EID, S. A. is a Portuguese research and development company, established in 1983. The company is specialized in the fields of electronics and command and control for Defense use, its headquarters and production facilities are located in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. EID is a private owned company, its main shareholder is Cohort plc. The company makes military communications systems, including its ICCS, the responsible for the integration and management of the communications of a number of warships of the NATO and of other countries navies. EID's Customers include a number of armed forces in Europe, South America, Middle East and Asia Pacific; the activities of EID are divided by the following lines of business: naval communications, tactical communications, military messaging and systems integration. Divided by lines of business, the following EID products are presently in production: ICCS series - ship integrated information and communications systems series ERCS - ship communications equipment remote control system RIU/DIU multiplexers - ship radio and data interface units multiplexers WS810 - shipboard ruggedized computer workstations MOST4 MMHS - tactical automatic message handling system MOST4 Ships - ship borne automatic message handling system Some examples are: Portuguese MoD Strategic Communications Network Portuguese Navy Strategic Communications Network Portuguese Army Tactical Communications System Communications systems for warships Broadcast and Ship-Shore data communications systems Military Messaging systems GMDSS and NAVTEX systems HF radio systems for Air Traffic Control Vessel Traffic Systems
Harris Corporation is an American technology company, defense contractor and information technology services provider that produces wireless equipment, tactical radios, electronic systems, night vision equipment and both terrestrial and spaceborne antennas for use in the government and commercial sectors. They specialize in surveillance solutions, microwave weaponry, electronic warfare. Headquartered in Melbourne, the company has $7 billion of annual revenue, it is the largest private-sector employer in Florida. The company was the parent of Intersil. Most of the wireless start-ups in South Brevard County were founded and are staffed by former Harris Corporation engineers and technicians; the company's Digital Telephone Systems division was sold to Teltronics. In 2016, Harris was named one of the top hundred federal contractors by Defense News. In January 2015, Wired Magazine ranked Harris Corporation—tied with U. S. Marshals Service—as the number two threat to privacy and communications on the Internet.
The "Harris Automatic Press Company" was founded by Alfred S. Harris in Niles, Ohio, in 1895; the company spent the next 60 years developing lithographic processes and printing presses before acquiring typesetting company Intertype Corporation. In 1957, Harris acquired Gates Radio, a producer of broadcast transmitters and associated electronics gear, but kept the Gates brand name alive by putting the Gates sticker on the back of numerous transmitters that were labeled Harris on the front panels. In 1959, they acquired microwave technology company PRD Electronics of New York. In 1967, they merged with Radiation, Inc. of Melbourne, Florida, a developer of antenna, integrated circuit and modem technology used in the space race. The company headquarters was moved from Cleveland to Melbourne in 1978. In 1969, Harris Corporation acquired RF Communications and Farinon Electric Corporation, furthering its microwave assets; the printing operations are now known as GSS Printing Equipment. GSS Printing Equipment acquired Lanier Worldwide, which itself was spun off from Harris Corporation in the late 1990s.
In 1979, Harris formed a semiconductor joint venture Matra Harris Semiconductors, from which Harris withdrew in 1989. After further changes MHS was taken over by Atmel. In 1988, Harris acquired GE's semiconductor business, which at this time incorporated the Intersil and RCA semiconductor businesses; these were combined with Harris' existing semiconductor businesses. In 1996, Harris Corporation formed a joint venture with Shenzhen Telecom Company to produce and sell Harris' digital microwave radios and integrate them with other systems. In November 1998, Harris sold its commercial and standard military logic product lines to Texas Instruments, which included the HC/HCT, CD4000, AC/ACT and FCT product families. Harris retained production of the Radiation Hardened versions of these products. In 1999, Harris spun off their remaining semiconductor business as an independent company, under the Intersil name. In 2005, the corporation spent $870 million on development. Harris Corporation developed a Hand Held Computer for use during the address canvassing portion of the 2010 United States Census.
