Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
The Aircrew Badge known as Wings, is a qualification badge of the United States military, awarded by all five branches of armed services to personnel who serve as aircrew members on board military aircraft. The badge is intended to recognize the training and qualifications required by aircrew of military aircraft. In order to qualify as an aircrew member and receive the Aircrew Badge, such personnel undergo advanced training in aircraft in-flight support roles; the first version of the Aircrew Badge was issued by the Army Air Forces during the Second World War. The badge was similar in design to the Aviator Badge and displayed an emblem denoting enlisted status on its circular shield, or escutcheon, centered between two wings; the emblem featured the arms of the United States of America, in clear relief against a horizontally lined background, on a disk with a raised rim. Anyone trained in flight operations was authorized to wear this badge, including pilots, navigators, flight engineers, radio men and gunners.
The badge was awarded to certain ground personnel at the discretion of their commanding officer. Non-crewmembers eligible for the badge were individuals with flying status such as aircraft maintenance supervisors and technical inspectors. For example, aircrew badges were issued to Automatic Flight Control Equipment and Bombsight Shop personnel and others essential to "keep'em flying" who flew instructional and maintenance flights but who did not take part in combat missions during World War II. With the creation of the United States Air Force as a separate branch of service in 1947, the Army was left without an Aircrew Badge until the Korean War. At that time, to recognize the continued use of Army aviation, the Aircraft Crewman Badge was created; the badge was issued in three degrees: Basic and Master. The level of seniority depended on the number of flight hours obtained and years of service in the United States Army. On February 29, 2000, the Department of the Army changed the name of the Aircraft Crewman Badge to the Army Aviation Badge.
The badge itself was not altered. This change made army aircrew wings an "MOS Badge" awarded to all aviation MOS's, including non flying jobs such as Aviation Operations and Air Traffic Controllers. Thus, a crew chief who engages in aerial flight has no distinction from an air traffic controller because both are on flight status. Although the Army Aviation Badge is intended for enlisted personnel, in rare cases the decoration is awarded to officers. For non-rated Army members who qualify for the Astronaut Badge, but have not yet participated in a qualifying spaceflight, the Army Aviation Badge may be awarded with the astronaut device appearing on the central shield; the Air Force Aircrew Badge is a direct successor to the Army Air Forces version of the decoration. Known as the Aircrew Badge, the Air Force began issuing the decoration to enlisted Aircrew members in 1947. By the time of the Korean War, regulations had been established for a senior and master version of the badge, indicated by a star and wreath above the decoration.
As with the Army Aviator Badge, seniority of the Aircrew Badge was determined by flight hours obtained and years of service in the Air Force. With the decline of the Observer Badge, a need arose to award an Aircrew Badge to officers, trained as in-flight support personnel. By the time of the Vietnam War, the Air Force had created an Officer Aircrew Badge, issued to non-rated officers trained for in-flight operations; these badges began to lose a bit of value, as they became easier to obtain for Aircrew members, but was still considered prestigious in regards to the Air Force. The enlisted version of the Aircrew Badge remained the same and was now referred to as the Enlisted Aircrew Badge. In the modern United States Air Force, the Enlisted Aircrew Badge is still issued to 1A0X1, 1A1X1, 1A2X1, 1A3X1, 1A4X1, 1A6X1, 1A8X1, 1A8X2, 1A9X1, X4N0X1. Enlisted RPA Sensor Operators were awarded their own aircrew wings, beginning in 2010; as of 28 Feb 2018, the Enlisted RPA wings are still authorized for wear.
