Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg. It directly borders the German capital Berlin and is part of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region and it is situated on the River Havel,24 kilometres southwest of Berlins city centre. Potsdam was a residence of the Prussian kings and the German Kaiser, around the city there are a series of interconnected lakes and cultural landmarks, in particular the parks and palaces of Sanssouci, the largest World Heritage Site in Germany. The Potsdam Conference in 1945 was held at the palace Cecilienhof, the Filmstudio Babelsberg is the oldest large-scale film studio in the world. Potsdam developed into a centre of science in Germany in the 19th century, there are three public colleges, the University of Potsdam, and more than 30 research institutes in the city. The area was formed from a series of large moraines left after the last glacial period, the city is three-quarters green space, with just a quarter as urban area.
There are about 20 lakes and rivers in and around Potsdam, such as the Havel, the Griebnitzsee, Templiner See, Tiefer See, Teltowkanal, Heiliger See, the highest point is the 114-metre high Kleiner Ravensberg. Potsdam is divided into seven city districts and nine new Ortsteile. The appearances of the city districts are quite different, the districts in the north and in the centre consist mainly of historical buildings, the south of the city is dominated by larger areas of newer buildings. Potsdam has an Oceanic climate, with cool, snowy winters, the average winter high temperature is 3.5 °C, with a low of −1.7 °C. Snow is common in the winter, summers are mild, with a high of 23.6 °C and a low of 12.7 °C. The name Potsdam originally seems to have been Poztupimi, a common theory is that it derives from an old West Slavonic term meaning beneath the oaks, i. e. the corrupted pod dubmi/dubimi. The area around Potsdam shows occupancy since the Bronze Age and was part of Magna Germania as described by Tacitus.
After the great migrations of the Germanic peoples, Slavs moved in and it was first mentioned in a document in 993 AD as Poztupimi, when Emperor Otto III gifted the territory to the Quedlinburg Abbey, led by his aunt Matilda. By 1317, it was mentioned as a small town and it gained its town charter in 1345. In 1573, it was still a market town of 2,000 inhabitants. Potsdam lost nearly half of its due to the Thirty Years War. After the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Potsdam became a centre of European immigration and its religious freedom attracted people from France, the Netherlands and Bohemia
Trams in Melbourne
The Melbourne tramway network is a major form of public transport in Melbourne, the capital city of the state of Victoria, Australia. As of May 2014, the network consisted of 250 kilometres of track,493 trams,25 routes and it is the largest urban tramway network in the world, ahead of the networks in St Petersburg and Upper Silesia, Berlin and Vienna. Trams are the second most used form of transport in overall boardings in Melbourne after the commuter railway network. Trams have operated continuously in Melbourne since 1884, with the opening of a tram line in Fairfield. Since they have become a part of Melbournes character and feature in tourism. Melbournes cable tram system opened in 1885, and expanded to one of the largest in the world, the first electric tram line opened in 1889, but closed only a few years in 1894. In 1906 electric tram systems were opened in St Kilda and Essendon, the Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board was formed in 1919 to take control of Melbournes cable tram network, six of the seven electric tramway companies, and the last horse tram.
By 1940 all cable and horse lines had been abandoned or converted to either electric tram or bus operation. The network has operated under contract since the commencement of franchising, following the privatisation of the Public Transport Corporation in 1999. The current private operator contracted to run Melbournes tram system is Keolis Downer, public information and patronage promotion are undertaken by Victorias public transport body, Public Transport Victoria. The multi-modal integrated ticketing system, currently operates across the tram network, at some Melbourne intersections, motor vehicles are required to perform a hook turn, a manoeuvre designed to give trams priority. Since January 2015 trams inside the business district have been free. Melbournes first tram was a tram from Fairfield railway station to a real estate development in Thornbury, it opened on 20 December 1884. Seven horse trams operated in Melbourne, three lines were built by the Melbourne Tramway & Omnibus Company, while the four were built by different private companies.
