The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Use Your Illusion I
Use Your Illusion I is the third studio album by American rock band Guns N' Roses, released on the same day as its counterpart Use Your Illusion II. Both albums were released in conjunction with the Use Your Illusion Tour; the album debuted at No. 2 on the Billboard charts, selling 685,000 copies in its first week, behind Use Your Illusion II's first-week sales of 770,000. Use Your Illusion I has sold 5,502,000 units in the United States as of 2010, according to Nielsen SoundScan; each of the Use Your Illusion albums have been certified 7× Platinum by the RIAA. It was nominated for a Grammy Award in 1992; the album has sold 18,010,000 copies worldwide as of March 2018. The Use Your Illusion albums represent a turning point in the sound of Guns N' Roses. Although the band did not abandon the aggressive hard-rock sound it had become known for with 1987's Appetite for Destruction, Use Your Illusion I demonstrated a new-found musical maturity, incorporating elements of blues, classical music, heavy metal, punk rock, classic rock and roll.
This is exemplified by the use of piano on several tracks by singer Axl Rose and keyboardist Dizzy Reed, as well as on Use Your Illusion II. Use Your Illusion I contains two of the three songs, "November Rain" and "Don't Cry", whose videos are regarded by fans as a trilogy; the third song, "Estranged", can be found on Use Your Illusion II. Another factor in the different sound compared to the band's earlier work is the addition of former The Cult drummer Matt Sorum, who replaced Steven Adler. Adler was fired from the group due to heroin addiction. Guitarist Izzy Stradlin said: "Adler's sense of swing was the push and pull that give the songs their feel. When, gone, it was just... unbelievable, weird. Nothing worked. I would have preferred to continue with Steve, but we'd had two years off and we couldn't wait any longer."A number of songs on the album were written in the band's early days and can be found on a popular bootleg album of early demo tapes known as "The Rumbo Tapes". "Back Off Bitch," "Bad Obsession," "Don't Cry", "November Rain" and "The Garden" are considered part of this group.
There is a cover of Paul McCartney and Wings' "Live and Let Die". Besides the stylistic differences, another new aspect in Use Your Illusion I was longer songs. "November Rain", an epic ballad, is nearly nine minutes long, "Coma" is more than 10 minutes. Another change was the presence of tracks sung by other members of the band: lead vocals on "Dust N' Bones," "You Ain't the First" and "Double Talkin' Jive" are performed by rhythm guitarist Izzy Stradlin. In addition, "14 Years" and "So Fine" from Use Your Illusion II were sung by Izzy Stradlin and Duff McKagan, respectively; the band had some difficulty achieving the final sound during the mixing stages of both albums. According to a 1991 Rolling Stone cover story, after mixing 21 tracks with engineer/producer Bob Clearmountain, the band decided to scrap the mixes and start from scratch with engineer Bill Price of Sex Pistols fame. "If Axl liked the mix, Slash didn't," Price recalled, "and if Slash liked it, Axl didn't… They still hadn't finished the record when their massive 18-month world tour started, so the last half-dozen songs were recorded in random studios across America on days off between gigs."Slash has stated that a great deal of the material for the album was written on acoustic guitars in a couple of nights at his house, after several months of non-productivity.
"Right Next Door to Hell" is a product of discord between Axl and his West Hollywood high-rise neighbor, Gabriella Kantor. Kantor had Rose sued Rose, claiming he hit her with a wine bottle, he denied the charges and labeled her a "fanatical fan". The condo was given away in MTV's "Evict Axl" contest. Timo Caltia, who participated in the writing of this song, is a Finnish guitarist and guitar tech who once worked with Hanoi Rocks. He'd played a chorus riff of the song at his home. "Live and Let Die" was released as the second single from the Use Your Illusion I album and the fourth out of all the Use Your Illusion singles. A music video was made in November 1991 featuring the band playing live on stage and showing old pictures; the video was made shortly before Stradlin's departure and it was the last video where he appears. It charted at number 20 on the Mainstream Rock chart; the song was nominated for Best Hard Rock Performance during the 1993 Grammy Awards. "Don't Cry" is a power ballad and two versions were released on different albums.