The Officer Aircrew Badge is less awarded to Information Integration Officers, Airborne Intelligence Officers, Airborne Surveillance Officers, Flight Test Engineers, as well as selected communications and weather officers depending on assignment, such as Aerial Reconnaissance Weather Officers. The single exception to this policy was an Air Force FTE, subsequently selected as a NASA Mission Specialist Astronaut for the Space Shuttle program. Since there was no provision for the USAF Officer Aircrew Badge with the Astronaut "shooting star" symbol, the Air Force opted to award this officer the Senior Navigator Badge with the Astronaut "shooting star" symbol following her first space flight, this despite her never having completed either the Undergraduate Navigator Training or Undergraduate Combat Systems Officer flight training syllabi; the rationale of the USAF leadership for doing so at the time was under a little used codicil that the Navigator / CSO insignia could be awarded as an "Air Fo
Explosive Ordnance Disposal Badge
The Explosive Ordnance Disposal Badge is a military badge of the United States Armed Forces which recognizes those service members, qualified as explosive ordnance disposal technicians, who are specially trained to deal with the construction, deployment and disposal of high explosive munitions and may include other types of ordnance such as nuclear and chemical weapons along with improvised explosive devices and improvised nuclear devices. Known as the “EOD Badge” or "Crab", the decoration is issued by the United States Army, Air Force and Marine Corps; the EOD Badge is the only occupational badge awarded to all four services under the United States Department of Defense. First created in the 1950s, the EOD Badge is issued in three levels and is identical for all branches of service. Although each service has its own requirements the basic EOD badge is issued upon completion of explosive handling training and between 18–24 months of on-the-job field training; the Senior EOD Badge is issued after 3–5 years as an explosive ordnance specialist and the Master Explosive Ordnance Disposal Badge is issued after 7–15 years of service in a senior supervisory position.
The "crab", as it is known, is the only joint service badge and can only be earned upon successful completion of the 42-week course at the Naval School of Explosive Ordnance Disposal located at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. Prior to attending NAVSCOLEOD, Navy service members attend Naval Diving and Salvage Training Center in Panama City, FL for a 9 week EOD Diver Course, Additionally the Naval students will attend the maritime ordnance section known as "Area 8" followed by Underwater division. After NAVSCOLEOD, Navy service members attend a 3-4 week course to earn "jump wings" at the Army's Ft. Benning, GA. Army service members will attend a course at Fort Lee, VA for 9-11 weeks before attending NAVSCOLEOD; the Wreath Symbolic of the achievements and laurels gained minimizing accident potentials through the ingenuity and devotion to duty of its members. It is in memory of those EOD personnel; the Bomb Copied from the design of the World War II Bomb Disposal Badge, the bomb represents the historic and major objective of the EOD attack, the unexploded bomb.
The three fins represent the major areas of nuclear and chemical/biological interest. Lightning Bolts Symbolize the potential destructive power of the bomb and the courage and professionalism of EOD personnel in their endeavors to reduce hazards as well as to render explosive ordnance harmless; the Shield Represents the EOD mission - to prevent a detonation and protect the surrounding area and property to the utmost. Prior to 1 June 2006, enlisted members of United States Navy that qualified as an Explosive Ordnance Disposal Warfare Specialist were authorized to wear the warfare qualification as well as have listed after their rating designator. For example, if Bob Jones was a Hull Technician First Class Petty Officer his title would be HT1 Bob Jones; as of 1 June 2006 for E6-E9 and 1 October 2006 for E1-E5, U. S. Navy EOD Technicians have become their own rating within the Navy. Only after being qualified as a Senior EOD Technician, is the technician designated as an EOD Warfare Specialist. An example would be: Petty Officer First Class Bob Jones, a Senior EOD Technician, would have his title read EOD1 Bob Jones.
In 2007, the Special Operations Officer Community was rechristened "Explosive Ordnance Disposal," a change which the Navy felt needed to be reflected in the EOD Officer warfare device as well. The new officer insignia is identical to the Master EOD warfare device, but is gold in color. Army School of Ammunition United States Navy EOD Marine Corps Explosive Ordnance Disposal Program Naval School Explosive Ordnance Disposal History of DOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal
Iraq the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Mandeans and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present; the official languages of Iraq are Kurdish. Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf; these rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers known as Mesopotamia, is referred to as the cradle of civilisation.
It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian and Babylonian empires, it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire until the partition of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century, it was made up of three provinces, called vilayets in the Ottoman language: Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, Basra Vilayet. In April 1920 the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations. A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq; the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.
Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005; the US presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west, it has since been defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017. On 9 December 2017, then-Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL after the group lost its territory in Iraq. Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of one autonomous region; the country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-Islamic as well as post-Islamic times and is known for its poets.
Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets. Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF; the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for "city", UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿAjamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran; the term included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq. Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term Eyraca Arabic was used to describe Iraq.
