Drop-stitch knitting is a knitting technique for producing open, vertical stripes in a garment. The basic idea is to knit a solid fabric drop one or more stitches, producing a run in the fabric; the run will continue to the bottom edge of the garment, or until it encounters an increase, at which it stops. Drop-stich runs are an easy way to get the "see-through" effect of lace, but with a much more casual look; the designer can make interesting arrangements of open stripes. Drop-stitch stripes are vertical, since they follow the grain of the knitting, i.e. the wales, the columns of dependent loops. However, the grain of the knitting can be made off-vertical, e.g. in entrelac or by increasing on one edge and decreasing on the other. A drop-stitch that does not produce a vertical strip occurs when the initial increase happens in the middle of a stitch and the increase is dropped instead of worked in the next row; this produces a stitch, twice as long as a normal stitch. This method will produce a horizontal stripe.
When the number of increases applied to a single stitch is raised the resulting stitch is proportionately lengthened. Instead of being left open, the cross-strands of runs can be modified in various ways. For example, using a crochet hook, one can re-work them into larger knitted bights, e.g. by drawing four strands through the four below them, so on indefinitely. As another example, the "rungs" can be bound up in different patterns using a contrasting yarn and a darning needle. Robinson, Debby; the Encyclopedia of Knitting Techniques. London: Michael Joseph. Pp. 72–73. ISBN 0-7181-3124-X
Continental knitting called German knitting, European knitting, or left-hand knitting, is the process of knitting by holding the yarn in the hand opposite the working needle. However, use of the term'left-hand knitting' is discouraged by left-handed knitters because it leads to misunderstandings. Other knitting styles include combined knitting. In Continental knitting, unlike in English knitting, the tip of the working needle is used to hook the yarn and bring it forward; the motion of the right wrist is used to slip the right needle into the loop of the stitch being knitted and'scoop' or'hook' the yarn onto the right needle while the left forefinger holds the yarn across the back of the stitch. An alternative method of collecting the yarn involves using the thumb or index finger of the right hand to hold the yarn in place as the new stitch is being pulled out of the loop; this knitting style is easier to learn for people with crocheting experience, since the way the yarn is held in the left hand is similar to crochet, the motion of the right hand is similar to the motion seen in crochet, although the knitting needle is held under the palm of the hand.
One major difference in the motion of the right wrist is that in crochet the crochet hook may be held more like a pencil. Nowadays, the majority of knitters hold both needles under the palm; the tension in the yarn is controlled by threading the yarn through the fingers of the left hand. The yarn is looped around the little finger, across the knuckles and around the index finger; this style originated in continental Europe recognized in Germany and began spreading in the early nineteenth century to surrounding countries. This is evident in that the Norwegian word for knitting'binde' gave way to the German word for knitting'strikke'. Continental style knitting, being associated with Germany, fell out of favour in English-speaking countries during World War II. Since World War II, both continental and English knitting are used in the United States and England. Japanese knitters tend to favor the continental style and Chinese knitters for the most part use the English style. Many other countries use continental knitting, such as Portugal, Turkey and Peru
Lace knitting is a style of knitting characterized by stable "holes" in the fabric arranged with consideration of aesthetic value. Lace is sometimes considered the pinnacle of knitting, because of its complexity and because woven fabrics cannot be made to have holes. Famous examples include the wedding ring shawl of Shetland knitting, a shawl so fine that it could be drawn through a wedding ring. Shetland knitted lace became popular in Victorian England when Queen Victoria became a Shetland lace enthusiast, her enthusiasm resulted i.a. in her choosing knitted lacework for presents. From there, knitting patterns for the shawls were printed in English women's magazines where they were copied in Iceland with single ply wool; some consider that "true" knitted lace has pattern stitches on both the right and wrong sides, that knitting with pattern stitches on only one side of the fabric, so that holes are separated by at least two threads, is technically not lace, but "lacy knitting", although this has no historical basis.
Eyelet patterns are those in which the holes make up only a small fraction of the fabric and are isolated into clusters. At the other extreme, some knitted lace is all holes, e.g. faggoting. Knitted lace with no bound-off edges is elastic, deforming to fit whatever it is draped on; as a consequence, knitted lace garments must be blocked or "dressed" before use, tend to stretch over time. Lace can be used for any kind of garment, but is associated with scarves and shawls, or with household items such as curtains, table runners or trim for curtains and towels. Lace items from different regional knitting traditions are distinguished by their patterns and method, such as Faroese lace shawls which are knit bottom up with center back gusset shaping unlike a more common neck down, triangular shawl. A hole can be introduced into a knitted fabric by pairing a yarn over stitch with a nearby decrease. If the decrease precedes the yarn over, it slants right as seen from the right side. If the decrease follows the yarn over, it slants left as seen from the right side.
