In topography, prominence measures the height of a mountain or hill's summit relative to the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it. It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peak's key col is a unique point on this contour line and the parent peak is some higher mountain, selected according to various objective criteria. There are at least two definitions of prominence: The prominence of a peak is the minimum height necessary to descend to get from the summit to any higher terrain, which can be calculated for a given peak in the following way: for every path connecting the peak to higher terrain, find the lowest point on the path. See Figure 1; the prominence of a peak is the height of the peak’s summit above the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it. This allows the prominence of points like Everest to be calculated, as long as a lowest point can be defined; the following mental exercise may illustrate the meaning of topographic prominence.
Imagine a peak and imagine that an imaginary sea level rises to the peak. Now lower the imaginary sea level and an imaginary island appears beneath your feet; the island will merge with other islands that emerge. The island will touch an island with a higher peak than the initial island The summit of that island is the parent peak of the summit, the point at which the two islands touch is the key col of the summit, the elevation rise from the key col to the summit is the topographic prominence of the summit; the parent peak may be either far from the subject peak. The summit of Mount Everest is the parent peak of Aconcagua at a distance of 17,755 km, as well as the parent of the South Summit of Mount Everest at a distance of 360 m; the key col may be close to the subject peak or far from it. The key col for Aconcagua, if sea level is disregarded, is the Bering Strait at a distance of 13,655 km; the key col for the South Summit of Mount Everest is about 100 m distant. Prominence is interesting to many mountaineers because it is an objective measurement, correlated with the subjective significance of a summit.
Peaks with low prominence are either subsidiary tops of some higher summit or insignificant independent summits. Peaks with high prominence tend to be the highest points around and are to have extraordinary views. Only summits with a sufficient degree of prominence are regarded as independent mountains. For example, the world's second-highest mountain is K2. While Mount Everest's South Summit is taller than K2, it is not considered an independent mountain because it is a sub-summit of the main summit. Many lists of mountains take topographic prominence as cutoff. John and Anne Nuttall's The Mountains of England and Wales uses a cutoff of 15 m, Alan Dawson's list of Marilyns uses 150 m.. In the contiguous United States, the famous list of "fourteeners" uses a cutoff of 300 ft / 91 m. In the U. S. 2000 ft of prominence has become an informal threshold that signifies that a peak has major stature. Lists with a high topographic prominence cutoff tend to favor isolated peaks or those that are the highest point of their massif.
While the use of prominence as a cutoff to form a list of peaks ranked by elevation is standard and is the most common use of the concept, it is possible to use prominence as a mountain measure in itself. This generates lists of peaks ranked by prominence, which are qualitatively different from lists ranked by elevation; such lists tend to emphasize isolated high peaks, such as range or island high points and stratovolcanoes. One advantage of a prominence-ranked list is that it needs no cutoff since a peak with high prominence is automatically an independent peak, it is common to define a peak's parent as a particular peak in the higher terrain connected to the peak by the key col. If there are many higher peaks there are various ways of defining which one is the parent, not based on geological or geomorphological factors; the "parent" relationship defines a hierarchy. For example, in Figure 1, the middle peak is a subpeak of the right peak, in turn a subpeak of the left peak, the highest point on its landmass.
In that example, there is no controversy over the hierarchy. These different definitions follow. A special case occurs for the highest point on an oceanic continent; some sources define no parent in this case. Called prominence island parentage, this is defined as follows. In figure 2 the key col of peak A is at the meeting place of two closed contours, one encircling A and the other containing at least one higher peak; the encirclement parent of A is the highest peak, inside this other contour. In terms of the
Swisstopo is the official name for the Swiss Federal Office of Topography, Switzerland's national mapping agency. The current pseudo-English name was made official in 2002, it had been in use as the domain name for the institute's homepage, swisstopo.ch, since 1997. The main class of products produced by Swisstopo are topographical maps on seven different scales. Swiss maps have been praised for their quality. 1:25.000. This is the most detailed map, useful for many purposes; those are popular with tourists for famous areas like Zermatt and St. Moritz; these maps cost CHF 13.50 each. 208 maps on this scale are published at regular intervals. The first map published on this scale was 1125 Chasseral, in 1952; the last map published on this scale was 1292 Maggia, in 1972. Since 1956, composites have been published, starting with 2501 St. Gallen, they have the same information, but consist of several parts of regular maps combined in tourist or urban areas. 22 composite maps have so far been published. 1:50.000.
Since 1994, routes are coloured on these maps. It is marketed as for hikers, cyclists, planners and explorers. 78 maps on this scale are published at regular intervals. Composites exist, are more frequent than the assemblages for 1:25.000 maps. As of September 2004, 24 composite maps have been published. 1:100.000. These are marketed as Geographical regions of special interest to tourists on one map. 24 maps on this scale are published at regular intervals. 11 composite maps have been published. 1:200.000. Switzerland and surrounding lands in four sheets. 1:300.000. A photographic copy of the 1:200.000 map, with Switzerland on a single sheet. 1:500.000. Switzerland with surrounding lands. 1:1.000.000. Switzerland with extensive surroundings, from Luxembourg to Bosnia and Herzegovina; the numbering system of Swiss regular maps is directly based on the geographical situation. A map number is always one higher than the map number of the adjacent map to the west, one lower than the adjacent map to the east.
