Combined gas and gas
Combined gas turbine and gas turbine is a type of propulsion system for ships using two gas turbines connected to a single propeller shaft. A gearbox and clutches allow either of the turbines to drive both of them combined. Using one or two gas turbines has the advantage of having two different power settings. Since the fuel efficiency of a gas turbine is best near its maximum power level, a small gas turbine running at its full power is more efficient compared to a twice as powerful turbine running at half power, allowing more-economical transit at cruise speeds. Compared to Combined diesel and gas or Combined diesel or gas, COGAG systems have a smaller footprint but a much lower fuel efficiency at cruise speed and for CODAG systems it is somewhat lower for high speed dashes. Kolkata-class guided-missile destroyer Type 22 frigate Invincible-class aircraft carrier Cavour-class aircraft carrier Asagiri-class destroyer, subsequent destroyer classes Hyūga-class helicopter destroyer, helicopter carrier Izumo-class helicopter destroyer, helicopter carrier Neustrashimyy-class frigate Sejong the Great-class destroyer Skjold-class corvette
Combined steam and gas
Combined steam and gas is a propulsion system for ships using a combination of steam turbines and gas turbines to power the shafts. A gearbox and clutches enable both of them together to drive the shaft, it has the advantage of the cruising efficiency and reliability of steam and the rapid acceleration and start-up time of gas. This system was used on first-generation gas-turbine ships such as the Royal Navy's County class destroyer and Tribal class frigate; the Spanish aircraft carrier Dédalo used it
The Kirov-class battlecruiser is a class of nuclear-powered warship of the Russian Navy, the largest and heaviest surface combatant warships in operation in the world. Among modern warships, they are second in size only to large aircraft carriers, of similar size to a World War 2 era battleship; the official designation of the ship-type is "heavy nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser". The ships are referred to as battlecruisers by western defense commentators due to their size and general appearance. Built for the Soviet Navy, the class is named for the first of a series of four ships to be constructed, renamed Admiral Ushakov in 1992. Original plans called for the construction of five ships, however the last was cancelled. In Russia this class of ship is referred to by the designation Project 1144 Orlan. Only Pyotr Velikiy is operational. Admiral Nakhimov is projected to re-enter service with the Russian Navy in 2021. Russia planned to reactivate the remaining two vessels by 2020, but recent reporting suggests that the reactors in Admiral Ushakov and Admiral Lazarev are in a poor condition, these ships cannot be safely reactivated.
The appearance of the Kirov class played a key role in the recommissioning of the Iowa-class battleships by the United States Navy in the 1980s. The Kirov hull design was used for the nuclear-powered SSV-33 command ship Ural; the Kirov class's main weapons are 20 P-700 Granit missiles mounted in deck, designed to engage large surface targets. Air defense is provided by twelve octuple S-300F launchers with 96 missiles and a pair of Osa-MA batteries with 20 missiles each. Pyotr Velikiy carries some S-300FM missiles and is the only ship in the Russian Navy capable of ballistic missile defence; the ships had some differences in sensor and weapons suites: Kirov came with SS-N-14 anti-submarine warfare missiles, while on subsequent ships these were replaced with 3K95 Kinzhal surface-to-air missile systems. The Kinzhal installation is in fact mounted further forward of the old SS-N-14 mounting, in the structure directly behind the blast shield for the bow mounted RBU ASW rocket launcher. Kirov and Frunze had eight 30 mm AK-630 close-in weapon systems, which were supplanted with the Kortik air-defence system on ships.
Other weapons are the automatic 130 mm AK-130 gun system, 10 21-inch torpedo/missile tubes and Udav-1 with 40 anti-submarine rockets and two sextuple RBU-1000 launchers. Russia is developing a new anti-ship missile to equip Kirovs called the 3M22 Tsirkon, capable of traveling at hypersonic speeds out to at least 620 mi. If the missile passes developmental tests, it could enter service in 2020, being deployed first aboard Admiral Nakhimov and in Pyotr Veliky when it finishes upgrades in 2022. Depending on the choice of types of missiles will amount to 40 - 80. 2 × Top Dome for SA-N-6 fire control radar 4 × Bass Tilt for AK-360 CIWS System fire control 2 × Eye Bowl for SA-N-4 fire control 2 × Hot Flash/Hot Spot for SA-N-11 Grisom 1 × Kite Screech for AK-100 or AK-130 2 × Cross Sword for SA-N-9 The lead ship, Kirov was laid down in June 1973 at Leningrad's Baltiysky Naval Shipyard, launched on 27 December 1977 and commissioned on 30 December 1980. When she appeared for the first time in 1981, NATO observers called her BALCOM I.