Secured access via a fingerprint swipe guaranteed that only the verified user had access to the unit. A GPS capacity was integral to the daily address management and the transfer of information, gathered. Of major importance was the security and integrity of the personal and private information of the populace. In January 2011, Harris re-opened its Calgary, Alberta avionics operation, Harris Canada Inc.. The expanded facility's operations include among others the support of the work to be completed under the company's six-year, $273 million services contract with the Government of Canada for the CF-18 Avionics Optimized Weapon System Support program. On December 2012, Harris Corporation sold its broadcast equipment operations to the Gores Group which operated as Harris Broadcast and is now GatesAir. Harris received $225M for the transaction half of what it paid seven years earlier for Leitch Technology, its final acquisition for the Broadcast division. On May 29, 2015, the purchase of competitor Exelis Inc. was finalized doubling the size of the original company.
In July 2015, Harris Corporation sold its healthcare division, Harris Healthcare Solutions, to NantHealth. In January 2017, Harris sold off its government IT services division to Veritas Capital for $690 million. In October 2018 Harris announced an all-stock "merger of equals" with New York-based L3 Technologies, to be closed in mid-2019; the new company, tentatively called L3 Harris Technologies, Inc. will be based in Melbourne, where Harris is headquartered. In 2019, Elbit Systems of America, the American division of the Israli Elbit Systems, agreed to purchase Harris's night vision product line for $350 million, contingent on the completion of the merger with L3; the Harris Communication Systems segment serves markets in tactical and airborne radios, night vision technology and defense and public safety networks. The Harris Electronic Systems segment provides products and services in electronic warfare, air traffic management, wireless technology, C4I, undersea systems and aerostructures.
Electronic Systems division provides the "ALQ-214" radio frequency jamming equipment for the U. S. Navy's F/A-18 Hornet aircraft; the ALQ-214 was developed by Exelis ES, which Harris acquired in 2015. ES is a provider of components in the avionics package and targeting systems for the U. S. Navy's EA-18 Growlers; the Harris Space and Intelligence Systems segment, formed when
Push-to-talk known as press-to-transmit, is a method of having conversations or talking on half-duplex communication lines, including two-way radio, using a momentary button to switch from voice reception mode to transmit mode. For example, an air traffic controller talks on one radio frequency to all aircraft under his/her supervision; those under the same frequency can hear others' transmissions while using procedure words such as "break", "break break" to separate order during the conversation. In doing so, they are aware of each other's actions and intentions, do not hear any background noise from the ones who are not speaking. Similar considerations apply to police radio, the use of business band radios on construction sites, other scenarios requiring coordination of several parties. Citizens Band is another example of classic push-to-talk operation; the PTT switch is most located on the radio's handheld microphone, or for small hand-held radios, directly on the radio. For heavy radio users, a PTT foot switch may be used, can be combined with either a boom-mounted microphone or a headset with integrated microphone.
Less a separate hand-held PTT switch may be used. This type of switch was called a pressel. In situations where a user may be too busy to handle a talk switch, voice operated switches are sometimes employed; some systems use PTT ID to identify the speaker. Manufactures now making units designed for PTT over cellular; the largest supplier in the UK is'Push To Talk International' who have supplied both handsets and vehicle units worldwide. Motorola is a popular communications supplier in the United States who offers PPT and PoC two-way radios in their line of product offerings. Push-to-talk over cellular is a service option for a cellular phone network that enables subscribers to use their phones as walkie-talkies with unlimited range. A typical push-to-talk connection connects instantly. A significant advantage of PTT is the ability for a single person to reach an active talk group with a single button press. Push-to-talk cellular calls provide half-duplex communications — while one person transmits, the other receive.
