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In mathematics, a combination is a selection of items from a collection, such that the order of selection does not matter. For example, given three fruits, say an apple, an orange and a pear, there are three combinations of two that can be drawn from this set: an apple and a pear. More formally, a k-combination of a set S is a subset of k distinct elements of S. If the set has n elements, the number of k-combinations is equal to the binomial coefficient = n ⋯ k ⋯ 1, which can be written using factorials as n! K!! Whenever k ≤ n, and, zero when k > n. The set of all k-combinations of a set S is denoted by. Combinations refer to the combination of n things taken k at a time without repetition. To refer to combinations in which repetition is allowed, the terms k-selection, k-multiset, or k-combination with repetition are used. If, in the above example, it were possible to have two of any one kind of fruit there would be 3 more 2-selections: one with two apples, one with two oranges, one with two pears.

Although the set of three fruits was small enough to write a complete list of combinations, with large sets this becomes impractical. For example, a poker hand can be described as a 5-combination of cards from a 52 card deck; the 5 cards of the hand are all distinct, the order of cards in the hand does not matter. There are 2,598,960 such combinations, the chance of drawing any one hand at random is 1 / 2,598,960; the number of k-combinations from a given set S of n elements is denoted in elementary combinatorics texts by C, or by a variation such as C k n, n C k, n C k, C n, k or C n k. The same number however occurs in many other mathematical contexts. One can define for all natural numbers k at once by the relation n = ∑ k ≥ 0 X k, from which it is clear that = = 1, further, = 0 for k > n. To see that these coefficients count k-combinations from S, one can first consider a collection of n distinct variables Xs labeled by the elements s of S, expand the product over all elements of S: ∏ s ∈ S.

Now setting all of the Xs equal to the unlabeled variable X, so that the product becomes n, the term for each k-combination from S becomes Xk, so that the coefficient of that power in the result equals the number of such k-combinations. Binomial coefficients can be computed explicitly in various ways. To get all of them for the expansions up to n, one can use the recursion relation = +, for 0 < k < n, which follows from n = n − 1. For determining an individual binomial coefficient, it is

Atari Message Information System

The Atari Message Information System was one of the first BBS software packages available for the Atari 8-bit family of computers. It was known to crash pretty and could not be left unattended for more than a few days; the autorun.sys file. Versions of the AMIS BBS were modified with the modem handler supplied with the Atari XM301 modem and was deemed much more stable; the original AMIS BBS software was written in the BASIC programming language by Tom Giese member of the MACE. The program included instructions for building a "ring detector" circuit for the board maintainer's modem to enable it to answer incoming calls – modems at the time were most capable of making outgoing calls, but not receiving incoming ones; the one exception being the Atari XM301 modem which had a ring detector built-in. A sector editor was required for the BBS maintainer to manually allocate message space on their disk, one hex byte at a time; the software was released into the public domain, was modified by enthusiasts and BBS maintainers.

As such, several versions of AMIS exist, including: Standard AMIS – original version by Tom Giese MACE AMIS – from the Michigan Atari Computer Enthusiasts, by Larry Burdeno and Jim Steinbrecher Fast AMIS Carnival BBS Comet AMIS – by Matt Pritchard & Tom Johnson of Algonac, Michigan. The final version featured many automated tasks, usage logs, private mail, multiple message bases and support for hard drives and MYDOS, was on the cutting edge of AMIS/Atari 8-bit BBS technology. TODAMIS 1.0 – for 1030/XM301 modems, written in 1986 by Trent Dudley AMIS XM301 was a modified version of AMIS written by one of the original AMIS programmers, Mike Mitchell, newcomer Mike Olin, written in Basic XE by Optimized System Software. Reed Audio BBS was a modified version of Carnival BBS that added multiple forum support & support for the Atari 1030 modem by way of a hardware ring detector. Created by Todd Gordanier in 1986