The version with the original lyrics is featured on Use Your Illusion I, while the version with alternate lyrics is the 13th track on Use Your Illusion II. Only the vocal tracks differ, then only in the verses. There is a third version released only on the single for the song, recorded during the Appetite for Destruction sessions in 1986. Rose has stated, she was romantically involved with both Stradlin at different times. "Bad Obsession" is about tackling drug abuse and addiction, which had haunted the band since before they had become famous. Michael Monroe, lead singer of Hanoi Rocks and a big influence on Guns N' Roses, plays the harmonica and tenor saxophone on the studio version. A live version from the Tokyo Dome was featured on the Use Your Illusion I DVD as song number six and Rose take
W. Axl Rose is an American singer, record producer and musician, he is the lead vocalist of the hard rock band Guns N' Roses, has been the band's sole constant member since its inception in 1985. In addition to Guns N' Roses, he toured with Australian rock band AC/DC in 2016 during their Rock or Bust World Tour when Brian Johnson took a break due to hearing problems. Rose has been named one of the greatest singers of all time by various media outlets, including Rolling Stone and NME. Born and raised in Lafayette, Rose moved in the early 1980s to Los Angeles, where he became active in the local hard rock scene and joined several bands, including Hollywood Rose and L. A. Guns. In 1985, he co-founded Guns N' Roses, with whom he had great success and recognition in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their first album, Appetite for Destruction, has sold in excess of 30 million copies worldwide, is the best-selling debut album of all time in the U. S. with 18 million units sold. Its full-length follow-ups, the twin albums Use Your Illusion I and Use Your Illusion II, were widely successful.
After 1994, following the conclusion of their two-and-a-half-year Use Your Illusion Tour, Rose disappeared from public life for several years, while the band disintegrated due to personal and musical differences. As its sole remaining original member, he was able to continue working under the Guns N' Roses banner because he had obtained the band name. In 2001, he resurfaced with a new line-up of Guns N' Roses at Rock in Rio 3, subsequently played periodic concert tours to promote the long-delayed Chinese Democracy, which undersold the music industry's commercial expectations despite positive reviews upon its release. In 2012, Rose was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Guns N' Roses, though he declined to attend the event and requested exclusion from the Hall. In 2016, Rose reunited the "classic" lineup of Guns N' Roses and has since toured the world as part of the Not in This Lifetime... Tour; that same year, Rose toured with AC/DC, filling in for Brian Johnson as the lead singer of the group and embarked on a world tour with them.
Rose was born William Bruce Rose Jr. in Lafayette, the oldest child of Sharon Elizabeth 16 years old and still in high school, William Bruce Rose 20 years old. He is of maternal German ancestry, his father has been described as "a troubled and charismatic local delinquent," and the pregnancy was unplanned. His parents separated when Rose was two years old, prompting his father to abduct and molest him before disappearing from Lafayette, his mother remarried to Stephen L. Bailey, changed her son's name to William Bruce Bailey, he has two younger siblings—a sister, a half-brother, Stuart. Until the age of 17, Rose believed, he never met his biological father as an adult. Rose did not learn about the murder until years later; the Bailey household was religious. Rose recalled an oppressive upbringing, stating, "We'd have televisions one week my stepdad would throw them out because they were Satanic. I wasn't allowed to listen to music. Women were evil. Everything was evil." He accused his stepfather of physically abusing him and his siblings and sexually abusing his sister.
Rose found solace in music from an early age. He sang in the church choir from the age of five, performed at services with his brother and sister under the name the Bailey Trio. At Jefferson High School, he studied piano. A second baritone, Rose began developing "different voices" during chorus practice to confuse his teacher, he formed a band with his friends, one of whom was Jeff Isbell known as Izzy Stradlin. At the age of 17, while going through insurance papers in his parents' home, Rose learned of his biological father's existence, he unofficially readopted his birth name. However, he referred to himself only as W. Rose, because he did not want to share a first name with his biological father. Following the discovery of his true family origins, Rose became the local juvenile delinquent in Lafayette. After Lafayette authorities threatened to charge him as a habitual criminal, Rose moved to Los Angeles, California, in December 1982. After moving to Los Angeles, he became so engrossed in his band AXL that his friends suggested he call himself Axl Rose.
