The median is the value separating the higher half from the lower half of a data sample. For a data set, it may be thought of as the "middle" value. For example, in the data set, the median is 6, the fourth largest, the fifth smallest, number in the sample. For a continuous probability distribution, the median is the value such that a number is likely to fall above or below it; the median is a used measure of the properties of a data set in statistics and probability theory. The basic advantage of the median in describing data compared to the mean is that it is not skewed so much by large or small values, so it may give a better idea of a "typical" value. For example, in understanding statistics like household income or assets which vary a mean may be skewed by a small number of high or low values. Median income, for example, may be a better way to suggest; because of this, the median is of central importance in robust statistics, as it is the most resistant statistic, having a breakdown point of 50%: so long as no more than half the data are contaminated, the median will not give an arbitrarily large or small result.
The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the numbers from smallest to greatest. If there is an odd number of numbers, the middle one is picked. For example, consider the list of numbers 1, 3, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9This list contains seven numbers; the median is the fourth of them, 6. If there is an number of observations there is no single middle value. For example, in the data set 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9the median is the mean of the middle two numbers: this is / 2, 4.5.. The formula used to find the index of the middle number of a data set of n numerically ordered numbers is / 2; this either gives the halfway point between the two middle values. For example, with 14 values, the formula will give an index of 7.5, the median will be taken by averaging the seventh and eighth values. So the median can be represented by the following formula: m e d i a n = a ⌈ # x ÷ 2 ⌉ + a ⌈ # x ÷ 2 + 1 ⌉ 2 One can find the median using the Stem-and-Leaf Plot. There is no accepted standard notation for the median, but some authors represent the median of a variable x either as x͂ or as μ1/2 sometimes M.
In any of these cases, the use of these or other symbols for the median needs to be explicitly defined when they are introduced. The median is used for skewed distributions, which it summarizes differently from the arithmetic mean. Consider the multiset; the median is 2 in this case, it might be seen as a better indication of central tendency than the arithmetic mean of 4. The median is a popular summary statistic used in descriptive statistics, since it is simple to understand and easy to calculate, while giving a measure, more robust in the presence of outlier values than is the mean; the cited empirical relationship between the relative locations of the mean and the median for skewed distributions is, not true. There are, various relationships for the absolute difference between them. With an number of observations no value need be at the value of the median. Nonetheless, the value of the median is uniquely determined with the usual definition. A related concept, in which the outcome is forced to correspond to a member of the sample, is the medoid.
In a population, at most half have values less than the median and at most half have values greater than it. If each group contains less than half the population some of the population is equal to the median. For example, if a < b < c the median of the list is b, and, if a < b < c < d the median of the list is the mean of b and c. Indeed, as it is based on the middle data in a group, it is not necessary to know the value of extreme results in order to calculate a median. For example, in a psychology test investigating the time needed to solve a problem, if a small number of people failed to solve the problem at all in the given time a median can still be calculated; the median can be used as a measure of location when a distribution is skewed, when end-values are not known, or when one requires reduced importance to be attached to outliers, e.g. because they may be measurement errors. A median is only defined on ordered one-dimensional data, is independent of any distance metric. A geometric median, on the other hand, is defined in any number of dimensions.
The median is one of a number of ways
The Generalitat Valenciana is the generic name covering the different self-government institutions under which the Spanish autonomous community of Valencia is politically organized. It consists of seven institutions including the Corts Valencianes, the President of the Generalitat, or the autonomous government itself, its functions are regulated by the Valencian Statute of Autonomy. Despite being present in various cities of the Valencian Community, the main locations of the autonomous Parliament, presidency of the Generalitat and the Consell are all in the city of Valencia. There is an office in Brussels appointed by the Generalitat Valenciana lobbying before the European Union; the current President of the Generalitat Valenciana is Ximo Puig of the Socialist Party of the Valencian Community, born in Morella. He assumed the Presidency in June 2015 and took office in Les Corts in the same month, as the head of a coalition between the PSPV-PSOE, Coalició Compromís and Podem; the Generalitat Valenciana was created in 1418.