This combines the operational advantages of PTT with the interference resistance and other virtues of mobile phones. Mobile push-to-talk services, offered by some mobile carriers directly as well as by independent companies, adds PTT functionality to smartphones and specialized mobile handsets. In addition to mobile handsets, some services work on a laptop and tablet computers. Recent development in PTT communications is the appearance of apps on smartphones, some of which can function on multiple platforms. Wireless carrier-grade PTT systems have adapted to and adopted the smartphone platform by providing downloadable apps that support their PTT systems across many mobile platforms. Over-the-top applications are not dependent on a specific carrier and nearly as fast as carrier implementations. Talk-IP, Twisted Pair, Zello, Peak PTT, Orion Labs, Voxer may offer similar services to carriers. OMA Instant Messaging and Presence Service Push-to-type operation Click-to-call Push-to-Talk over Cellular Consortium Phase 2 Specifications and Documentation Open Mobile Alliance - Push to talk over Cellular - Architecture Candidate Version 2.0 – 26 February 2008
Combat service support
The term Combat service support is utilized by numerous military organizations throughout the world to describe entities that provide direct and indirect sustainment services to the groups that engage in combat. Defense Secretary Philip Hammond has described the United Kingdom's armed forces as having "teeth", units that are trained and equipped for actual fighting, that cannot function without an able, innovative "tail", units providing assistance such as logistical and transport capabilities. Specific groups involved in the U. K. armed forces include the Royal Signals and Royal Engineers agencies as well as the Royal Army Medical Corps and Royal Logistic Corps. Many groups exist under the umbrella of the United States Department of Defense providing support activities; the distinction between a sub-group of a larger organization providing'combat service support' versus'combat support' is a blurred one, but the general rule is that'combat support' refers to efforts focused around fighting itself.
Within the Australian Army, combat service support is provided to combat elements at various levels: first line, second line, third line. Thus, for example an infantry unit such as the 5th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment will include a logistics company which fills supply and maintenance functions, while a combat brigade, such as the 7th Brigade, will be supported by a combat service support battalion such as the 7th Combat Service Support Battalion. At formation level, a CSS brigade – the 17th Combat Service Support Brigade – will provide health, catering, transport and other service support requirements. Branches of the U. S. Army Combat Arms Combat Support Logistics Military logistics Military organization Principles of sustainment U. S. Army Combat Arms Regimental System U. S. Army Regimental System
A duplex communication system is a point-to-point system composed of two or more connected parties or devices that can communicate with one another in both directions. Duplex systems are employed in many communications networks, either to allow for simultaneous communication in both directions between two connected parties or to provide a reverse path for the monitoring and remote adjustment of equipment in the field. There are two types of duplex communication systems: half-duplex. In a full-duplex system, both parties can communicate with each other simultaneously. An example of a full-duplex device is a telephone; the earphone reproduces the speech of the remote party as the microphone transmits the speech of the local party, because there is a two-way communication channel between them, or more speaking, because there are two communication channels between them. In a half-duplex system, both parties can communicate with each other, but not simultaneously. An example of a half-duplex device is a walkie-talkie two-way radio that has a "push-to-talk" button.
To listen to the other person they release the button, which turns on the receiver but turns off the transmitter. Systems that do not need the duplex capability may instead use simplex communication, in which one device transmits and the others can only "listen". Examples are broadcast radio and television, garage door openers, baby monitors, wireless microphones, surveillance cameras. In these devices the communication is only in one direction. A half-duplex system provides communication in both directions, but only one direction at a time. Once a party begins receiving a signal, it must wait for the transmitter to stop transmitting, before replying. An example of a half-duplex system is a two-party system such as a walkie-talkie, wherein one must use "over" or another designated keyword to indicate the end of transmission, ensure that only one party transmits at a time, because both parties transmit and receive on the same frequency. A good analogy for a half-duplex system would be a one-lane road with traffic controllers at each end, such as a two-lane bridge under re-construction.
Traffic can flow in both directions, but only one direction at a time, regulated by the traffic controllers. Half-duplex systems are used to conserve bandwidth, since only a single communication channel is needed, shared alternately between the two directions. For example, a walkie-talkie requires only a single frequency for bidirectional communication, while a cell phone, a full-duplex device, requires two frequencies to carry the two simultaneous voice channels, one in each direction. In automatically run communications systems, such as two-way data-links, the time allocations for communications in a half-duplex system can be controlled by the hardware. Thus, there is no waste of the channel for switching. For example, station A on one end of the data link could be allowed to transmit for one second station B on the other end could be allowed to transmit for one second, the cycle repeats. In half-duplex systems, if more than one party transmits at the same time, a collision occurs, resulting in lost messages.