Shortly after his arrival in Los Angeles, Rose met guitarist Kevin Lawrence outside The Troubadour in West Hollywood and joined his band Rapidfire. They recorded a five-song demo in May 1983, after years of legal action, was released as an EP, Ready to Rumble, in 2014. After parting ways with Lawrence, he formed the band Hollywood Rose with his childhood friend Izzy Stradlin, who had moved to Los Angeles in 1980, 16-year-old guitarist Chris Weber. In January 1984, the band recorded a five-song demo featuring the tracks "Anything Goes", "Rocker", "Shadow of Your Love", "Reckless Life", relea
Not in This Lifetime... Tour
The Not in This Lifetime... Tour was a concert tour by hard rock band Guns N' Roses, spanning from April 1, 2016 to December 8, 2018, it featured classic lineup members Axl Rose and Duff McKagan, marking the first time since the Use Your Illusion Tour in 1993 that the three performed together. After the previous tour in 2014, guitarists DJ Ashba & Ron "Bumblefoot" Thal, bassist Tommy Stinson and keyboardist Chris Pitman left Guns N' Roses, leaving the band with several open spots. Former members Slash and McKagan rejoined the band and Melissa Reese joined as keyboardist; the group embarked with 159 shows performed. The group welcomed former drummer Steven Adler to the stage for several shows as a guest spot, the first time he had played with the group since 1990; the tour was a financial success, grossing over $563.3 million, making it the second-highest-grossing concert tour of all time. The tour was 2016's highest-earning per-city global concert tour as well as the fourth-highest-grossing overall that year.
In 2017 the tour ranked as the second highest grossing worldwide tour. The tour was honored at the Billboard Touring Awards in November 2017, winning Top Tour/Top Draw and being nominated for Top Boxscore. After their last tour ended in 2014, there was uncertainty surrounding the band the guitarist situation. Ron "Bumblefoot" Thal had hinted during the last part of the tour that these would be his last shows with Guns N' Roses. However, after the tour ended, no official word on the situation was given from Guns N' Roses nor Thal himself. During several South American shows on the tour, Duff McKagan had filled in for bassist Tommy Stinson, who fulfilled previous commitments with his other band The Replacements. A year after the tour ended, on May 7, 2015 Slash revealed in an interview on CBS This Morning that much of the tension that had existed between Axl and himself was gone, saying: "Well, we haven't talked in a long time, but a lot of the tension that you were talking about has dissipated.
We don't have all those issues anymore." When asked about the chances of Guns N' Roses reuniting, he said: "I gotta be careful what I say there. I mean, if everybody wanted to do it and do it for the right reasons, you know, I think the fans would love it. I think it might be fun at some point to try and do that, but it just starts to get into a whole complex thing, but anyway, it's between the guys in the band." This sparked the start of what would prove to be a long period of speculation on a reunion by both the fans and the media. Slash revealed that he and Axl spoke via telephone in March 2015. On July 27, 2015 the news broke that Guns N' Roses' co-lead guitarist, DJ Ashba, was leaving the band, he wrote a letter explaining that he was going to focus his work on his other group, Sixx:A. M. which he had formed with bassist Nikki Sixx and vocalist James Michael in 2007. At the same time he thanked Rose for the opportunity he was given by playing with Guns N' Roses and it seemed like they had left things on good terms.
While this news story was picking up, it was at the same time confirmed by a representative of Guns N' Roses that Thal was out of the band. The leaving of both Ashba and Thal, combined with Slash's comments on a reunion only a couple months before, further fueled both media and fan speculation about a reunion being in the works. Furthermore, on August 22, 2015, Slash stated to the Swedish newspaper Aftonbladet that Axl and he had spoken recently; this was considered a big news story because it was common knowledge that the two of them had not spoken since he left the band in 1996. When asked about the re-connection with Rose, Slash commented "it was way overdue". Rumors of a reunited Guns N' Roses started to pick up more and more during the fall of 2015. More reports came in claiming to have a confirmation that a reunion would happen, but no official statement was made during this period. One of the questions on people's minds was if this was going to be a full reunion of the "classic line-up" or if it would be just one or two people from that line-up returning to the band.