It acted, along with the Monarch shared with the other territories of the Crown of Aragon, as the ruling body of the Kingdom of Valencia. Its posts were designated for three year terms. In 1510, the process of designating posts was reorganized, becoming more automatic and less elective; this re-organization stayed the same until 1709, when it was abolished as a consequence of the War of the Spanish Succession and the subsequent Nueva Planta decrees, along with the other fueros of the Kingdom of Valencia. The Generalitat Valenciana was not re-established until 1982, after the corresponding Valencian Statute of Autonomy was approved. El Consell consists of eight members, each the leader of an institution; these institutions are: Education and Sports in charge of education, formal training, sciences, promotion of cultural heritage, language policy, sports. Treasury and Public Administrations responsible for finance, the Valencian business sector, public service, information technology and management communication.
Health responsible for public health. Planning and Environment responsible for public works and coastline planning and building quality, transportation and airports, environment and climate change. Social Welfare responsible for policies affecting social services, the disabled, children, youth and immigration. Government and Justice responsible for civil protection, management of the National Police assigned to Valencia and extinction of fires, management of emergency situations, statutory development, professional associations, notarial records. Economics and Employment in charge of the economy, business sector, industry, craftsmanship and foreign trade and investigation and innovation of technology and energy. Agriculture, Fishing and Water responsible for establishing and maintaining relations with other countries of the European Union, other Autonomous Communities, local administrations, citizens. La Generalitat Valenciana comprises seven institutions: Les Corts Consell Valencia de Cultura Comité Econòmic i Social Sindicatura de Comptes Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua Síndic de Greuges Consell Jurídic Consultiu The Corts Valencianes is the Valencian Parliament.
It represents the people of Valencia via the members of parliament. These members are elected using a universal, direct and secret vote, it is made up of 75-100 members, which are determined by the Statute of Autonomy and through the voting process. The Statute of Autonomy requires any candidate running for a Seat must "stand for a party or coalition that obtains more than 5% of the given votes in all the Autonomous Community." The D’Hondt method is used to distribute Seats. In the VIII Term, 35 members of Parliament were elected in the Alicante district, 24 members in the Castellon district, 40 in the Valencia district; the Statute of Autonomy dedicates Chapter II of Title III to the Valencian Parliament, which only outlines the composition of the Parliament, the basic principles of the election system, their corresponding duties, sets out a general outline of the Statute of the Members of Parliament. The Valencian Parliament Regulations were developed in addition to the Statute of Autonomy to govern the organization and functioning of this Institution.
On March 4, 1983, the first draft of the Valencian Parliament Regulations was approved during the Transitional Phase. Since it has undergone several modifications, which were approved by the Valencian Parliament on December 18, 2006; the contemporary Corts Valencianes differs from its historical counterpart of the same name. The former Corts Valencianes was organized into three arms – Ecclesiastic and Royal – which had different duties than the Corts today; the Consell Valencia de Cultura is a consultation and advisory institution for the Generalitat Valenciana for affairs related to Valencian culture. It promotes the region's cultural and linguistic values; the Council’s headquarters are located in the city of Valencia, but has held sessions in Valencian municipal centers such as Castelló de la Plana, Morella and Vilafamés. The Economic and Social Committee is a body of the government that provides consultations on economic, social and employment matters, it is a part of the public institutions of Valencia.
The Sindicatura de Comptes, or Audit Office in English, is responsible for the external audit of the economic and financial activity of the public sector in the
Ribera Alta (comarca)
Ribera Alta is a comarca in the province of Valencia, Valencian Community, Spain. The Júcar, the great river of the Valencian community, is most characteristic of the Ribera Alta, bringing water from the Cuenca to fertilize this plain, situated to the south of the Valencia; the economy of this predominantly agricultural regionis based upon the orange harvest, a crop, cultivated since the 18th century. From its rich historical and artistic heritage, the most noteworthy of all of the region’s treasures are the towns of La Pobla Llarga and Alzira. These, alongside a rich and varied gastronomy and an extensive festival calendar, make this region, still untouched by tourists, a attractive area in which to spend time. Alberic Alcàntera de Xúquer L'Alcúdia Alfarp Algemesí Alginet Alzira Antella Beneixida Benifaió Benimodo Benimuslem Carcaixent Càrcer Carlet Castelló de la Ribera Catadau Cotes L'Ènova Gavarda Guadassuar Llombai Manuel Massalavés Montroy Montserrat La Pobla Llarga Rafelguaraf Real Sallent de Xàtiva Sant Joanet Senyera Sumacàrcer Tous Turís The gastronomy of the Ribera Alta is, like the rest of Valencia, rich in rice dishes.