Melbournes cable tram system has its origins in the MTOC, started by Francis Boardman Clapp in 1877, with a view to operate a Melbourne tram system. Although some lines were intended to be horse trams. The Act established the Melbourne Tramways Trust, which was made up of the 12 municipalities that the MTOC system would serve. The MTT was responsible for the construction of tracks and engine house, while the MTOC built the depots and arranged for the delivery or construction of the rolling stock
Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with a population of about 220,000. In the south-west of the country, it straddles the Dreisam river, the city has acted as the hub of the Breisgau region on the western edge of the Black Forest in the Upper Rhine Plain. The city is known for its medieval minster and Renaissance university, as well as for its standard of living. The city is situated in the heart of the major Baden wine-growing region, according to meteorological statistics, the city is the sunniest and warmest in Germany and held the all-time German temperature record of 40.2 °C from 2003 to 2015. Freiburg was founded by Konrad and Duke Berthold III of Zähringen in 1120 as a market town, hence its name. Frei means free, and Burg, like the modern English word borough, was used in those days for a city or town. The German word Burg means a town, as in Hamburg. Thus, it is likely that the name of place means a fortified town of free citizens. This town was located at a junction of trade routes between the Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea regions, and the Rhine and Danube rivers.
In 1200, Freiburgs population numbered approximately 6,000 people, at about that time, under the rule of Bertold V, the last duke of Zähringen, the city began construction of its Freiburg Münster cathedral on the site of an older parish church. Begun in the Romanesque style, it was continued and completed 1513 for the most part as a Gothic edifice, in 1218, when Bertold V died, Egino V von Urach, the count of Urach assumed the title of Freiburgs count as Egino I von Freiburg. The city council did not trust the new nobles and wrote down its established rights in a document, at the end of the thirteenth century there was a feud between the citizens of Freiburg and their lord, Count Egino II of Freiburg. Egino II raised taxes and sought to limit the freedom, after which the Freiburgers used catapults to destroy the counts castle atop the Schloßberg. The furious count called on his brother-in-law the Bishop of Strasbourg, Konradius von Lichtenberg, the bishop responded by marching with his army to Freiburg.
According to an old Freiburg legend, a butcher named Hauri stabbed the Bishop of Strasbourg to death on 29 July 1299. It was a Pyrrhic victory, since henceforth the citizens of Freiburg had to pay an annual expiation of 300 marks in silver to the count of Freiburg until 1368, in 1366 the counts of Freiburg made another failed attempt to occupy the city during a night raid. Eventually the citizens were fed up with their lords, and in 1368 Freiburg purchased its independence from them, the city turned itself over to the protection of the Habsburgs, who allowed the city to retain a large measure of freedom. Most of the nobles of the city died in the battle of Sempach, the patrician family Schnewlin took control of the city until the guildsmen revolted
GVB became a private corporation wholly owned by the city of Amsterdam in 2007, and will continue to operate public transport services under a negotiated contract until 2024. The forerunner of the GVB, the Gemeentetram Amsterdam, was established in 1900 by the city after it acquired a tram company. In 1925, it introduced its first bus line, in 1943, the GVB acquired its current form when Gemeentetram merged with Gemeenteveren Amsterdam, the municipal ferry company, and got its name Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf. In 1977, it introduced its first metro line, in 1990, it introduced its first light rail line. In 2007 GVB was privatised and hence the name was abolished. The GVB operates a number of transportation networks in and around the city of Amsterdam, including,3 metro lines, partly elevated. 1 light rail line to the neighboring town Amstelveen, partly using metro tracks, partly on the street with its own lanes, and with level crossings. 14 tram routes, on street, partly mixed with all traffic, partly on lanes shared with buses and taxis.
