Battle of Raab
The Battle of Raab was fought on June 14,1809 during the Napoleonic Wars, between Franco-Italian forces and Habsburg forces. The battle was fought near Győr, Kingdom of Hungary, Napoleon referred to the battle as a granddaughter of Marengo and Friedland, as it fell on the anniversary of those two battles. During the 1809 campaign in Italy, Viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais led the Franco-Italian army while General der Kavallerie Archduke John of Austria commanded the Austrian army, at the outbreak of war, John moved rapidly to defeat his opponent at the Battle of Sacile on 16 April. This victory drove Eugène back to the Adige River, the front remained static for a few weeks despite attacks by Eugène in the Battle of Caldiero. Meanwhile, an Austrian force bottled up the corps of General of Division Auguste Marmont in Dalmatia, after the Austrian defeat at the Battle of Eckmühl, John received orders to retreat in order to cover the strategic left flank of the army in southern Germany. John fought Eugène in a rearguard action at the Battle of Piave River on 8 May.
Up to this moment and his soldiers had fought well, John probably committed a serious blunder by splitting up his command. With the main army he fell back to the northeast, by the second week of May and Feldmarschallleutnant Albert Gyulai stood at Tarvisio with 8,340 troops. Feldmarschallleutnant Johann Maria Philipp Frimonts 13, 060-man Mobile Force lay at nearby Villach, Feldmarschallleutnant Ignaz Gyulai with 14,880 men of the IX Armeekorps defended the Ljubljana area to the southeast of Villach. Far to the west-northwest, Feldmarschallleutnant Johann Gabriel Chasteler de Courcelles and 17,460 soldiers of the VIII Armeekorps held the region around Innsbruck, Feldmarschallleutnant Franjo Jelačić and the 10, 200-strong Northern Division was stationed at Salzburg to the northwest. Finally, General-major Andreas von Stoichewichs 8,100 men continued to pin Marmont in Dalmatia to the south of Ljubljana, by this time a large proportion of Johns forces was made up of hastily raised landwehr infantry.
On 13 May, Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre and a Bavarian army wrecked part of Chastelers corps at the Battle of Wörgl near Innsbruck, on 17 May, John received orders to cut the communications of Emperor Napoleons Grand Army by moving north. However, the archduke delayed too long in carrying out this assignment, though badly isolated, Jelačić remained near Salzburg until 19 May. When he finally got moving it was too late, a French corps under General of Division Paul Grenier cut the Northern Division to pieces at the Battle of Sankt Michael on 25 May. John pulled back to Graz, but when he heard of Jelačićs disaster, during May, small Grenz infantry forces heroically defended the mountain passes during the Battle of Tarvis. At Malborghetto Valbruna,400 soldiers held a blockhouse against 15,000 Frenchmen between 15 and 17 May and only 50 men survived, the French admitted only 80 casualties. At the Predil Pass blockhouse,250 Austrians and 8 cannon held off 8,500 French soldiers for three days, on 18 May, when the position was finally overrun, the Grenzers were killed to a man.
The French admitted suffering 450 casualties, at Tarvisio itself, Eugène inflicted a serious defeat on Albert Gyulais outnumbered division
War of the Fifth Coalition
The War of the Fifth Coalition was fought in the year 1809 by a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against Napoleons French Empire and Bavaria. Major engagements between France and Austria, the participants, unfolded over much of Central Europe from April to July. After much campaigning in Bavaria and across the Danube valley, the war ended favourably for the French after the struggle at Wagram in early July. The resulting Treaty of Schönbrunn was the harshest that France had imposed on Austria in recent memory, Austria lost over three million subjects, about one-fifth of her total population, as a result of these territorial changes. Although the Fifth Coalition ended, Britain and Portugal remained at war with France in the ongoing Peninsular War, there was peace in central and eastern Europe until Napoleons invasion of Russia in 1812, which led to the formation of the Sixth Coalition in 1813. Europe had been embroiled in warfare, pitting revolutionary France against a series of coalitions, after five years of war, the French Republic subdued the First Coalition in 1797.