Here the specialties include the well-known food of the fens such as dry rice dishes and stews cooked on an open fire or in the heat of clay ovens. Dishes such as all ipebre, espardenyà, as well as the universally known Valencian paella, provide a diverse culinary offering which can be tasted in the many bars and restaurants of the region; the desserts consist of a rich and varied range of sweetbreads and cakes, the most noteworthy of which include arnadí de carabassa, pastissets de moniato, panquemados from Alberic or fogasses, made of sugar and flour, not to mention honey from Montroy, all to be taken with the excellent Moscatel and Malvazia wines from Montserrat and Turis. The Ribera Alta is an excellent festive region, with annual fiestas taking place in each and every one of the villages and towns, most notably the popular religious festivities and celebrationsheld in the summer months; some of the most outstanding fiestas are the Fallas of Saint Joseph, where statues are erected and burnt in many villages in the middle of March, les Danses de Guadassuar, held in the last week of August, the festivals of Mare de déu delLluch in the village of Alzira and Mare de Déu d’Aigües Vives in the village of Carcaixent, or the festival of Mare de Déu de la Salut in the village of Algemesi on September, which has taken place for over 800 years.
La Mare de Déu de la Salut Festival takes place in the historical parts of the city of Algemesí on 7 and 8 September each year. Here the music of the dolçaina i tabalet, a type of flute, accompanies the traditional dances of la carxofa, les pastoretes and the popular la Muixeranga; these festivals have been declared of tourist interest and precede the Semana de Bous, which takes place in the interesting bullring, which unusually, is rectangular-shaped. The orange is the fruit of the citrus sinensis or aurantium, a tree that first appeared in China and other southern areas of the Asian continent; the fruit made its way from the Far East to the European continent, reaching Spain, through Valencia, spreading throughout the rest of the world. In Greek mythology the Garden of the Hesperides is a mythological grove where apples grew tended to by nymphs and a dragon. Hercules, the hero of classical literature, killed the guardian, entered the garden and plucked those golden apples –In years it was thought that the "golden apples" might have been oranges, a fruit unknown to Europe before the Middle Ages.
Several scholars defend that the etymology of the word comes from the Sanskrit term narang and the Persian word narensh. When Arabs brought orange farming to the Iberian Peninsula, they called the fruits naranjah; the Region of Valencia maintained the orange-farming tradition after the Arabic period, with references to orange trees in the city of Valencia dating back to the 14th century. In fact, there is an Orange Courtyard inside Valencia’s 15th century Silk Exchange market, a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the first references to commercial orange plantations date back to the 18th century. At present, there are 150,000 hectares of orange groves in the Region of Valencia producing orange and mandarin varieties including satsumas, navel oranges, common oranges, blood oranges, hybrids, as the most important specimens Ribera Alta has a long orange farming tradition; the economy and population boomed in the area in the 18th century, Ribera Alta profited from an expansion that affected a sector as important as agriculture.
Orange farming was introduced in this context. According to the historical records, in 1781 priest Vicente Monzó, notary Maseres and pharmacist Bodí, planted the first fields of orange trees in Carcaixent; the trees thrived in the land, favoured by the benign Mediterranean climate, adapted to Valencian soil both on rain-fed farmland and irrigated land fed by river Júcar, whose extensive irrigation channel distributed fertile water around the whole of the Ribera Altaarea. In the early 19th century, orange trees started to replace other crops, such as rice and mulberries, taking over as the main local crop. Wholesale exports of oranges commenced in this century, fuelled by the arrival of the railway
Ports de Morella
Ports de Morella, is a historical Valencian comarca. It takes its name from the city of Morella, its capital and the only place in the region having been granted the title of'city', it overlaps with the present-day Ports comarca except for the municipal areas surrounding Catí and Vilafranca that were excluded from the present-day Ports administrative division. Maestrat Tinença de Benifassà Juan Piqueras, Geografia de les comarques valencianes, Foro Ediciones SL, Valencia 1995. ISBN 84-8186-018-2 Mª José Ribera Ortún & Bernardí Cabrer Borrás, Los desequilibrios espaciales: Una comarcalización del Pais Valenciano. Ed. Institut de Estudios de Administración Local. Valencia, 1979. 40°37′24″N 0°4′22.02″E
The Corts Valencianes known as Les Corts, are the main legislative body of the Generalitat Valenciana and therefore of the Valencian Country. The main location of the Corts is in the Palace of the Borgias in Valencia; the Corts has its origins in bodies established in the thirteenth century by King James I of Aragon. The modern institution was established in 1982 under the Valencian statute of autonomy of 1982; the current Corts were elected in 2015. Following the conquest and reign of James I of Aragon, the economic and military needs of the Crown of Aragon justified some meetings of the king with representatives of the three social classes, to obtain military or financial services; the economic needs justified those meetings, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, a stable institution called the Corts Valencianes had been established. Among the meetings which were held during the reign of James I, the most important was that of 7 April 1261 in Valencia, during which the king promulgated the Furs of Valencia, a series of charters equivalent to a modern constitution.