These slants pull the fabric away from the yarn over. Pairing a yarn over with a decrease keeps the stitch count constant. Many beautiful patterns separate the yarn over and decrease stitches, e.g. k2tog, k5, yo. Separating the yarn over from its decrease "tilts" all the intervening stitches towards the decrease; the tilt may form part of e.g. mimicking the veins in a leaf. There are few constraints on positioning the holes, so any picture or pattern can be outlined with holes. To design a simple lace motif, a knitter can draw its lines on a piece of knitting graph paper. More sophisticated patterns will change the grain of the fabric to help the design, by separating the yarn overs and decreases, it is common for lace knitters to insert a "lifeline", a strand of contrasting yarn threaded through stitches on the needle, at the end of every pattern repeat or after a certain number of rows. This allows the knitter to rip out a controlled number of rows. A horizontal row of holes can be produced by the pattern: *k3, k2tog, yo, k3*.
A pair of vertical columns can be produced by stacking the pattern: on the right side. Here the flanking decreases slant outwards away from the central stitch. For a thicker central column, one can move the decreases so that they slant inwards:. For making the same pattern on the wrong side, the converse stitch patterns are: and, respectively. A diagonal row of holes can be made by shifting the every row or every other row, e.g. Row 1: k, k2tog, yo, k5 Row 3: k3, k2tog, yo, k3 Row 5: k5, k2tog, yo, k1 Lace knitting is not as fine as other forms of lace, such as needle lace or bobbin lace. However, it is much faster to produce. Vogue Knitting: The Ultimate Knitting Book, updated ed. Sixth and Spring Books. ISBN 1-931543-16-X Reader's Digest Complete Guide to Reader's Digest Association. ISBN 0-89577-059-8 June Hemmons Hiatt The Principles of Knitting and Schuster, pp. 251-253. ISBN 978-1-4165-3517-1 Media related to Knit lace at Wikimedia Commons
Plaited stitch (knitting)
In knitting, a plaited stitch is a single knitted stitch, twisted clockwise or counterclockwise by one half-turn but sometimes by a full turn or more. Plaited stitches can be produced in several ways. Knitting into the back loop produces a clockwise plaited stitch in the lower stitch being knitted The clockwise-plaited stitch is called a left crossed stitch, since the left strand of the loop crosses over the right incoming strand. Left-crossed stitches are sometimes called twisted stitches, although the latter term might be confused with similar terms from cable knitting. Conversely, a counterclockwise plaited stitch can be produced if the yarn is wrapped around the needle in the opposite direction as normal while knitting a stitch; such a stitch is called a "right crossed stitch", since the right incoming strand crosses over the left outgoing strand. Here, the plait appears in the upper stitch i.e. in the new loop being formed. In the "brute-force" approach, the knitter can produce any sort of plaiting by removing the stitch to be knitted from the left-hand needle, twisting it as desired returning it to the left-hand needle and knitting it.
Both clockwise and counterclockwise plaited stitches are repeated in wales, i.e. in columns of knitting, where they make attractive, subtly different ribbings. Fabrics made with plaited stitches are stiffer than normal and "draw in" sideways, i.e. have a smaller widthwise gauge. Extra-long, full-turn clockwise plaited stitches can be made by knitting through the back loop and wrapping the yarn twice. Plaited stitches are useful in increases and decreases, both for drawing the fabric together and for covering potential "holes" in the fabric; as an aside, knitting through the back loop is a useful technique for untwisting stitches on the left-hand needle that "hang backwards". Such stitches are produced when a knitted fabric is pulled out and some stitches are accidentally put back onto the needle with a backwards twist. Hiatt, June Hemmons; the Principles of Knitting. New York: Simon and Schuster. Pp. 23–24, 32–36, 38, 61, 72. Reader's Digest Complete Guide to Needlework. Reader's Digest Association.
1979. Thomas, Mary. Mary Thomas' Book of Knitting Patterns. New York: Dover Publications
English knitting known as right-hand knitting or throwing, is a style of Western knitting where the yarn to be knit into the fabric is carried in the right hand. This style is prevalent throughout the English-speaking world. Other Western knitting styles include combined knitting. Despite the names, choice of knitting style has nothing to do with the handedness of the knitter. Various non-Western styles exist, many of which are similar to these, but which twist each stitch, making for a subtly different-looking fabric. Here, we assume that there are stitches on the needles, having been cast on previously; the yarn is wrapped around the right hand for tension. The right hand will hold the needle with the most knit stitches; the left hand holds the other needle. If the yarn is sitting in front of the right needle, it should first be moved between the needles to the back. We will make one knit stitch into the first loop on the left needle; the right needle is inserted into the left side of that loop.