A Second Coalition was formed in 1798, only to be defeated, in March 1802, France and Great Britain, its one remaining enemy, agreed to end hostilities under the Treaty of Amiens. For the first time in ten years, all of Europe was at peace, many disagreements between the two sides remained unresolved, and implementing the agreements they had reached at Amiens seemed to be a growing challenge. Britain resented having to turn all of its colonial conquests since 1793 when France was permitted to retain most of its conquered territory in Europe. France, was upset that British troops had not evacuated the island of Malta, in May 1803, Britain declared war on France. With the resumption of hostilities, Napoleon planned an invasion of England, in December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement led to the creation of the Third Coalition. British Prime Minister William Pitt spent 1804 and 1805 in a flurry of diplomatic activity geared towards forming a new coalition against France and neutralising the threat of invasion.
Mutual suspicion between the British and the Russians eased in the face of several French political mistakes, and by April 1805, in August 1805, the French Grande Armée invaded the German states in hopes of knocking Austria out of the war before Russian forces could intervene. On 25 September, after great secrecy and feverish marching,200,000 French troops began to cross the Rhine on a front of 160 miles, Mack had gathered the greater part of the Austrian army at the fortress of Ulm in Bavaria. Napoleon hoped to swing his forces northward and perform a movement that would find the French at the Austrian rear. The Ulm Maneuver was well executed, and on 20 October Mack and 23,000 Austrian troops surrendered at Ulm, the French captured Vienna in November and went on to inflict a decisive defeat on a Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in early December. Austerlitz led to the expulsion of Russian troops from Central Europe and the humiliation of Austria, Austerlitz incited a major shift in the European balance of power.
Prussia felt threatened about her security in the region and, alongside Russia, a vigorous French pursuit through Northern Germany finished off the remnants of the Prussian army
Battle of the Basque Roads
The Battle of the Basque Roads, Battle of Aix Roads was a naval battle during the Napoleonic Wars off the Island of Aix. On the night of 11 April 1809 Captain Lord Cochrane led a British fireship attack against a powerful French force anchored in the Basque Roads, in the attack all but two of the French ships were driven ashore. The subsequent engagement lasted three days but failed to destroy the entire French fleet, Cochrane accused the British commanding officer, Admiral James Gambier, of being reluctant to press the attack. Gambier demanded a court-martial, and was exonerated, Cochranes career in the Royal Navy ended. The French Navy continued to operate against the British from the Basque Roads until the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Basque Roads are a sheltered bay on the Biscay shore of France, bounded by the Île dOléron to the west and the Île de Ré to the north. The port of La Rochelle stands at the northeast corner of the roads, during the Peninsular War in Spain and Portugal the Duke of Wellington depended on maritime supply.
The French fleet in the Basque Roads operated against the British supply ships, to protect the convoys, the Royal Navy maintained a blockade of the Basque Roads, but this was expensive and never wholly effective. In late October 1808, Napoléon sent Decrès orders for the squadrons at Lorient and Rochefort to deliver reinforcements, the continual presence of large British squadrons, impeded their departure. On 7 February 1809, Napoleon ordered Admiral Willaumez to raise the blockades with the Brest fleet to allow these small squadrons to make their way to Martinique, two weeks later, Willaumez finally set out with eight ships-of-the-line and two frigates towards Lorient. Fearful of being caught by the British, Willaumez continued on his way south to Rochefort, with the subsequent arrival of a large British fleet, Willaumez was trapped in Rochefort. A British squadron arrived on the scene and held the French there until Gambier arrived with the rest of the Channel fleet to impose a blockade, the British Admiralty became concerned about the concentration of such a large segment of the French fleet in one place.