Many bus routes, buses often mix with other traffic, but sometimes on lanes shared with trams and taxis, several ferries across the IJ, at least one is frequent, operating 24 hours a day, free of charge. In addition, a new line, the North/South line, is under construction and is scheduled to be completed in 2018. Since 2006 the responsible authority for all public transport in the greater Amsterdam area is the City Region of Amsterdam / Stadsregio Amsterdam. In 2010 the SRA prolonged the concession of the GVB for the period 2012–2017, at Station Zuid it switches from third rail to pantograph and catenary wires. From there to Amstelveen Centrum it shares its track with tram line 5, the light rail vehicles on this line are capable of using both 600 volt DC and 750 volt DC. The service is free of charge, there are three ferry boats, Zaanstad and Velsen. The ferries run at least 3 times per hour,24 hours per day,7 day per week. The Amsterdam public transport network falls under the National Tariff System of the Netherlands, the electronic OV-chipkaart has been the only ticketing system valid in the Amsterdam metro since the summer of 2009, and in the rest of the network since June 2010.
GVB Tram map Tram Travels, Gemeentevervoerbedrijf Amsterdam UrbanRail. Net
Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany. It lies in the part of the Thuringian Basin, within the wide valley of the Gera river. It is located 100 km south-west of Leipzig,300 km south-west of Berlin,400 km north of Munich and 250 km north-east of Frankfurt, together with neighbouring cities Weimar and Jena it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia with approximately 400,000 inhabitants. Erfurts old town is one of the most intact medieval cities in Germany, tourist attractions include the Krämerbrücke, the ensemble of Erfurt Cathedral and Severikirche and Petersburg Citadel, one of the largest and best preserved town fortresses in Europe. The citys economy is based on agriculture and microelectronics and its central location has led to it becoming a logistics hub for Germany and central Europe. Erfurt hosts the second-largest trade fair in eastern Germany as well as the public television children’s channel KiKa, the city is situated on the Via Regia, a medieval trade and pilgrims road network.
Modern day Erfurt is a hub for ICE high speed trains, Erfurt was first mentioned in 742, as Saint Boniface founded the diocese. Although the town did not belong to any of the Thuringian states politically and it was part of the Electorate of Mainz during the Holy Roman Empire, and became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1802. From 1949 until 1990 Erfurt was part of the German Democratic Republic, notable institutions in Erfurt are the Federal Labour Court of Germany, the University of Erfurt and the Fachhochschule Erfurt. The university was founded in 1379, making it the first university to be established in area which constitutes modern day Germany. It closed in 1816 and was re-established in 1994, with the modern campus on what was a former teachers training college. Martin Luther was the most famous student of the institution, studying there from 1501, Erfurt is an old Germanic settlement. The earliest evidence of settlement dates from the prehistoric era, archaeological finds from the north of Erfurt revealed human traces from the paleolithic period.
The Melchendorf dig in the city part showed a settlement from the neolithic period. The Thuringii inhabited the Erfurt area ca.480 and gave their name to Thuringia ca, all three dioceses were confirmed by Zachary the next year, though in 755 Erfurt was brought into the diocese of Mainz. That the place was already is borne out by archeological evidence. Throughout the Middle Ages, Erfurt was an important trading town because of its location, together with the other five Thuringian woad towns of Gotha, Tennstedt and Langensalza it was the centre of the German woad trade, which made those cities very wealthy. During the 10th and 11th centuries both the Emperor and the Electorate of Mainz held some privileges in Erfurt, the German kings had an important monastery on Petersberg hill and the Archbishops of Mainz collected taxes from the people
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
D-class Melbourne tram
The D-class trams are low-floor Combino trams that operate on the Melbourne tram network. The D-class was procured by M>Tram and have operated by Yarra Trams since they took control of the entire tram network in December 2002. To meet a franchise commitment to new trams to replace Z-class trams,59 German built Siemens. The first tram arrived for testing in August 2002, and the first four entered service in November 2002, to aid disabled access to trams from platform stops gap eliminators were fitted to all 59 D-class trams in 2013. Costing $400,000 to fit to the fleet, they are an attached to the door step of the trams that prevent the wheels of wheelchairs from getting stuck between the door step and platform. Gap eliminators proved successful in an earlier 2012 trial on two route 96 Ds, before being fitted to all D-class trams, in August 2004, D13507 was badly damaged in a collision and returned to Germany in November 2004 for repairs. It did not return to service until March 2009, in early 2013 all 59 D-class trams had their passenger information systems upgraded to announce upcoming stops.