Steven Adler admitted during a radio interview with Eddie Trunk that he had not heard anything from Guns N' Roses about a reunion. Classic-era member Izzy Stradlin confirmed to Rolling Stone that he will have no involvement with the new lineup. Former drummer Matt Sorum stated he was not asked to be part of the reunion, while departed guitarist Ashba claimed he was asked by Rose to be a part of the lineup but had turned it down, citing his commitment to Sixx:A. M. Stradlin explained his absence on the tour stating "they didn't want to split the loot equally". Chinese Democracy-era members Richard Fortus and Frank Ferrer remained with the band to fill the rhythm guitarist and drummer slots respectively. In late December 2015, the Guns N' Roses website was updated, scrapping much of the content and displaying the classic Guns N' Roses bullet-logo; the logo had not been used in official promotion since the Use Your Illusion days. On Christmas Day, a teaser trailer debuted before the new Star Wars movie.
The 15-second video showed black and white shots of a concert audience with the opening words of "Welcome to the Jungle" played. No additional narration or text accompanied the trailer. On December 29, 2015, Billboard reported that Slash was set to rejoin the band and a "reunited" lineup would headline Coachella 2016. Rose was set to appear on Jimmy Kimmel Live! the following week to talk about the future of the band, but his appearance was cancelled due to "unforeseen circumstances". Guns N' Roses were announced as the headliner of Coachella on January 4, 2016, with the press reporting Slash a
Matthew William Sorum is an American drummer and percussionist. He is best known as both a former member of the hard rock band Guns N' Roses, with whom he recorded three studio albums, as a member of the supergroup Velvet Revolver. Sorum is a member of the touring project, Kings of Chaos, is a former member of both the Cult and Y Kant Tori Read. Sorum was a member of Guns N' Roses side-projects, Slash's Snakepit and Neurotic Outsiders, has released two solo albums, Hollywood Zen and Stratosphere, he has been the drummer for the supergroup Hollywood Vampires since 2015. After performing on synthpop band Y Kant Tori Read's sole album, Sorum joined the Cult in 1989 to tour in support of their fourth studio album, Sonic Temple. During the tour, Sorum was spotted by Guns N' Roses guitarist Slash and subsequently replaced their drummer Steven Adler in 1990. Remaining in the band for seven years, Sorum recorded the albums, Use Your Illusion I, Use Your Illusion II, "The Spaghetti Incident?", before departing in 1997 following an argument with Axl Rose.
In 2001, Sorum rejoined The Cult to perform on their reunion album, Beyond Good and Evil, its subsequent tour and subsequently co-founded the hard rock supergroup Velvet Revolver, alongside former Guns N' Roses bandmates and Duff McKagan. The band, which included guitarist Dave Kushner and Stone Temple Pilots frontman Scott Weiland, released two successful studio albums and Libertad, before entering an extended hiatus following Weiland's departure. Sorum has been a permanent member of hard rock cover band Camp Freddy since 2003, alongside Jane's Addiction members Dave Navarro and Chris Chaney, assisted in hosting its radio show and podcast on Indie 103.1. In 2012, Sorum founded a touring project, entitled Kings of Chaos, featuring members of Guns N' Roses, Deep Purple, Def Leppard, Aerosmith, ZZ Top, Cheap Trick and Slipknot. In 2012, Sorum was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Guns N' Roses. Sorum was born Matthew William Sorum on November 19, 1960, in an unincorporated area of Orange County, California that became the city of Mission Viejo.