If the ships escaped they could ferry supplies to Napoleon’s Peninsular forces, with these reasons in mind, the First Lord of the Admiralty, Lord Mulgrave, proposed an attack on the French fleet at anchor using fire ships. Cochranes superior officer, Lord Gambier, commanding the Channel Fleet, was opposed to the plan, calling it a horrible and anti-Christian mode of warfare. Cochrane was given twenty-one fireships to command, but he was focusing on his own invention, explosion ships. Gambiers opposition and Mulgraves persuasiveness meant that full responsibility for executing the plan fell to Lord Cochrane, on the evening of April 11,1809 Cochrane led the way into Basque Roads with two explosion ships, followed by 25 other ships. Because of delays resulting from Gambier’s indecision, the French were alert to the British plan, on the night of April 11,1809 Cochrane floated in on the flood-tide aboard the foremost explosion vessel with the other explosion ships following. They managed to escape with their dog just in time, the explosion ships succeeded in breaking the mile-long boom of heavy spars and chains the French had placed to block the British ships from engaging the French.
Unable to see clearly in the smoke, the panicked French gunners fired into the line of protecting frigates, anchor cables were hastily cut to escape the surge of flame, and without sails, the ships piled up on the shoals
Battles of Bergisel
The battles, which occurred on 25 May,29 May,13 August, and 1 November 1809, were part of the Tyrolean Rebellion and the War of the Fifth Coalition. The Tyrolean forces, loyal to Austria, were led by Andreas Hofer, Josef Speckbacher, Peter Mayr, Capuchin Father Joachim Haspinger, the Bavarians were led by French Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre, and Bavarian Generals Bernhard Erasmus von Deroy and Karl Philipp von Wrede. After being driven from Innsbruck at the start of the revolt, after the final battle in November, the rebellion was suppressed. After his humiliating defeat of the Austrian Empire in the War of the Third Coalition, Napoleon transferred the County of Tyrol to Bavaria, when the new rulers imposed conscription and Bavarian legal codes on the territory, they flouted ancient Tyrolean social and religious rights. Before the outbreak of the War of the Fifth Coalition, Austrian agents circulated the Tyrol to take advantage of the existing tensions, when Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen invaded Bavaria on 10 April 1809, the Tyrol exploded in revolt.
The Tyrol 1809 Order of Battle lists the units and organizations of both armies. On 11 April Hofer and 5,000 armed peasants scored a victory at Sterzing in the South Tyrol when they captured 420 Bavarians of the 4th Light Infantry Battalion, under Teimer and other leaders, the Tyroleans irregulars won a brilliant initial success. Attacked incessantly for 48 hours, Lieutenant General Baron Kinkel surrendered his Innsbruck garrison of 3,860 Bavarian soldiers on 13 April, a body of 2,050 French conscripts under hard-drinking General of Division Baptiste Pierre Bisson unwittingly marched into the trap. After an ineffectual defense, the French put up the white flag, the rebels seized five cannon, two mortars, considerable equipment, and many muskets. The captured material would keep the rebellion supplied with weapons for months, one column of irregulars stiffened by a few regulars under General-Major Franz Fenner raided the area of Lake Garda in Italy. In consequence, Viceroy of Italy Eugène de Beauharnais was forced to provide substantial Franco-Italian garrisons to guard the area, in early May, Napoleon directed Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre and the VII Corps to move against the Tyrol.
The Bavarian garrison of Kufstein Fortress was relieved on 11 May, Lefebvre routed Chasteler at the Battle of Wörgl on 13 May. After several more actions, Lefebvre occupied Innsbruck around 19 May, on 25 May 1809, Lieutenant General Deroys 3rd Bavarian Division clashed with the Tyrolese rebels at the Bergisel. Deroy committed 4,000 troops and 12 artillery pieces to the combat, Hofer commanded the rebel army and his lieutenants were Speckbacher, Josef Eisenstecken, and Oberstleutnant Ertel. Hofers army included 9,400 armed rebels and 900 Austrian regulars, the Bavarians lost 20 to 70 dead and 100 to 150 wounded, while inflicting losses of 50 dead and 30 wounded on the Tyrolese. Though historian Digby Smith labels the action a Bavarian victory, his narrative says the battle was a draw and he notes that the rebels, discouraged that more local people had not joined the revolt, retreated to the south. The rebels returned on 29 May and subjected Deroy to an attack, which he resisted with 5,240 troops organized in 12 battalions, eight squadrons.