Proof of the economic importance of the corts for the crown is that the king promulgated the Furs in exchange for the sum of 48,000, which were paid to him by the city of Valencia, by the cities of the Horta de València which belonged to the clergy and to the nobility, by the towns of Castelló, Vilafamés, Onda, Llíria, Corbera and Gandia. At the time of those corts, King James established a rule for his successors obliging them to organise a general cort in Valencia at the beginning of each reign, in the first month after their entry into the city; this obligation was renewed during the corts of 1271, the corts were summoned by James I and by his son Peter III of Aragon. Those Corts were the only obligatory meetings, but the king summoned the corts on other occasions when required. In 1302, James II decided. During the corts of 1336, Peter IV confirmed this triennial meeting, by specifying that the corts were to meet every three years on All Saints' Day. During the thirteenth century and at the beginning of the fourteenth, the representations of the other cities in the Kingdom of Valencia were added, until the corts of 1239, during which the representations of various territories met constituting the corts of all the Kingdom.
From that moment, the most important cities always met, while others attended depending on the relevance to them of the subjects being discussed. However, the representation was important. For example, in the Corts of Valencia of 1510, the following towns were represented: Ademús, Alcoi, Alzira, Bocairent, Cabdet, Castelló, Cullera, Llíria, Ontinyent, Penàguila, Peníscola, València, Vila Joiosa, Vila-real, Xàtiva, Xèrica and Xixona. Half of the assemblies took place in Valencia cathedral; the Valencian Corts of 1418, fixed the duration of the corts at three years. In the middle of the fifteenth century, the Valencian institutions were definitively established. With the unification of the crowns of Castille and Aragon, the Valencian corts declined in importance and were less convened during the sixteenth century, a trend that continued in the seventeenth century; the last corts met in Valencia in 1645. After the War of the Spanish Succession and the new decree of 1707, the Kingdom of Valencia and its local rights were abolished.
The Corts Valencianes were not convened again until their reestablishment under the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. As of the coming into effect of the Statute of Autonomy, the Corts have operated like a modern representative legislature. Although meeting in the provincial capital of Valencia city, they have met in various towns around the Valencian community in recent years, an initiative, developed by the most recent legislatures; the first legislature in modern times was elected in May 1983. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party won an absolute majority of votes and seats, with 51 of the 89 seats; however they lost their majority in 1987 and were forced to govern in coalition with the smaller United Left party. They won the 1991 elections with a majority of one seat. However, in the 1995 elections there was a swing to the right with the People's Party becoming the largest party with 42 seats and governing in coalition with the smaller Unió Valenciana; this lasted until the elections of 1999. Although they lost a seat in 2003, they strengthened their position in the elections of 2007 and 2011, winning a record 55 seats.