He started to play drums after watching Ringo Starr with The Beatles on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964. He was influenced by Ian Paice, Keith Moon, Neil Peart, Ginger Baker, John Bonham, Roger Taylor, Buddy Rich and Bill Ward. In his first couple of years in high school, Sorum was part of the Mission Viejo Marching Bands drum section. Sorum started out in Mission Viejo as a local hot musician in 1975. Wearing trademark "Union Flag" shorts and nothing else, he used to pound a huge acrylic drumset and overpower his first band "Prophecy," which consisted of him and lead singer / guitarist Jeff Harris, bass player David Pagan. Prophecy played many gigs ranging from high schools to concerts, all the way to the Hollywood scene, where they played clubs like Gazzarri's in 1977. A local songwriter, Stephen Douglas, pulled Sorum from the band and joined him with other talented musicians, Scott Andrews on guitar and Jay Fullmer on bass, in the area to form Chateau, a wall-of-sound band with grandiose themes and sounds in their songs.
They recorded their first tracks at Doug Moody's Mystic Studios in Hollywood, famous as the site where Led Zeppelin's'Lemon Song' was recorded. Chateau played the Hollywood circuit, appearing at Gazzarri's and getting into a fight with the original members of the band Ratt, which at the time was known as Mickey Ratt. Sorum's work with Chateau produced a four-song set, covered by local radio stations for a short time, but the music scene changed from grandiose rock to punk and alternative new wave music. Sorum left and went to Hollywood to play with a series of bands, including Population Five, with bassist Prescott Niles from The Knack, he left on a tour around the country with a blues guitarist, playing nightclubs and bars. In 1988, he was recruited to play on the debut album of Y Kant Tori Read, a band fronted by a unknown Tori Amos. In the wake of that project, he joined The Cult as their live drummer for the 1989 tour in support of Sonic Temple. In 1989, Slash saw Sorum live with The Cult on the Sonic Temple tour and, shortly after, Sorum joined Guns N' Roses as Steven Adler's replacement.
Sorum with Guns N' Roses can be heard on Use Your Illusion I, Use Your Illusion II, "The Spaghetti Incident?", the 1994 cover of The Rolling Stones track "Sympathy for the Devil" and the majority of Live Era:'87-'93. Sorum featured on the lengthy Use Your Illusion Tour, drumming on all of the 194 shows, 9 legs and to over 7 million fans. In 1995, Sorum formed Slash's Snakepit with Slash and Gilby Clarke and drummed on their debut album It's Five O'Clock Somewhere. Sorum lent his drumming skills in the theme song for the 1995 20th Century Fox film, Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie; that same year, Sorum formed the supergroup Neurotic Outsiders, which featured bandmate Duff McKagan. In 1996 they released the self-titled Neurotic Outsiders. John Taylor and Steve Jones participated on this album, toured behind it. Early performances featured guest spots by Simon Le Bon and Billy Idol. In 1997, Sorum was fired from Guns N' Roses by Axl Rose after an argument with Rose over the inclusion of Paul Tobias in the band.
In 1998, he released his first and only drum instructional video demonstrating his techniques. In 2001 Matt joined The Cult once again and featured on their album, Beyond Good And Evil, which he spent most of 2001 touring in
Saul Hudson, better known by his stage name Slash, is a British–American musician and songwriter. He is the lead guitarist of the American hard rock band Guns N' Roses, with whom he achieved worldwide success in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Slash has received critical acclaim and is considered one of the greatest guitarists in rock history. In 1993, Slash formed. Slash has released four solo albums: Slash, featuring an array of guest musicians, Apocalyptic Love, World on Fire and Living the Dream recorded with his band, Myles Kennedy and the Conspirators, he returned to Guns N' Roses in 2016. Time magazine named him runner-up on their list of "The 10 Best Electric Guitar Players" in 2009, while Rolling Stone placed him at number 65 on their list of "The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time" in 2011. Guitar World ranked his guitar solo in "November Rain" number 6 on their list of "The 100 Greatest Guitar Solos" in 2008, Total Guitar placed his riff in "Sweet Child o' Mine" at number 1 on their list of "The 100 Greatest Riffs" in 2004.