The 13,600 Tyrolese irregulars were joined by 1,200 Austrian regulars, the rebels included 35 North Tyrol and 61 South Tyrol schützen and landsturm companies
First French Empire
The First French Empire, Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Its name was a misnomer, as France already had colonies overseas and was short lived compared to the Colonial Empire, a series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence over much of Western Europe and into Poland. The plot included Bonapartes brother Lucien, serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, on 9 November 1799 and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control. They dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. He thus became the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, the Battle of Marengo inaugurated the political idea that was to continue its development until Napoleons Moscow campaign.
Napoleon planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan for France, setting aside Austria, the Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a temporary truce. He gradually extended his authority in Italy by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma and Naples, he laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope. Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the new bourgeoisie, on 12 May 1802, the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France. This action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif, a general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 August 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life, pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany aided by the Recess of 1803, which brought Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden to Frances side. The memories of imperial Rome were for a time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne.
The Treaty of Pressburg, signed on 26 December 1805, did little other than create a more unified Germany to threaten France. On the other hand, Napoleons creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the occupation of Ancona, to create satellite states, Napoleon installed his relatives as rulers of many European states. The Bonapartes began to marry into old European monarchies, gaining sovereignty over many nations, in addition to the vassal titles, Napoleons closest relatives were granted the title of French Prince and formed the Imperial House of France. Met with opposition, Napoleon would not tolerate any neutral power, Prussia had been offered the territory of Hanover to stay out of the Third Coalition. With the diplomatic situation changing, Napoleon offered Great Britain the province as part of a peace proposal and this, combined with growing tensions in Germany over French hegemony, Prussia responded by forming an alliance with Russia and sending troops into Bavaria on 1 October 1806. In this War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon destroyed the armies of Frederick William at Jena-Auerstedt, the Eylau and the Friedland against the Russians finally ruined Frederick the Greats formerly mighty kingdom, obliging Russia and Prussia to make peace with France at Tilsit.
The Treaties of Tilsit ended the war between Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that held power of much of the rest of Europe, the two empires secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes
Battle of Tarvis (1809)
Eugène crushed Gyulais division in a pitched battle near Tarvisio, an Austrian town known as Tarvis. At nearby Malborghetto Valbruna and Predil Pass, small garrisons of Grenz infantry heroically defended two forts before being overwhelmed by sheer numbers, the Franco-Italian capture of the key mountain passes allowed their forces to invade Austrian Kärnten during the War of the Fifth Coalition. Tarvisio is located in far northeast Italy, near the borders of both Austria and Slovenia, Eugènes main column marched up the Fella River valley, which runs east and west in the area of the fighting. On 15 May the column found itself blocked by the Malborghetto fort, attacking in greatly superior force, Eugènes troops captured the fort on the morning of the 17th. Later that day, the Franco-Italians routed Gyulais division from its positions near Tarvisio, a second Franco-Italian column, attempting to join Eugène from the south, was halted on the 15th by the Predil fort. On 18 May, Predil fell to assault and the defenders were killed to the last man, monuments at both forts honor the Austrians who gave their lives in the fighting.
