Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100-metre sides, or 10,000 m2, is used in the measurement of land. There are 100 hectares in one square kilometre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the "are" was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 "ares" or 1⁄100 km2; when the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, mentioned in Section 4.1 of the SI Brochure as a unit whose use is "expected to continue indefinitely". The name was coined from the Latin ārea; the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. The law of 18 Germinal, Year III defined five units of measure: The metre for length The are for area The stère for volume of stacked firewood The litre for volumes of liquid The gram for massIn 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition.
The International Committee for Weights and Measures makes no mention of the are in the current definition of the SI, but classifies the hectare as a "Non-SI unit accepted for use with the International System of Units". In 1972, the European Economic Community passed directive 71/354/EEC, which catalogued the units of measure that might be used within the Community; the units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, supplemented by a few other units including the are whose use was limited to the measurement of land. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the original base unit of area, the are; the centiare is one square metre. The deciare is ten square metres; the are is a unit of area, used for measuring land area. It was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside the modern International System of Units, it is still used in colloquial speech to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, in various European countries.
In Russian and other languages of the former Soviet Union, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large; the decare is derived from deca and are, is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East and the Balkans as a measure of land area. Instead of the name "decare", the names of traditional land measures are used, redefined as one decare: Stremma in Greece Dunam, donum, or dönüm in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey Mål is sometimes used for decare in Norway, from the old measure of about the same area; the hectare, although not a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area, accepted for use within the SI. In practice the hectare is derived from the SI, being equivalent to a square hectometre, it is used throughout the world for the measurement of large areas of land, it is the legal unit of measure in domains concerned with land ownership and management, including law, agriculture and town planning throughout the European Union.
The United Kingdom, United States, to some extent Canada use the acre instead. Some countries that underwent a general conversion from traditional measurements to metric measurements required a resurvey when units of measure in legal descriptions relating to land were converted to metric units. Others, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used "when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation". In many countries, metrication clarified existing measures in terms of metric units; the following legacy units of area have been redefined as being equal to one hectare: Jerib in Iran Djerib in Turkey Gong Qing in Hong Kong / mainland China Manzana in Argentina Bunder in The Netherlands The most used units are in bold. One hectare is equivalent to: 1 square hectometre 15 mǔ or 0.15 qǐng 10 dunam or dönüm 10 stremmata 6.25 rai ≈ 1.008 chō ≈ 2.381 feddan Conversion of units Hecto- Hectometre Order of magnitude Official SI website: Table 6. Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
Shippards Chine is a geological feature on the south west coast of the Isle of Wight, England. It is just north of Hanover Point, it was a small sandy coastal gully. A set of steps have been attached to the culvert to provide access to the beach of Compton Bay; the Chine/culvert carries water from a lake about 200m to the east, just across the nearby Military Road and from small brooks that run down the hillside to the north. The Isle of Wight Coastal Path crosses the top of the chine via a small footbridge; the surrounding land is owned and managed by the National Trust and is accessible from a nearby car park. Useful info on chines of West Wight
Totland is a village, civil parish and electoral ward on the Isle of Wight. Besides the village of Totland, the civil parish comprises the western tip of the Isle of Wight, includes The Needles, Tennyson Down and the hamlet of Middleton; the village of Totland lies on the Western peninsula where the Western Yar cuts through along with Alum Bay and Freshwater. It lies on the coast at Colwell Bay, the closest part of the island to the British mainland, it is linked to other parts of the Island by Southern Vectis buses on route 7, route 12 serving Freshwater and Newport including intermediate villages. In the summer, open-top bus "The Needles Tour" serves the village. Christ Church, Totland is the Church of England parish. During Christmas 2012, a large landslip overran a section of the sea wall between Totland Bay and adjacent Colwell Bay blocking the walkway which ran along the top of the wall; the local council sealed off the affected section from the public. After a successful local campaign the council accepted a compromise solution and a new path over the landslip was opened to the public on 12th Sep 2015.