The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, عراق means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment", viz. at the south and east of the Jazira Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area. The Arabic pronunciation is. In English, it is either or, the American Heritage Dictionary, the Random House Dictionary; the pronunciation is heard in US media. In accordance with the 2005 Constitution, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq". Between 65,000 BC and 35,000 BC northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave This same region is the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from 11,000 BC. Since 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture (k
United States Aviator Badge
A United States Aviator Badge refers to three types of aviation badges issued by the United States Armed Forces, those being for Air Force and Naval aviation. Air Force and Army Aviator Badges are issued in three ratings: Basic and Command /Master; the higher degrees are denoted by a star with wreath above the badge. Air Force regulations state that the basic rating denotes completion of specified training and that the advanced ratings denote experience levels; the Naval Aviator Badge is issued in a single rating for Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard aviators. The first United States Aviator Badges were issued to members of the Air Service during World War I; the badges were issued in three degrees: Observer, Junior Aviator or Reserve Aviation Officer, Senior Aviator. The Army Air Service issued a badge for balloon pilots, known as the Aeronaut Badge. Enlisted Aviators wore the Observer's badge. There were 29 enlisted pilots before the American entry into World War I; the second enlisted aviator, William A. Lamkey, flew for Pancho Villa.
The remaining enlisted pilots received commissions in 1917. There were 60 enlisted mechanics who were trained as pilots in France during the war, but they were used for ferrying duties and did not fly in combat; the recruiting and training of enlisted Aviators ended in 1933. During World War II, with the rise of the Army Air Forces, a second series of aviator badges were issued to include a design that has survived to the modern day; the Pilot Badge was issued in three degrees, including Pilot, Senior Pilot, Command Pilot. A polished silver colored version of these badges is used as the United States Air Force Pilot Badges. From August 1941 to November 1942, the Enlisted Aviator program was restarted. Candidates had to be at least 18, possess a high school diploma, have graduated at the top of their High School class. Graduates were rated as Flight Staff Sergeants or Flight Technical Sergeants and wore the same pilot's wings as officers, they were assigned to pilots of transport and auxiliary aircraft to free officer pilots to pilot the more prestigious fighters and bombers.
Auxiliary pilots received their own special wings to indicate their specialty. In November 1942 all enlisted pilots were promoted to Flight Officer rank and enlisted cadets were graded as Flight Officers or Second Lieutenants depending on merit. In 1947, the U. S. Army Air Forces became its own separate service as the U. S. Air Force; the Air Force use the same pilot's badges as the earlier USAAF design, except that starting in the mid-1990s, they began to be made of chrome metal or sterling silver rather than the dull alloy wings used by the Army Air Forces and Air Force from 1947 to the mid-1990s. The U. S. Air Force issues several aviation badges including pilot, combat systems officer, air battle manager, flight surgeon, flight nurse, non-rated officer aircrew, enlisted aircrew; the requirements to earn these are listed here. After the creation of the U. S. Air Force as a separate service in 1947, Army Aviation continued to a degree that warranted a new badge for Army Aviators; the result was the creation of the Army Aviator Badge, a modified version of the U.
S. Air Force Pilot Badge, it comes in three grades: Basic and Master. The Aviator and Senior Aviator Badges were approved on 27 July 1950 and the Master Aviator Badge was approved on 12 February 1957; the aviator badge used in the Navy has remained unchanged since it was first issued on 13 November 1917. The Naval Aviator Badge is earned by all U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps, U. S. Coast Guard pilots upon graduation from advanced flight training. Additional aviator badges exist for Naval Flight Officers, Naval Flight Surgeons, Naval Aviation Physiologists, Naval Flight Nurses, Naval Aviation Observers and enlisted Naval Aircrewman. Naval Aviators' badges are gold in color. Unlike the Air Force and the Army, the naval services do not employ senior or command/master aeronautical ratings; the NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps Aviator Insignia is a gold-colored pin, with a central device consisting of a fouled anchor surcharged with a NOAA Corps device. NOAA Corps officer pilots and navigators may wear the NOAA aviator insignia after authorization by the Director of the NOAA Corps.
With the dawn of the Space Age, all of the United States Aviator badges are upgradable to the Astronaut Badge, for those military members who become astronauts. Badges of the United States Air Force Badges of the United States Army Badges of the United States Coast Guard Badges of the United States Marine Corps Badges of the United States Navy Aircrew Badge Flight Officer Badge Naval Aviator Badge Navigator Badge Observer Badge Astronaut Badge Military badges of the United States Obsolete badges of the United States military