For this formidable task, Johns forces were not especially large, the VIII Armeekorps numbered 24,500 infantry,2,600 cavalry, and 62 guns. The IX Armeekorps counted 22,200 infantry,2,000 cavalry, General-Major Andreas von Stoichevich was poised to advance south into French-occupied Dalmatia with 10,000 more. Assembling in Carinthia were 23,500 second-line soldiers in 33 Landwehr battalions, to support the Tyrolean Rebellion, John reorganized his army and sent Feldmarschall-Leutnant Johann Gabriel Chasteler de Courcelles west with 10,000 troops from VIII Armeekorps. The detachment left John with about 40,000 soldiers for his invasion of Italy out of 85,000 available, the departure of Chasteler left Feldmarschall-Leutnant Albert Gyulai in command of VIII Armeekorps and his brother Feldmarschall-Leutnant Ignaz Gyulai in charge of IX Armeekorps. Eugène commanded 70,000 Franco-Italian troops in his Army of Italy, of his six French and three Italian infantry divisions, only two defended the Soča River near the eastern frontier, while the rest were scattered across the Kingdom of Italy.
On 16 April 1809, an overconfident Eugène gave battle with one cavalry and five infantry divisions. At the Battle of Sacile, Johns invading army mauled Eugènes army, the defeated Army of Italy fell back to Verona on the Adige River gathering reinforcements until it had accumulated 60,000 soldiers. After hearing of the main Austrian armys defeat at the Battle of Eckmühl on 22 April, after fencing with the Viceroy near Soave and Monte Bastia at the Battle of Caldiero at the end of April, the archduke withdrew on 2 May. The retreat was covered by Feldmarschall-Leutnant Johann Maria Philipp Frimonts rear guard. On 8 May, John defended a position behind the Piave River. In the Battle of Piave River, Eugène defeated his opponent, on 11 May, the Franco-Italian advance guard turned both flanks of Frimonts 4, 000-man rear guard at San Daniele del Friuli. The Austrians were crushed with losses of about 2,000, after a clash at Venzone, Frimont retreated north up the Fella River valley, burning the bridges behind him
Claude Juste Alexandre Legrand
Claude Juste Alexandre Louis Legrand was a French general. He commanded French divisions at several battles of the French Revolutionary. He rose to senator on 5 April 1813, Pair de France on 4 June 1814 and he organised the defence of Chalon-sur-Saône in 1814 and died in Paris in 1815 of wounds received beside the River Berezina. His military career started when he enlisted in 1777, during the French Revolution he rose rapidly in rank to lieutenant colonel. He received promotion to general of brigade in 1793 and fought at the Battle of Fleurus, as part of the Army of the Danube, he fought at the Battle of Ostrach and the Battle of Stockach. As a general of division he fought under Jean Victor Marie Moreau at the Battle of Hohenlinden, under Emperor Napoleon, he commanded a division in Marshal Nicolas Soults IV Corps in the 1805 campaign. At the Battle of Austerlitz, his division helped to fend off the massive Austro-Russian left wing long enough for Soults other two divisions to break through the Russian center, still in the corps of Soult, Legrand fought at the battles of Jena in 1806 and Eylau in 1807.
During the 1809 campaign, he led a division under Marshal Andre Massena in the battles of Ebelsberg, Aspern-Essling, in Napoleons 1812 invasion of Russia, he fought in Marshal Oudinots II Corps at Polotsk. He was badly wounded during the crossing of the Berezina River, Legrand was employed in minor commands during the 1814 campaign in France. He died from the effects of his Russian wound on 9 January 1815, David, The Campaigns of Napoleon. Chandler, Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars, Digby, The Napoleonic Wars Data Book
At the end of the War of the Third Coalition shortly afterwards, Bavaria found itself on the victorious side. The French officially handed over the Tyrolean county including the secularized Bishopric of Trent to Bavaria on 11 February 1806. In its policies, the Bavarian government under Count Montgelas angered the Tyrolean population by raising taxes there, but at the same time barring exports, e. g. of cattle, from Tyrol into Bavaria. Furthermore, the state mingled into the affairs of the church in Tyrol, banning traditional rural holidays, additionally, on May 1,1808, the County of Tyrol was disestablished and administratively split up into the three districts of Inn and Etsch. Conscription was thus introduced in Tyrol and Tyroleans called into Bavarian military service, which led to open revolt. The trigger for the outbreak of the uprising was the flight to Innsbruck of young men that were due to be called into the Bavarian army by the authorities at Axams on March 12 and 13,1809. The partisans stayed in contact with the Austrian court in Vienna by their conduit Baron Joseph Hormayr, the Austrian Empire, citing a breach of the conditions agreed in the Peace of Pressburg guaranteeing Tyrolean constitutional autonomy, declared war on the Bavarian-French allies on April 9,1809.