Christ Church, Totland Totland Bay List of current places of worship on the Isle of Wight
Shanklin Chine is a geological feature and tourist attraction in the town of Shanklin, on the Isle of Wight, England. A wooded coastal ravine, it contains waterfalls and lush vegetation, with footpaths and walkways allowing paid access for visitors, a heritage centre explaining its history. A chine is a local word for a stream cutting back into a soft cliff. Formation of the Chine, which cuts through Lower Greensand Cretaceous sandstones, has taken place over the last 10,000 years. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, stones were laid at the top of the waterfall to arrest this progress. There are a continuous series of spring lines on the cliff; the Isle of Wight has a number of chines. With a drop of 32 m to sea level, a length of just over 400m, the Chine covers an area of 1.2 hectares. Prior to the Victorian era Shanklin was a small agricultural and fishing community, the latter nestling at the foot of the chine, it was not until the early 19th century that it began to grow. Like most of the chines on the south of the Island, Shanklin Chine was well-used by smugglers.
The Chine became one of the earliest tourist attractions on the Isle of Wight, with records of the public visiting the site to view it as far back as 1817. Keats found inspiration for some of his greatest poetry while staying at Shanklin in 1819 and wrote: "The wondrous Chine here is a great Lion, it was a favourite subject for artists including Samuel Howitt. Descriptions of the site at the time are similar to the present day:'The delightful village of Shanklin. In this sequestered spot is a good inn, fitted up for the accommodation of visitors; the object of attraction at Shanklin is the Chine, (which is situated at about ten minutes walk from the inn. This phenomenon of nature is a combination of grandeur. On entering the Chine from the shore, we pass along one side and barren. On the other side the cliff is fertile, covered with hanging wood and bushes, adorned with a neat cottage, having a little rustic inn. About the middle of the Chine is a small Chalybeate: and the path now conducts by a serpentine course to a scene of awful grandeur, formed by stupendous masses of matter on each side, the rustling of a small cascade, which falls from the head of the Chine, passes between the dark and overhanging cliffs.
Extract from Beauties of the Isle of Wight published by S Horsley 1828 During the Second World War the Chine was taken over and used as an assault course by the Commandos whose HQ was at Upper Chine School. 40 Royal Marine Commando trained there in preparation for the Dieppe Raid in 1942. A fuel pipeline for Operation Pluto ran through the Chine. 65 yards of pipework has been preserved at the Chine, is kept in situ for the public to view. PLUTO, one of the great secret successes of the war, was the idea of Lord Louis Mountbatten who became governor of the Isle of Wight. During the Normandy invasion in 1944, forked pipelines from the Chine and Sandown carried petrol 65 miles under the Channel to Cherbourg. Shanklin Chine official website
Southern Vectis is a bus operator on the Isle of Wight. The company was founded in 1921 as "Dodson and Campbell" and became the "Vectis Bus Company" in 1923; the company was purchased by the Southern Railway before being nationalised in 1969. In 1987, the company was re-privatised. Southern Vectis was accused of unfair trade practices and was investigated by the British Office of Fair Trading. In July 2005, it became a subsidiary of Go-Ahead Group. In 1921 in Cowes, the company was founded as "Dodson & Campbell". In 1923, the company was renamed the "Vectis Bus Company". "Vectis" is the Roman name for the Isle of Wight. The buses were built by Christopher Dodson. In 1929, the company was purchased by Southern Railway and was incorporated as "The Southern Vectis Omnibus Company Limited". In 1948, Southern Railway was nationalised and in 1969, Southern Vectis became part of the National Bus Company. In 1986, with deregulation after the passing of the Transport Act 1985, the business was sold in a management buy out.
Five new operators entered the market on the Isle of Wight. In 1987, Southern Vectis started Badger Vectis in Poole, Solent Blue Line in Southampton; the new operations used second-hand double-deckers. Southern Vectis moved into other business areas on the isle of Wight; the company bought a self-drive van hire firm. It bought two Ford Granada taxis, which it ran from the Cowes pontoon and began taxibus services which continued till 1989. In 2003, Southern Vectis started "The Pink Peril", a pink bus designed to take students to and from school; the vehicle, an Iveco minibus was the oldest in the fleet. In July 2005, Southern Vectis and Solent Blue Line were sold to the Go-Ahead Group and became part of Go South Coast. In April 2006, the network was changed with Newport other routes linking to it; some routes, for example the "Island Explorer" were lost. However, the changes proved successful. Within 18 months, passenger numbers had increased by 45 percent; this included a 14 percent growth in fare-paying customers.