From north to south, the numbers differ by 20 for the scale 1:25.000, 10 for the scale 1:50.000 and 5 for the scale 1:100.000. However, as can be seen on the Seite nicht gefunden, there are some exceptions to this rule: Switzerland is a little bit too large to be only 20 1:25.000 maps wide. Instead of choosing another system, the map to the east of 1199 Scuol is called 1199bis Piz Lad; the same is true for some maps at scale 1:50.000. Hiking maps are published on the scale 1:50.000. They are based on the regular maps 1:50.000, but include information about which routes are good to walk. They have information about public transport; these maps are published in collaboration with Swisshiking. Ski tour map, 1:50.000. Based on the topographical map 1:50.000, but including information about steep slopes, ski routes and snowboard routes. Road map: two sheets published on a scale of 1:200.000, but not the same as the topographical 1:200.000, as it lacks contour lines. This map is published each year. Cultural Heritage, 1:300.000 Map of Museums, 1:300.000.
Map of Castles, 1:200.000. It is based on the topographical map 1:200.000, but includes information about castles and ruins. Everest, in collaboration with a lot of other organizations, including the National Geographic Society; the Swiss Path is a hiking trail around Lake Uri to celebrate the 700th anniversary of Swiss Confederation. Seeland-Trois lacs, 1:75.000, not directly based on any topographical map. It was made for the Expo. 02, in this region. Satellite map, 1:300.000. Community map, 1:300.000, with only political borders, no topographical information except for lakes. Einst und Jetzt: only Bern and Basel have been published so far. Land use map, 1:300.000, with statistical information only Aeronautical map, 1:500.000, based on the topographical map 1:500.000, with aviation information. Glider chart Chart of Air Navigation Obstacles Solar Radiation In 1809, the first topographical surveys of Switzerland took place on a confederate, military level, they were led by Hans Conrad Finsler. Measurements in the alpine region started in 1825 with triangulations by Antoine-Joseph Buchwalder.
This work would be finished in 1837 by Johannes Eschmann. At New Year 1838, the Topographical Bureau was founded in Geneve by Guillaume Henri Dufour; this bureau published its first map the same year, the Carte topographique du Canton de Genève. Topographic surveys started in the alpine regions of Switzerland; these had their first results in 1845, a year than planned, when a map scaled 1:100.000 was published. This was the start of; the topographic survey finished in 1862. To honour Dufour, the Swiss government decided to rename the highest peak on the Dufourkarten from Höchste Spitze to Dufourspitze: it still carries that name today. In 1863, the SAC published a 1:50.000 map of the region Tödi, based on unpublished survey material. A year the last map of the Dufourkarten was published, the following year, Dufour retired and Hermann Siegfried became Chief of the Topographical Bureau. In 1865, Herman Siegfried becomes the Chief of the Topographical Bureau, the bureau moves from Geneva to Bern. Over the next few years, a composite map is published of Ticino, soundings start to measure the depth of the major Swiss lakes, a first map is published scaled 1:250
Lac de Mauvoisin
Lac de Mauvoisin is a reservoir in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. The reservoir is formed by the Mauvoisin Dam, 250 m high; the dam is the 11th highest in the world, the 6th highest arch dam. It was built in 1951–1957, raised by 13.5 m in 1991. The reservoir lies in the upper Val de Bagnes, between the massif of the Grand Combin, one of the highest mountains of the Alps, La Ruinette; the highest peak visible from the lake is the Combin de la Tsessette. Swiss Dams: Profile of Mauvoisin Media related to Lac de Mauvoisin at Wikimedia Commons
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
The Pennine Alps known as the Valais Alps, are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. They are located in Italy; the Italian side is drained by the rivers Dora Baltea and Toce, tributaries of the Po. The Swiss side is drained by the Rhône; the Great St Bernard Tunnel, under the Great St Bernard Pass, leads from Martigny, Switzerland to Aosta. The main chain runs from west to east on the border between Switzerland. From Mont Vélan, the first high summit east of St Bernard Pass, the chain goes below 3000 metres and contains many four-thousanders such as Matterhorn or Monte Rosa; the valleys are quite similar on both side of the border, being oriented perpendicular to the main chain and descending progressively into the Rhône Valley on the north and the Aosta Valley on the south. Unlike many other mountain ranges, the higher peaks are located outside the main chain and found themselves between the northern valleys; the chief peaks of the Pennine Alps are: Main glaciers: Gorner Glacier Corbassière Glacier Findel Glacier Zmutt Glacier Zinal Glacier Otemma Glacier Allalin Glacier Ferpècle Glacier Fee Glacier Mont Miné Glacier Ried Glacier Turtmann Glacier Moiry Glacier Arolla Glacier Moming Glacier Cheilon Glacier The chief passes of the Pennine Alps are: Some regional nature parks, like the Parco Naturale Alta Valsesia, the Riserva Naturale Mont Mars and the Regional park of Binn valley, have been established on both sides of the main water divide.
Swiss Alps Alpi Biellesi Alpi Cusiane Swiss official cartography.