Haroli Tehsil

Haroli is one of the five major tehsil in Una, Himachal Pradesh. It is having Assembly constituency with a city headquarter located 6 km towards South from District headquarters of Una. Villages nearby to Haroli are Dharampur, Kangar, Lower Badehra. Haroli is further surrounded by Una City towards the East, Mahilpur City towards the west, Garhshankar City towards the South, Bangana City towards North. Add to it, Hoshiarpur, Hamirpur is the nearby Cities to Haroli; this Place is on the border of the Una Hoshiarpur District. Hoshiarpur District, Garhshankar is located towards the South towards this place, it is near to the Punjab State Border. Haroli built was Known as Rai Sahib Puran Mal Kuthiala Nagar. Rai Sahib was the biggest entrepreneur of Haroli and Shimla and had his business spread till present day Lahore as well, his Haveli is by going up the way from Rai Bahadur Jodhamal Marg. His Haveli was the oldest and the initial Haveli there because his father with his 2 elder brothers where the first to settle in Haroli.

Rai Sahib Puran Mal Kuthiala had done a lot of social services for the people of Haroli by starting with the basic, by giving them good food and getting wells dug up so as to give them clean drinking water. He had created a massive empire till the early 20th century, he was the leading Banker as well as the biggest landlord in Shimla. He was the Modi to the princely states like Keonthal, Jubal, Koti Riyasat, Maharaja Jammu, Maharaja Patiala, Mandi Riyasat etc, he was always accompanied by his son named Raizada Lala Kadoomal Kuthiala who from the beginning helped his father like an obedient son and expanded the business further and made the business firms feet more strong. He was the owner of many Haveli's and other properties in Haroli as well as lands in nearby villages where they used to grow food like pulses, fruits, spices on a large scale and hence forth distribute it to the poor and sell it to the Rich, he had created Haroli Waterworks Trust, for which he donated his land and large sum of money, so that water from pipeline could be sent to everyones' houses in Haroli,which in the 1920s no one in a village could have thought off.

He donated land, on the request of DC of Shimla for creating the old bus stand at Shimla. Rai Sahib Puran Mal Kuthiala died in the year 1932 in Shimla, where an official holiday was declared by the DC of Shimla on the demise of a great personality, he lived a life full of prosperity to serve the people and society by being selfless. He donated many lands owned by him in Kangra and Una to his sareeks so that they could prosper and used to donate a lot of lands to people in need. People remember him as a great philanthropist of his time. Haroli's another personality. Rai Bahadur Jodhamal was born on November 23, 1881 in Haroli Village of Princely Estate called Kuthiala, he donated 650 Kanal land situated in Tanda, District Kangra to the government for the purpose of construction of a TB Sanatorium. There still are plenty of estates in Haroli, which were owned by Jodhamal ji. Rai Bahadur Jodhamal died on October 9, 1961. INC, BJP are the major political parties in this area. Current MLA is Mukesh Agnihotri from Indian National Congress.


Coast Fork Willamette River

The Coast Fork Willamette River is one of two forks that unite to form the Willamette River in western Oregon in the United States. It is about 40 miles long, draining an area of the mountains at the south end of the Willamette Valley south of Eugene; the Coast Fork Willamette River is formed in southwestern Lane County, in the Calapooya Mountains, by the confluence of the Little River and the Big River. The Coast Fork flows north through the mountains, through the Cottage Grove Lake reservoir, to Cottage Grove, where it receives the Row River from the southeast, it continues north past Creswell and joins the Middle Fork from the south, about 2 miles southeast of Eugene, to form the Willamette. List of rivers of Oregon Willamette Riverkeeper Media related to Coast Fork Willamette River at Wikimedia Commons

TCP Wrappers

TCP Wrappers is a host-based networking ACL system, used to filter network access to Internet Protocol servers on operating systems such as Linux or BSD. It allows host or subnetwork IP addresses, names and/or ident query replies, to be used as tokens on which to filter for access control purposes; the original code was written by Wietse Venema in 1990 to monitor a cracker's activities on the Unix workstations at the Department of Math and Computer Science at the Eindhoven University of Technology. He maintained it until 1995, on June 1, 2001, released it under its own BSD-style license; the tarball includes a library named libwrap. Only services that were spawned for each connection from a super-server got wrapped, utilizing the tcpd program; however most common network service daemons today can be linked against libwrap directly. This is used by daemons that operate without being spawned from a super-server, or when a single process handles multiple connections. Otherwise, only the first connection attempt would get checked against its ACLs.