In 2010, Gibson Guitar Corporation ranked Slash as number 34 on their "Top 50 Guitarists of All Time", while their readers landed him number 9 on Gibson's "Top 25 Guitarists of All Time". In 2012, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Guns N' Roses' classic lineup. Hudson was born in London, he was named after an artist. His mother, Ola J. Hudson, was an African-American costume designer, whose clients included David Bowie. Of his mixed background, Slash remarked, "As a musician, I've always been amused that I'm both British and black. During his early years, Slash was raised by his father and paternal grandparents in Stoke-on-Trent, while his mother moved to Los Angeles for work; when Slash was around five years old, he and his father joined his mother in Los Angeles, California. His brother, Albion "Ash" Hudson, was born in 1972. Following his parents' separation in 1974, Slash became a self-described "problem child." He chose to live with his mother and was sent to live with his beloved maternal grandmother whenever his mother had to travel for her job.
Slash sometimes accompanied his mother to work, where he met several music stars. He was given the nickname "Slash" by actor Seymour Cassel, because he was "always in a hurry, zipping around from one thing to another."In 1979, Slash decided to form a band with his friend Steven Adler. The band never materialized. Since Adler had designated himself the role of guitarist, Slash decided to learn. Equipped with a one-string flamenco guitar given to him by his grandmother, he began taking classes with Robert Wolin, a teacher at Fairfax Music School. During his first lesson, Slash decided to switch from bass to guitar after hearing Wolin play "Brown Sugar" by The Rolling Stones, his decision to play guitar was further influenced by one of his school teachers, who would play songs by Cream and Led Zeppelin for his students. As a result, Slash stated, "When I heard him do that, I said,'That's what I want to do." A champion BMX rider, Slash put the bike aside to devote himself to playing guitar, practicing up to 12 hours a day.
Slash was a classmate of Lenny Kravitz and Zoro. Slash joined his first band, Tidus Sloan, in 1981. In 1983, he formed the band Road Crew—named after the Motörhead song " The Road Crew"—with his childhood friend Steven Adler, who by had learned to play drums, he placed an advertisement in a newspaper looking for a bassist, received a response from Duff McKagan. They auditioned a number of singers, including one-time Black Flag vocalist Ron Reyes, worked on material that included the main riff of what would become the Guns N' Roses song "Rocket Queen." Slash disbanded the group the following year due to them not being able to find a singer, as well as Adler's lack of work ethic compared to himself and McKagan. He, along with Adler joined a local band known as Hollywood Rose, which featured singer Axl Rose and guitarist Izzy Stradlin. Following his time with Hollywood Rose, Slash played in a band called Black Sheep and unsuccessfully auditioned for Poison, a glam metal band that he would openly deride.
In June 1985, Slash was asked by Axl Rose and Izzy Stradlin to join the newly founded Guns N' Roses, along with Duff McKagan and Steven Adler. They played Los Angeles-area nightclubs—such as the Whisky a Go Go, The Roxy, The Troubadour—and opened for larger acts throughout 1985 and 1986. Before one of the shows in 1985, Slash shoplifted a black felt top hat and a Native American-style silver concho belt from two stores on Melrose Avenue in L. A, he combined the hat with parts of the belt to create a piece of custom headwear for the show. He said he "felt cool" in the hat, it became his trademark, it was during 1985–1986 that the band wrote most of its classic material, including "Welcome to the Jungle," "Sweet Child o' Mine", "Paradise City," As a result of their rowdy and rebellious behavior, Guns N' Roses received the moniker "Most Dangerous Band in the World," causing Sl
Hard rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music that began in the mid-1960s, with the garage and blues rock movements. It is typified by a heavy use of aggressive vocals, distorted electric guitars, bass guitar and accompanied with keyboards. Hard rock developed into a major form of popular music in the 1970s, with notable bands such as AC/DC, the Who, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Aerosmith and Van Halen. During the 1980s, some hard rock bands moved away from their hard rock roots and more towards pop rock, while others began to return to a hard rock sound. Established bands made a comeback in the mid-1980s and it reached a commercial peak in the 1980s, with glam metal bands like Bon Jovi and Def Leppard and the rawer sounds of Guns N' Roses, which followed up with great success in the part of that decade. Hard rock began losing popularity with the commercial success of R&B, hip-hop, urban pop and Britpop in the 1990s. Despite this, many post-grunge bands adopted a hard rock sound and in the 2000s there came a renewed interest in established bands, attempts at a revival, new hard rock bands that emerged from the garage rock and post-punk revival scenes.