Meanwhile, an army led by the innkeeper Andreas Hofer upon the war message had gathered around Sterzing. In the First and Second Battle of Bergisel near Innsbruck on April 12 and May 25, the peasant troops clashed with the Bavarians, the Tyroleans celebrated the news that Napoleon had suffered his first defeat at the Battle of Aspern-Essling on May 22. Thus, the rebels, who had their strongholds in Southern Tyrol, were fighting alone. Hofer now took over the administration of the territories at Innsbruck. However, in the Treaty of Schönbrunn of October 14, the treaty ending the War of the Fifth Coalition. Napoleon ordered the re-conquest of the province the same day and those last loyal troops were defeated at the Fourth Battle of Bergisel on November 1, that effectively crushed the rebellion despite minor rebel victories in November. Many of the rebels were executed by the French and Bavarian forces in the following weeks, the leader Andreas Hofer fled into the mountains and hid at several places in South Tyrol.
He was betrayed by a Tyrolean peasant to the French near St Martin in Passeier on 28 January 1810. Hofer was arrested and brought to Mantua, where Eugène de Beauharnais, the French viceroy of Italy, first wanted to pardon him, the death penalty was issued on February 19 and executed the next day. Hofers mortal remains were buried at the Innsbruck Hofkirche in 1823, upon Napoleons fall in 1814 and the Congress of Vienna, all parts of Tyrol were re-united under Austrian rule. With the rise of nationalism in the 19th century, the fate of the rebellion
Battle of Sankt Michael
In the Battle of Sankt Michael on 25 May 1809, Paul Greniers French corps crushed Franz Jellacics Austrian division at Sankt Michael in Obersteiermark, Austria. The action occurred after the initial French victories during the War of the Fifth Coalition, Sankt Michael is located approximately 140 kilometers southwest of Vienna. Originally part of the Danube army of Archduke Charles, Jellacics division was detached to the south before the Battle of Eckmühl and ordered to join the army of Archduke John at Graz. As it retreated southeast toward Graz, Jellacics division passed across the front of Eugène de Beauharnais Army of Italy, when he learned of Jellacics presence, Eugène sent Grenier with two divisions to intercept the Austrian column. Greniers lead division duly intercepted Jellacics force and attacked, though the Austrians were able to hold off the French at first, they were unable to get away. The second French divisions arrival secured a numerical superiority over Jellacic. Greniers subsequent French assault broke the Austrian lines and captured thousands of prisoners, when Jellacic joined John it was with only a fraction of his original force.
In the opening encounters of the 1809 war between France and Austria, Emperor Napoleon beat Feldmarschall-Leutnant Johann von Hiller at the battles of Abensberg and Landshut on 20 and 21 April. The following day, Napoleon defeated Generalissimo Archduke Charles at the Battle of Eckmühl, when Bavaria was invaded, Archduke Charles detached Jellacic to advance from Salzburg and occupy Munich on the extreme south flank. To better perform this mission, Hoffmeisters brigade was exchanged for General-Major Karl Dollmayer von Provenchères cavalry-infantry brigade from the light division. After the Austrian retreat began, Jellacic was ordered to back on Salzburg. Accordingly, elements of his command began assembling in Salzburg beginning on 29 April, believing cavalry was of little use in the mountains, Jellacic sent Provenchères toward Vienna on 1 May with the OReilly Chevauxlegers #3. Hiller fought the Battle of Ebersberg on 3 May, crossed to the bank of the Danube on 11 May. On 4 and 5 May, Jellacic fought a rearguard action at Lueg Pass,40 km south of Salzburg.