To see what is happening, we can use the two needles to hold that loop wide open: it is through this loop that we will pull the new stitch. The yarn is wrapped counter-clockwise around the right needle, this new loop is pulled with the right needle through the old one; the stitch is now complete. To prepare for the next stitch, we now withdraw the left needle from the just-completed stitch. If the yarn is sitting behind the right needle, it should first be moved between the needles to the front. We will make one purl stitch---which looks like the back of a knit stitch---into the first loop on the left needle; the right needle is inserted into the right side of that loop. Again, to see what is happening, we can use the needles to hold the loop open. Instead of pulling the new loop forward, the right needle is now situated to pull the new loop backward through the old loop; the yarn is still wrapped counter-clockwise around the right needle, this new loop is pulled through the old one. The completed stitch is slid off the left needle.
Knitting Combined knitting Continental knitting
Double knitting is a form of hand knitting in which two fabrics are knitted on one pair of needles. The fabrics may be inseparable, as in interlock knitted fabrics, or they can be two unconnected fabrics. In principle, an arbitrary number n of fabrics can be knitted on one pair of knitting needles with n yarns, as long as one is careful; the most famous sample of double knitting is the pair of socks knitted on one set of knitting needles by Anna Makarovna, the nanny in Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace When the pair was finished, she made a solemn ceremony of pulling one stocking out of the other in the presence of the children. Double knit fabric became popular within 1970s fashion. However, the double-knit fabric referred to is a machine-made, double-thick construction with some similarities to handmade double knitting but none of the unique colorwork and construction possibilities. There are several methods for double knitting, including flat knitting on double-pointed knitting needles. Only half the stitches are knitted with any one yarn.
After both passes are done, the knitter turns the work and begins another row. Another common method is to alternate a knit stitch of yarn A with a purl stitch of yarn B. Since the yarn is held to the back for a knit, to the front for a purl, this results in two sheets of stockinette stitches, with the wrong sides facing each other. Switching colors ties the two sides together for a double-thick fabric; this method is used for elaborate, two-color designs, as there are few constraints on how the colors may be used. The finished item from this method is reversible, each side holding the negative image of the other. Baber, M'Lou. Double Knitting: Reversible Two-Color Designs. Schoolhouse Press. ISBN 0-942018-28-1. Hiatt, June Hemmons; the Principles of Knitting. Simon and Schuster, pp. 233–247. ISBN 0-671-55233-3. Post-Quinn, Alasdair. Extreme Double-Knitting: New Adventures in Reversible Colorwork. Cooperative Press. ISBN 0-979201-77-2. Royce, Beverly. Notes on Double Knitting. Schoolhouse Press. ISBN 0-942018-06-0.
Stamper, Kory. "Extreme Knitting: 2 socks in 1". Knitty.com
A hook gauge or needle gauge is a measuring device used by crocheters and knitters to test the sizes of particular crochet hooks and knitting needles. Hook gauges are made of plastic or aluminum and have sizing holes from 2mm to 11mm diameter. A hook gauge functions as a ruler to test the size of a test swatch of handmade fabric. A hook gauge is the most reliable way to determine the actual size of a tool. Though most hooks and needles have metric sizing, tool dimensions vary between different manufacturers. Non-metric sizing conventions change over time. For instance, different sizing charts rate a 4.0mm hook as either a U. S. G/6 or an F/5. U. S. textile craft terminology employs the word gauge in two different ways: as hook gauge in reference to the sizing tool, or as a standalone term gauge to describe the number of stitches in a standard sized sample of work 4" or 10cm. UK terminology refers to the latter as tension. Craft patterns include a gauge or tension measurement and good practice among crafters is to achieve the correct gauge on a sample swatch before embarking on the full project.
As one crochet guidebook explains: Whenever you are following a crochet pattern you will notice that a gauge is included. This is an all-important guide to obtaining the proper size of the square or garment you are working on. If you don't get the proper gauge, the item will not fit properly and you may run out of yarn before finishing. Several factors affect fabric gauge including hook or needle size, although sometimes a crafter may change tool size deliberately in order to achieve a certain gauge. Accurate needle and hook sizing reduces the number of variables. Additionally, if substitute tools are needed during the course of the project a hook gauge can determine whether a given tool is appropriate in advance of actual work. Susan Cottrell & Cindy Weloth, The New Granny Square, New York: Lark/Chapelle, 2006. Edie Eckman, The Crochet Answer Book, North Adams, Massachusetts: Storey Publishing, 2005. Debbie Stoller, Stitch'N Bitch Crochet: The Happy Hooker New York: Workman Publishing, 2006