Out of this movement came garage rock bands like the White Stripes, the Strokes, Interpol and on, the Black Keys. In the 2000s, only a few hard rock bands from the 1970s and 1980s managed to sustain successful recording careers. Hard rock is a form of aggressive rock music; the electric guitar is emphasised, used with distortion and other effects, both as a rhythm instrument using repetitive riffs with a varying degree of complexity, as a solo lead instrument. Drumming characteristically focuses on driving rhythms, strong bass drum and a backbeat on snare, sometimes using cymbals for emphasis; the bass guitar works in conjunction with the drums playing riffs, but providing a backing for the rhythm and lead guitars. Vocals are growling, raspy, or involve screaming or wailing, sometimes in a high range, or falsetto voice. Hard rock has sometimes been labelled cock rock for its emphasis on overt masculinity and sexuality and because it has been predominantly performed and consumed by men: in the case of its audience white, working-class adolescents.
In the late 1960s, the term heavy metal was used interchangeably with hard rock, but began to be used to describe music played with more volume and intensity. While hard rock maintained a bluesy rock and roll identity, including some swing in the back beat and riffs that tended to outline chord progressions in their hooks, heavy metal's riffs functioned as stand-alone melodies and had no swing in them. Heavy metal took on "darker" characteristics after Black Sabbath's breakthrough at the beginning of the 1970s. In the 1980s it developed a number of subgenres termed extreme metal, some of which were influenced by hardcore punk, which further differentiated the two styles. Despite this differentiation, hard rock and heavy metal have existed side by side, with bands standing on the boundary of, or crossing between, the genres; the roots of hard rock can be traced back to the 1950s electric blues, which laid the foundations for key elements such as a rough declamatory vocal style, heavy guitar riffs, string-bending blues-scale guitar solos, strong beat, thick riff-laden texture, posturing performances.
Electric blues guitarists began experimenting with hard rock elements such as driving rhythms, distorted guitar solos and power chords in the 1950s, evident in the work of Memphis blues guitarists such as Joe Hill Louis, Willie Johnson, Pat Hare, who captured a "grittier, more ferocious electric guitar sound" on records such as James Cotton's "Cotton Crop Blues". Other antecedents include Link Wray's instrumental "Rumble" in 1958, the surf rock instrumentals of Dick Dale, such as "Let's Go Trippin'" and "Misirlou". In the 1960s, American and British blues and rock bands began to modify rock and roll by adding harder sounds, heavier guitar riffs, bombastic drumming, louder vocals, from electric blues. Early forms of hard rock can be heard in the work of Chicago blues musicians Elmore James, Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, the Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" which made it a garage rock standard, the songs of rhythm and blues influenced British Invasion acts, including "You Really Got Me" by the Kinks, "My Generation" by the Who, "Shapes of Things" by the Yardbirds, "Inside Looking Out" by the Animals, " Satisfaction" by the Rolling Stones.
From the late 1960s, it became common to divide mainstream rock music that emerged from psychedelia into soft and hard rock. Soft rock was derived from folk rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody and harmonies. In contrast, hard rock was most derived from blues rock and was played louder and with more intensity. Blues rock acts that pioneered the sound included Cream, the Jimi Hendrix Experience, the Jeff Beck Group. Cream, in songs like "I Feel Free" combined blues rock with pop and psychedelia in the riffs and guitar solos of Eric Clapton. Jimi Hendrix produced a form of blues-influenced psychedelic rock, which combined elements of jazz and rock and roll. From 1967 Jeff Beck brought lead guitar to new heights of technical virtuosity and moved blues rock in the direction of heavy rock with his band, the Jeff Beck Group. Dave Davies of the Kinks, Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones, Pete Townshend of the Who, Hendrix and Beck all pioneered the use of new guitar effects like phasing and distortion.
The Beatles began producing songs in the new