In the 2015 elections PP lost the majority, PSPV and Compromís are governing in coalition. Following the passing of the statute of autonomy of the Valencian Community, which established local government for the region, the Corts became the regional assembly, elected every four years by universal adult suffrage; the name originated in the historic Valencian Corts, however previous bodies of that name had different functions representing three institutions: the clergy, the military/nobility and the royal family. The Statute of Autonomy defines the Corts Valencianes in chapter II, title II, although there are references in other articles; the Statute indicates the composition of Corts, its functions, the basic principles of the electoral system, traces the general framework of the Statute of the Deputies. Laws which develop the Statute, the rules of the Corts Valencianes regulate t
The Valencian Community is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the fourth most populous autonomous community after Andalusia and Madrid with more than 4.9 million inhabitants. Its homonymous capital Valencia is metropolitan area in Spain, it is located along the Mediterranean coast on the east side of the Iberian peninsula. It borders with Catalonia to the north and Castilla–La Mancha to the west, Murcia to the south; the Valencian Community consists of three provinces which are Valencia and Alicante. According to its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian people are a nationality, their origins date back to the Aragonese reconquest of the Moorish Taifa of Valencia, taken by James I of Aragon in 1238 during the Reconquista. The newly founded Kingdom of Valencia was granted wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon. Valencia experienced its golden age in the 15th century. Self-government continued after the unification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was suspended in 1707 by Phillip V of Spain as a result of the Spanish War of Succession.
Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the modern conception of the Valencian Country. Self-government under the Generalitat Valenciana was reestablished in 1982 after Spanish transition to democracy. Many Valencian people speak Valencian, the region's own co-official language, a southwestern dialect of Catalan standardised by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. Valencian is a diglossic language, repressed during Franco's dictatorship in favour of Spanish. Since it regained official status in 1982 in the Valencian Estatut d'Autonomia. Valencian has been implemented in public administration and the education system leading to an exponential increase in knowledge of its formal standard. Valencian is understood by more than half of the population living within the Valencian Community. Valencia was founded by the Romans under the name of "Valentia Edetanorum", which translates to'Valiance of the Land of the Lamb'. With the establishment of the Taifa of Valencia, the name developed to بلنسية, which became Valencia after the expulsion of the Moors.
"Valencian Community" is the standard translation of the official name in Valencian recognized by the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. This is the name most used in public administration, the media and Spanish written language. However, the variant of "Valencian Country" that emphasizes the nationality status of the Valencian people is still the preferred one by left-wing parties, civil associations, Catalan written language and major academic institutions like the University of Valencia. "Valencian Community" is a neologism, adopted after democratic transition in order to solve the conflict between two competing names: "Valencian Country" and "Former Kingdom of Valencia". On one hand, "Valencian Country" represented the modern conception of nationality that resurged in the 19th century, it became well-established during the Second Spanish Republic and on with the works of Joan Fuster in the 1960s, implying the existence of the "Catalan Countries". This nationalist subtext was opposed by anti-Catalan blaverists, who proposed "Former Kingdom of Valencia" instead in order to emphasize Valencian independence from Catalonia.
Blaverists have accepted the official denomination. The autonomous community can be homonymously identified with its capital "Valencia". However, this could be disregarding of the provinces of Castellón. Other more anecdotal translations have included "Land of Valencia", "Region of Valencia" and "Valencian Region"; the term "Region", carries negative connotations among many Valencians because it could deny their nationality status. The Pre-Roman autochthonous people of the Valencian Community were the Iberians, who were divided in several groups; the Greeks established colonies in the coastal towns of Saguntum and Dénia beginning in the 5th century BC, where they traded and mixed with the local Iberian populations. After the end of the First Punic War between Carthage and Rome in 241 BC, which established their limits of influence in the Ebro river, the Carthaginians occupied the whole region; the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome, destroyed by Hannibal in 219 BC, ignited the Second Punic War, which ended with the incorporation of the region to the Roman Empire.
The Romans founded the city of Valentia in 138 BC, over the centuries overtook Saguntum in importance. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the Barbarian Invasions in the 5th century AD, the region was first invaded by the Alans and ruled by the Visigoths, until the arrival of the Arabs in 711, which left a broad impact in the region, still visible in today's Valencian landscape and culture. After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba, two main independent taifas were established at the region, Balansiya and Dénia, along with the small and short living taifas of Orihuela, Alpuente, Jérica and Sagunt and the short Christian conquest of Valencia by El Cid. However, the origins of present-day Valencia date back to the Kingdom of Valencia, which came into existence in the 13th century. James I of Aragon led the Christian conquest and colonization of the existing Islamic taifas with Aragonese and Catalan colonizers in 1208; the kingdom developed intensively in the 14th and 15th centuries, which are con
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15