Kirov suffered a reactor accident in 1990 while serving in the Mediterranean Sea. Repairs were never carried out, due to lack of funds and the changing political situation in the Soviet Union. In 1983, a command and control ship, the SSV-33 Ural was launched, although the ship would not be commissioned until 1989, she utilized the basic hull design of the Kirov-class vessels, but with a modified superstructure, different armament, was intended for a different role within the Soviet Navy. Ural was decommissioned and laid up in 2001, due to high operating costs, is scheduled to be scrapped in 2017. Frunze, the second vessel in the class, was commissioned in 1984, she was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. In 1992, she was renamed Admiral Lazarev; the ship was decommissioned four years later. She is in reserve. On 19 September 2009, General Popovkin, Deputy MOD for Armaments, said the MOD is looking into bringing Admiral Lazarev back into service. Kalinin, now Admiral Nakhimov, was the third ship to enter service, in 1988.
She was assigned to the Northern Fleet. Renamed Admiral Nakhimov in 1992, she was mothballed in 1999 and reactivated in 2005, she is in overhaul at Severodvinsk Shipyard. Construction of the fourth ship, Yuriy Andropov, encountered many delays, she was renamed Pyotr Veliky in 1992. She serves as the flagship of the Russian Northern Fleet. On 23 March 2004, English language press reported the Russian Navy Commander-in-Chief, Fleet Admiral Vladimir Kuroedov said Pyotr Veliky's reactor was in an bad condition and could explode "at any moment", a statement which may have been the result of internal politics within the Russian Navy; the ship was sent to port for a month, the crew lost one-third of their
Horsepower is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done. There are many different types of horsepower. Two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower, about 745.7 watts, the metric horsepower, 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses, it was expanded to include the output power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is permitted only as a supplementary unit; the development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. In 1702, Thomas Savery wrote in The Miner's Friend: So that an engine which will raise as much water as two horses, working together at one time in such a work, can do, for which there must be kept ten or twelve horses for doing the same.
I say, such an engine may be made large enough to do the work required in employing eight, fifteen, or twenty horses to be maintained and kept for doing such a work… The idea was used by James Watt to help market his improved steam engine. He had agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines; this royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined; the wheel was 12 feet in radius. Watt judged. So: P = W t = F d t = 180 l b f × 2.4 × 2 π × 12 f t 1 m i n = 32, 572 f t ⋅ l b f m i n. Watt defined and calculated the horsepower as 32,572 ft⋅lbf/min, rounded to an 33,000 ft⋅lbf/min. Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf 100 ft per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony and thus arrived at the 33,000 ft⋅lbf/min figure. Engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute.
John Desaguliers had suggested 44,000 foot-pounds per minute and Tredgold 27,500 foot-pounds per minute. "Watt found by experiment in 1782 that a'brewery horse' could produce 32,400 foot-pounds per minute." James Watt and Matthew Boulton standardized that figure at 33,000 foot-pounds per minute the next year. A common legend states that the unit was created when one of Watt's first customers, a brewer demanded an engine that would match a horse, chose the strongest horse he had and driving it to the limit. Watt, while aware of the trick, accepted the challenge and built a machine, even stronger than the figure achieved by the brewer, it was the output of that machine which became the horsepower. In 1993, R. D. Stevenson and R. J. Wassersug published correspondence in Nature summarizing measurements and calculations of peak and sustained work rates of a horse. Citing measurements made at the 1926 Iowa State Fair, they reported that the peak power over a few seconds has been measured to be as high as 14.9 hp and observed that for sustained activity, a work rate of about 1 hp per horse is consistent with agricultural advice from both the 19th and 20th centuries and consistent with a work rate of about 4 times the basal rate expended by other vertebrates for sustained activity.
When considering human-powered equipment, a healthy human can produce about 1.2 hp and sustain about 0.1 hp indefinitely. The Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt produced a maximum of 3.5 hp 0.89 seconds into his 9.58 second 100-metre dash world record in 2009. When torque T is in pound-foot units, rotational speed is in rpm and power is required in horsepower: P / hp = T / × N / rpm 5252 The constant 5252 is the rounded value of /; when torque T is in inch pounds: P
Combined diesel and diesel
Combined diesel and diesel is a propulsion system for ships using two diesel engines to power a single propeller shaft. A gearbox and clutches enable both of them together to drive the shaft. Two advantages over using a single, larger diesel engine of the same total power output are that diesel engines have somewhat better specific fuel consumption at 75% to 85% max output than they do at only 50% output, there is a weight and size advantage to using two higher-speed engines compared to a single lower-speed engine with the larger gearbox system. Future Philippine Navy Frigate Frégates de taille intermédiaire
Combined diesel-electric and gas
Combined diesel-electric and gas is a modification of the combined diesel and gas propulsion system for ships. A variant, called the combined diesel-electric or gas system, contains the same basic elements but will not allow simultaneous use of the alternative drive sources. A CODLAG system employs electric motors; the motors are powered by diesel generators. For higher speeds, a gas turbine powers the shafts via a cross-connecting gearbox; this arrangement combines the diesel engines used for propulsion and for electric power generation reducing service cost, since it reduces the number of different diesel engines and electric motors, requiring less maintenance. Electric motors work efficiently over a wide range of revolutions and can be connected directly to the propeller shaft so that simpler gearboxes can be used to combine the mechanical output of turbine and diesel-electric systems. Another advantage of the diesel-electric transmission is that without the need of a mechanical connection, the diesel generators can be decoupled acoustically from the hull of the ship, making it less noisy.
