Italy when he sang in Dundalk, Ireland for the St Cecilia's Gramophone Society and his Royal Opera House debut, where he replaced an indisposed Giuseppe Di Stefano as Rodolfo. While successful, Pavarotti's early roles did not propel him into the stardom that he would enjoy.
An early coup involved his connection with Joan Sutherland, who in 1963 had sought a young tenor taller than herself to take along on her tour to Australia. With his commanding physical presence, Pavarotti proved ideal; the two sang some forty perfo