In October 2009, Southern Vectis launched a website promoting a car scrappage scheme. This offered Island residents a season ticket of bus journeys for use in the next twelve months if they agreed to scrap their car. Southern Vectis announced that five vehicles had been scrapped within the first fortnight of the promotion and it had received around 6,000 enquiries; as a result of deregulation in 1986, several competitors started and others increased existing services. These competitors included Gange's Minicoaches, Grand Hotel Tours, Island Travel, Moss Motor Tours, Seaview Services' RedLynx and Wiltax of Shanklin. Island Travel and Gange's Minicoaches established routes between Ryde; the newly privatised Southern Vectis responded with a number of new business practices. These practices raised the interest of the Office of Fair Trading who, in 1987, investigated the company and found their behaviour to be anti-competitive, it was alleged that Southern Vectis was engaged in "duplication", running buses ahead of competitors' where routes coincided, having their drivers lie in wait for competitors' vehicles in order to beat them to waiting passengers.
In 1991, duplication tactics were seen again when Southern Vectis shadowed an Isle of Wight County Council contracted bus run by Norman Baker Taxis. In 1986, Southern Vectis acquired Newport bus station as part of their privatisation and refused competitors access to it; the Office of Fair Trading report, published in 1988, found Southern Vectis' behaviour to be anti-competitive. Southern Vectis was told to either allow competitors to use the bus station or appear before the Competition Commission. Gange's Minicoaches, the plaintiff, was offered use of "Stand F" in Ryde bus station, was offered a stand in the Newport bus station. However, Gange's did not find the charges set for either station agreeable, continued to operate from the opposite side of Ryde bus station on council land and the South Street bus stop in Newport, until their service discontinued. Southern Vectis started to franchise its routes. For instance, Southern Vectis franchised Solent Blue Line routes to Marchwood Motorways.
The Traditional Bus Company and The Village Bus Company were franchised some open-top routes including the Shanklin Pony. In 2008, after its sale to Go-Ahead Group, Southern Vectis competed directly with the Isle of Wight Council's Wightbus school services, it duplicated claimed term ticket fees for student passengers from the council. In September 2010, the Isle of Wight council engaged Southern Vectis to operate many school bus routes. Under the terms of the contract, the general public were not able to use these services. In 2009, Southern Vectis operated fifteen standard bus services, the most frequent being route 1, running every 7–8 minutes. Night buses ran on some routes on Friday and Saturday nights: Southern Vectis's "Open Top Tours" ran two circular summer routes to tourist destinations. In 2007, "Open top Tours" was rebranded to "Island Breezers". Other open-top tours operated by Southern Vectis included "The Needles Breezer", "The Downs Breezer", "The Sandown Bay Breezer". In 2007, an "Island Coaster" service started between Ryde and Alum Bay with a ten-pound all day ticket or longer period tickets for local residents.
The Island Coaster followed the route of two former services, the "12" from Ryde to Sandown and the "7/7A" from Sandown to Alum Bay. Stops were at Freshwater Bay and Blackgang Chine, linking them with Ventnor, Shanklin and Ryde. To get between Blac
Totland Bay is a bay on the west coast of the Isle of Wight, England. It lies one-quarter of an mile to the west of the village of Totland, it faces north west and has a 2.5-mile-long shoreline and is made up of a straight west facing coast which has a beach, concrete seawall and derelict 450-foot-long Victorian pier and a straight north facing rocky coastline. It stretches from Warden Point in the north to Hatherwood Point in the south-west; the seabed is a mixture of mud and sand, clear of many underwater outcrops, this makes it a popular anchorage point for vessels. The beach is predominantly shingle. Since 2001 the quality of the beach has been high enough for it to be awarded the Seaside Award Flag. In the summer and seaweed are removed each day, with the latter being composted by local farmers; the pier is being refurbished to re-open the cafe, there before. The bay is best viewed from anywhere along the concrete seawall; the Isle of Wight Coastal Path runs along the seawall from Warden Point to Widdick Chine.
Weston Academy, which closed in 2015 is located in the bay area. IOW Council information