A full-duplex system, or sometimes called double-duplex, allows communication in both directions, unlike half-duplex, allows this to happen simultaneously. Land-line telephone networks are full-duplex, since they allow both callers to speak and be heard at the same time, with the transition from four to two wires being achieved by a hybrid coil in a telephone hybrid. Modern cell phones are full-duplex. A good analogy for a full-duplex system is a two-lane road with one lane for each direction. Moreover, in most full-duplex mode systems carrying computer data, transmitted data does not appear to be sent until it has been received and an acknowledgment is sent back by the other party. In this way, such systems implement reliable transmission methods. Two-way radios can be designed as full-duplex systems, transmitting on one frequency and receiving on another. Frequency-division duplex systems can extend their range by using sets of simple repeater stations because the communications transmitted on any single frequency always travel in the same direction.
Full-duplex Ethernet connections work by making simultaneous use of two physical twisted pairs inside the same jacket, which are directly connected to each networked device: one pair is for receiving packets, while the other pair is for sending packets. This makes the cable itself a collision-free environment and doubles the maximum total transmission capacity supported by each Ethernet connection. Full-duplex has several benefits over the use of half-duplex. First, there are no collisions. Second, full transmission capacity is available in both directions because the send and receive functions are separate. Third, since there is only one transmitter on each twisted pair, stations do not need to wait for others to complete their transmissions; some computer-based systems of the 1960s and 1970s required full-duplex facilities for half-duplex operation, since their poll-and-response schemes could not tolerate the slight delays in reversing the direction of transmission in a half-duplex line. Where channel access methods are used in point-to-multipoint networks (such as cellular networks
Combat is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, establish dominance over, or kill the opposition, or to drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed. Combat is between opposing military forces in warfare. Combat violence can be unilateral. A large-scale fight is known as a battle. A verbal fight is known as an argument. Combat effectiveness, in the strategic field, requires combat readiness. In military areas, the term is applied to personnel, that has to receive proper training and be qualified to carry out combat operations in the unit to which they are assigned. Combat may be unregulated. Examples of rules include the Geneva Conventions, medieval chivalry, the Marquess of Queensberry rules and several forms of combat sports. Combat in warfare involves two or more opposing military organizations fighting for nations at war. Warfare falls under the laws of war, which govern its purposes and conduct, protect the rights of combatants and non-combatants. Combat may be unarmed.
Hand-to-hand combat is combat at close range, attacking the opponent with the body and/or with a melee weapon, as opposed to a ranged weapon. Hand-to-hand combat can be further divided into three sections depending on the distance and positioning of the combatants: Clinch fighting Ground fighting Stand-up fighting Mock combat, a mode used in training for true combat Martin van Creveld: The Changing Face of War: Lessons of Combat, from the Marne to Turkey. Maine, New England 2007. Wong, Leonard. 2006. “Combat Motivation in Today’s Soldiers: U. S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute.”Armed Forces & Society, vol. 32: pp. 659–663. Http://afs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/32/4/659 Gifford, Brian. 2005. “Combat Casualties and Race: What Can We Learn from the 2003-2004 Iraq Conflict?” Armed Forces & Society, vol. 31: pp. 201–225. Http://afs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/31/2/201 Herspring, Dale. 2006. “Undermining Combat Readiness in the Russian Military, 1992-2005.” Armed Forces & Society, Jul 2006.
Http://afs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/32/4/513 Ben-Shalom, Uzi. 2005. “Cohesion during Military Operations: A Field Study on Combat Units in the Al-Aqsa Intifada.” Armed Forces & Society, vol. 32: pp. 63–79. Http://afs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/32/1/63 Woodruff, Todd. “Propensity to Serve and Motivation to Enlist among American Combat Soldiers.” Armed Forces & Society, Apr 2006. Http://afs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/32/3/353 Dienstfrey, Stephen. 1988. “Women Veterans’ Exposure to Combat.” Armed forces & Society, vol. 14: pp. 549–558. Http://afs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/14/4/549
Joint Tactical Radio System
The Joint Tactical Radio System aimed to replace existing radios in the American military with a single set of software-defined radios that could have new frequencies and modes added via upload, instead of requiring multiple radio types in ground vehicles, using circuit board swaps in order to upgrade. JTRS has seen cost overruns and full program restructurings, along with cancellation of some parts of the program. JTRS HMS radios are jointly developed and manufactured by Thales and General Dynamics Mission Systems; these software-defined radios are designed as successors to the JTRS-compatible CSCHR handhelds, securely transmitting voice and data using Type 2 cryptography and the new Soldier Radio Waveform. Army announced in June 2015 RFP for full-rate production of the HMS program. Goal is set for assessment in 2015-2016 and for full rate production in 2017. Launched with a Mission Needs Statement in 1997 and a subsequent requirements document in 1998, JTRS was a family of software-defined radios that were to work with many existing military and civilian radios.