When compared to host access control directives found in daemons' configuration files, TCP Wrappers have the benefit of runtime ACL reconfiguration and a generic approach to network administration. This makes it easy to use for anti-worm scripts, such as DenyHosts or Fail2ban, to add and expire client-blocking rules, when excessive connections and/or many failed login attempts are encountered. While written to protect TCP and UDP accepting services, examples of usage to filter on certain ICMP packets exist too, such as'pingd' – the userspace ping request responder. In January 1999, the distribution package at Eindhoven University of Technology was replaced by a modified version; the replacement contained a trojaned version of the software that would allow the intruder access to any server that it was installed on. The author spotted this within hours, upon which he relocated the primary distribution to his personal site. DNS-based blackhole list Forward-confirmed reverse DNS Firewall IP blocking Nullroute TCP Wrappers source code Softpanorama TCP Wrappers Information

Blue-bearded bee-eater

The blue-bearded bee-eater is a species of bee-eater found in much of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. This bee-eater is found in forest clearings, it is found in the Malayan region but extends west into peninsular India. The blue feathers of its throat are elongated and fluffed giving it its name, they have a loud call but are not as gregarious or active as the smaller bee-eaters, their square ended tail lacks the typical "wires" made up of the shafts of the longer central tail feathers in many species. This large bee-eater has a large sickle shaped bill and the square ended tail lacks the "wires" that are typical of smaller bee-eaters; the bird is grass green with a turquoise forehead and chin. The feathers of the throat are elongated giving it a bearded appearance; the belly is yellowish to olive with streaks of blue. The peninsular Indian populations are said to be paler green than the northeast Indian populations. Although males and females appear similar, the blue throat feathers of the male show higher ultraviolet reflectivity than those of the female.

The species is named after Lieut. John Atherton a nephew of Mrs. P. J. Selby who obtained a specimen of the bird. Selby described the species in "Illustrations of Ornithology" published along with Sir William Jardine in 1828. Jardine and Selby described it in the Illustrations of Ornithology and the type locality was said to be Cachar District Assam by E. C. Stuart Baker but Sir N B Kinnear re-designated Bangalore as the type locality for the species based on the fact that Atherton was posted in Bangalore when he wrote to Selby and noted that he was helped by a French collector; however the species is rare in that region. The nominate form is found in India and parts of mainland Southeast Asia while brevicaudatus is an insular population from Hainan. A subspecies bartletti from northeastern India described by W. N. Koelz is subsumed into the nominate population; this species is found in a variety of habitats at medium altitudes but below 2000m altitude. Thin to thick forest in medium elevations with clearings is the typical habitat.

It is found singly or in small groups of up to three and is patchily distributed. Their presence in an area can be missed, it has been reported from the hill regions of the Satpuras, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Chota Nagpur and from the Sub-Himalayan forests. This bird does not call frequently, it is not as active as the smaller bee-eaters. The calls include cackling hornbill like calls, a dry "Kit-tik... Kit-tik" in a series or hollow nasal "kyao" calls. Pairs may engage in duets of rattling which ends in short purring notes; the flight is undulating and barbet-like. The breeding season is February to August in India and courtship involves ritual feeding and tail fanning. Nest excavation may begin a month before the laying of eggs; the nest is a deep tunnel in a mud bank within which four spherical and white eggs are laid. The species appears to feed on bees, it exploits the defensive behavior of Giant honey bee colonies by provoking the mass release of guard bees which are caught and eaten as they pursue the bird.

Although foraging using aerial sallies, it is known to glean from bark. They may sometimes associate with mixed-species foraging flocks. Birds have been seen at flowers of Erythrina and Salmalia although it is unclear whether they fed on nectar or insects attracted to the flowers. A blood parasite Leucocytozoon nyctyornis has been described from this species and feather parasites Brueelia are known. Internet Bird Collection Calls Specimen photos