In the clash, a few hundred Hungarian regulars and Grenz infantry repulsed a brigade of pursuing Bavarians under the command of Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre. In Italy, General of Cavalry Archduke John defeated Viceroy Eugène at the Battle of Sacile on 16 April, Eugène fell back to Verona where he gathered reinforcements until he was superior in numbers to his Austrian opponent. After hearing news that Archduke Charles was in retreat, John withdrew from his Adige River defenses on 1 May, on 8 May, Eugène and John fought the Battle of Piave River and the Austrian retreat continued. John split his army, sending Feldmarschall-Leutnant Ignaz Gyulai along a route to Ljubljana
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
Battle of Graz
The Battle of Graz took place on 24–26 June 1809 between an Austrian corps commanded by Ignaz Gyulai and a French division led by Jean-Baptiste Broussier. The French were soon reinforced by a corps under Auguste Marmont, the battle is considered a French victory though Gyulai was successful in getting supplies to the Austrian garrison of Graz before the two French forces drove him away from the city. Graz, Austria is located 145 kilometers south-southwest of Vienna at the intersection of the modern A2, before the Battle of Raab on 14 June, the Franco-Italian army left Broussiers division in its rear to besiege an Austrian garrison in the Graz citadel. When Gyulais force appeared before the town in late June, Broussier retreated, on the night of 25 June, Broussier sent two unsupported battalions of the 84th Line Infantry Regiment against the town. Surrounded by a superior force of Austrians, the French stubbornly defended their position until the next afternoon. The 84th was soon joined by Auguste Marmonts newly arrived French corps, Marmont attacked and forced Gyulai to retreat from Graz.
The castle hill, remained in possession of its Austrian garrison, shortly afterward, Emperor Napoleon I summoned both Marmont and Broussier to march to Vienna, where both participated in the climactic Battle of Wagram on 5 and 6 July. In recognition of its action, the 84th was allowed to inscribe UN CONTRE DIX on its colors. On 8 May 1809, the Viceroy of Italy, Eugène de Beauharnais and his Franco-Italian army defeated General der Kavallerie Archduke John of Austria at the Battle of Piave River, after the battle, John made the decision to split his army into two parts. He took the troops of Feldmarschall-Leutnants Albert Gyulai and Johann Frimont northeast to Villach and sent Ignaz Gyulai and this dispersal of the available Austrian military units made Eugènes subsequent invasion of Inner Austria considerably easier. Johns purpose in sending Ignaz Gyulai to Carniola was to raise the Croatian Feudal Ban, on 15 May, the troops reporting to Archduke John were distributed as follows. On the right flank, General of Division Jacques MacDonald led two divisions and General of Division Charles Randon de Pullys cavalry, altogether 14,000 troops.
General of Division Jean-Baptiste Rusca commanded a guard that marched on Eugènes left. Eugène captured two forts and defeated Albert Gyulai at the Battle of Tarvis from 15 to 18 May. Archduke John retreated from Villach toward Graz, where he arrived on 24 May, the next day, Greniers two divisions crushed Feldmarschall-Leutnant Franz Jellacics division in the Battle of Sankt Michael. Only 2,000 of Jellacics troops managed to join John at Graz, the rest were killed or captured. On 26 May, Eugène reached Bruck an der Mur and established contact with Napoleons main army which had occupied Vienna on 13 May, MacDonald occupied Ljubljana on 23 May, capturing 7,000 muskets,71 artillery pieces, and large supplies of food and munitions. Another French column occupied Trieste, seizing 22,000 British-supplied muskets intended for the use of the Hungarian and Croatian militia, ordered to move closer to Eugène, MacDonald marched northeast to Maribor where he met Grouchy and a cavalry-infantry force