It included Wideband Networking Software to create mobile ad hoc networks. The JTRS program was beset by delays and cost overruns Ground Mobile Radios, run by Boeing. Problems included a decentralized management structure, changing requirements, unexpected technical difficulties that increased size and weight goals that made it harder to add the required waveforms; the JTRS was built on the Software Communications Architecture, an open-architecture framework that tells designers how hardware and software are to operate in harmony. It governs the structure and operation of the JTRS, enabling programmable radios to load waveforms, run applications, be networked into an integrated system. A Core Framework, providing a standard operating environment, must be implemented on every hardware set. Interoperability among radio sets was increased because the same waveform software can be ported to all radios; the Object Management Group, a not-for-profit consortium that produces and maintains computer industry specifications for interoperable enterprise applications, is working toward building an international commercial standard based on the SCA.
The Joint Tactical Radio System evolved from a loosely associated group of radio replacement programs to an integrated effort to network multiple weapon system platforms and forward combat units where it matters most – at the last tactical mile. In 2005, JTRS was restructured under the leadership of a Joint Program Executive Officer headquartered in San Diego, California; the JPEO JTRS provides an enterprise acquisition and management approach to and efficiently develop, integrate and field the JTRS networking capability. The JTRS Enterprise was composed of five ACAT 1D programs of record - Network Enterprise Domain, Ground Mobile Radios, Manpack, & Small Form Fit, Multifunctional Information Distribution System JTRS, Airborne, Maritime Fixed/Station and one ACAT III program - Handheld JTRS Enhanced Multi-Band Intra-Team Radio. JTRS NED was responsible for the development and enhancement of interoperable networking and legacy software waveforms. NED's product line consists of: 14 Legacy Waveforms Bowman VHF Collection Of Broadcasts From Remote Assets Enhanced Position Location Reporting System Have Quick II High Frequency Single sideband / Automatic link establishment NATO Standardization Agreement 5066 Link 16 Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System Ultra High Frequency Demand Assigned Multiple Access Satellite communications 181/182/183/184 Ultra High Frequency Line-of-Sight Communications System Very High Frequency Line-of-Sight Communications System three Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Waveforms Wideband Networking Waveform Soldier Radio Waveform Mobile User Objective System –Red Side Processing) Network Enterprise Services including JTRS WNW Network Manager Soldier Radio Waveform Network Manager JTRS Enterprise Network Manager Enterprise Network Services JTRS GMR are a key enabler of the DoD and Army Transformation and will provide critical communications capabilities across the full spectrum of Joint operations.
Through software reconfiguration, JTRS GMR can emulate current force radios and operate new internet protocol-based networking waveforms offering increased data throughput utilizing self-forming, self-healing, managed communication networks. The GMR route and retransmit functionality links various waveforms in different frequency bands to form one internetwork. GMR can scale from one to four channels supporting multiple security levels and use the frequency spectrum within the 2 megahertz to 2 gigahertz frequency range; the radios are Software Communications Architecture compliant with increased bandwidth through future waveforms and are interoperable with 4+ current force radio systems and the JTRS family of radios. Now that the GMR contract has been completed, the Army plans to leverage knowledge gained from the GMR Program in the upcoming Mid-Tier Networking Vehicular Radio solicitation. JTRS HMS is a materiel solution meeting the requirements of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks and Information Integration/DoD Chief Information Officer for a Software Communications Architecture compliant hardware system hosting SCA-compliant software waveforms.
The JTRS HMS contract was structured to address Increment 1, consisting of Phases 1 and 2. Increment 1, Phase 1 wa