This has been used extensively by military submarines but surface naval vessels like anti-submarine vessels will benefit as well. A system which uses both diesel engines and gas turbines to generate electricity for electric motors, where there is no mechanical transmission from either to the propellers, is not classified as CODLAG, but as integrated electric propulsion or integrated full electric propulsion; such an arrangement is in use on passenger ships like RMS Queen Mary 2, with a pool of diesel generators for the base load and turbo generators for peak power, on warships such as the Royal Navy's Type 45 destroyer and the Zumwalt-class destroyer. Type 23 frigate F125 class frigate GTS Finnjet FREMM multipurpose frigate Polar-class icebreaker FREMM multipurpose frigate Daegu-class frigate Global Combat Ship RMS Queen Mary 2 Type 45 destroyer Zumwalt-class destroyer Diesel-electric
In modern language, a missile known as a guided missile, is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket. Missiles have four system components: targeting or missile guidance, flight system and warhead. Missiles come in types adapted for different purposes: surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles, surface-to-air missiles, air-to-air missiles, anti-satellite weapons. All known existing missiles are designed to be propelled during powered flight by chemical reactions inside a rocket engine, jet engine, or other type of engine. Non-self-propelled airborne explosive devices are referred to as shells and have a shorter range than missiles. In ordinary British-English usage predating guided weapons, a missile is such as objects thrown at players by rowdy spectators at a sporting event; the first missiles to be used operationally were a series of missiles developed by Nazi Germany in World War II. Most famous of these are the V-1 flying bomb and V-2 rocket, both of which used a simple mechanical autopilot to keep the missile flying along a pre-chosen route.
Less well known were a series of anti-shipping and anti-aircraft missiles based on a simple radio control system directed by the operator. However, these early systems in World War II were only built in small numbers. Guided missiles have a number of different system components: Guidance system Targeting system Flight system Engine Warhead The most common method of guidance is to use some form of radiation, such as infrared, lasers or radio waves, to guide the missile onto its target; this radiation may emanate from the target, it may be provided by the missile itself, or it may be provided by a friendly third party. The first two are known as fire-and-forget as they need no further support or control from the launch vehicle/platform in order to function. Another method is to use a TV guidance, with a visible light or infrared picture produced in order to see the target; the picture may be used either by a human operator who steering the missile onto its target or by a computer doing much the same job.
One of the more bizarre guidance methods instead used a pigeon to steer a missile to its target. Some missiles have a home-on-jam capability to guide itself to a radar-emitting source. Many missiles use a combination of two or more of the methods to improve accuracy and the chances of a successful engagement. Another method is to target the missile by knowing the location of the target and using a guidance system such as INS, TERCOM or satellite guidance; this guidance system guides the missile by knowing the missile's current position and the position of the target, calculating a course between them. This job can be performed somewhat crudely by a human operator who can see the target and the missile and guide it using either cable- or radio-based remote control, or by an automatic system that can track the target and the missile. Furthermore, some missiles use initial targeting, sending them to a target area, where they will switch to primary targeting, using either radar or IR targeting to acquire the target.
Whether a guided missile uses a targeting system, a guidance system or both, it needs a flight system. The flight system uses the data from the targeting or guidance system to maneuver the missile in flight, allowing it to counter inaccuracies in the missile or to follow a moving target. There are two main systems: aerodynamic maneuvering. Missiles are powered by an engine either a type of rocket engine or jet engine. Rockets are of the solid propellant type for ease of maintenance and fast deployment, although some larger ballistic missiles use liquid-propellant rockets. Jet engines are used in cruise missiles, most of the turbojet type, due to its relative simplicity and low frontal area. Turbofans and ramjets are the only other common forms of jet engine propulsion, although any type of engine could theoretically be used. Long-range missiles may have multiple engine stages in those launched from the surface; these stages may all be of similar types or may include a mix of engine types − for example, surface-launched cruise missiles have a rocket booster for launching and a jet engine for sustained flight.
Some missiles may have additional propulsion from another source at launch. Missiles have one or more explosive warheads, although other weapon types may be used; the warheads of a missile provide its primary destructive power. Warheads are most of the high explosive type employing shaped charges to exploit the accuracy of a guided weapon to destroy hardened targets. Other warhead types include submunitions, nuclear weapons, biological or radiological weapons or kinetic energy penetrators. Warheadless missiles are used for testing and training purposes. Missiles are categorized by their launch platform and intended target. In broadest terms, these will either be surface or air, t