The upgrade, which cost $343,000, allows announcements on all routes on which D-class trams regularly travel and their alternative deviations, informing passengers of upcoming stops and connections. The bodies of both D1 and D2-class vehicles were found to be developing microscopic cracks in November 2006, which could lead to collapse in the event of an accident. This resulted in all 59 Combino trams undergoing structural work to strengthen their frames, the repairs necessitated the removal of between four and eight seats per tram, leaving D1-class trams with 32 seats and D2-class trams with 56. D2 trams are in the PTV livery and all over advertising livery, D-class trams comes in two variants, the 38 strong D1-class, which have three-sections, and 21 strong D2-class, which have five-sections. The D1-class entered service in late 2002, being operated from Malvern depot, with the last entering service in 2004, from 26 July 2004 D2-class trams were progressively moved to operation on route 96, displacing B-class trams that were in service at the time.
In September 2013, following the introduction of the E-class trams, as at March 2017, all D1-class operate from Malvern depot, while all D2-class operate out of Brunswick depot. The Kaohsiung City Government built the line to demonstrate the concept of light rail. In March 2016, Time Out Magazine rated the D-Class tram the worst tram on the Yarra Trams network, the reasons behind this was because of a low amount of uncomfortable seats, a loud scream-like sound when the doors open and close resulting in poor ride quality. Media related to D-class Melbourne tram at Wikimedia Commons
Freiburger Verkehrs AG
Furthermore VAG owns 50% of the shares in the Breisgau S-Bahn, the other 50% are with SWEG. The company operates a railway network on DB Netz AG. The services run on short sections of the Magistrale Upper Rhine Valley Railway, the VAG is a public limited company. Shareholder is the city of Freiburg, in 2010 the overall loss was 7.545 million €. This was accomplished by a ratio of 88%, which is impressingly high by German public transport standards. The company was founded as Direktion des Elektrizitätswerkes und der Straßenbahn on October, the basic tram net with four lines went to service in 1901. They were converted former horse bus lines, the Schauinslandbahn went to service in 1930 by a privately owned company and after being bought by the city of Freiburg in 1968 merged to the VAG in 1982. The Breisgau-S-Bahn was founded in 1995, because of the previous existing services the operating started immediately. VAG operates a network comprising tram lines, bus routes, the network carries an average of 200,000 passengers a day.
The backbone of the network is based on four tram lines, coordinated with these are 26 bus lines connecting interchange points to surrounding areas. In addition, the Schauinslandbahn provides access to the summit of Schauinsland mountain, VAG operates its lines by a fleet of 62 trams and 104 buses. These cover 3.1 and 4.1 million kilometres a year respectively, most trams and all buses offer low floor service. Regular tram intervals are five minutes and 7.5 minutes, an extension of tram line 2 of 1.8 km to the border of Gundelfingen in the north was inaugurated and started service on March 15,2014. An extension of the tramline to the Messe was finished in 2015, the increasing service quality and quantity increased the number of passengers from 46 million in 1990 to 73 million in 2010. This 58% increase is remarkable whilst the population of the city increased by 23%, From classic tramway to light rail. Annual report 2010 Official website Live monitor of all Freiburg trams
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. The name Melbourne refers to an urban agglomeration spanning 9,900 km2, the metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of 4,641,636 as of 2016, and its inhabitants are called Melburnians. Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemens Land on 30 August 1835, in what was the colony of New South Wales, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837. It was named Melbourne by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria, to whom Lord Melbourne was close, in 1847, during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the worlds largest and wealthiest cities.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the interim seat of government until 1927. It is a financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a centre for street art, music. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games, the main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia. The Port of Melbourne is Australias busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo, Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, and the regional train. Melbourne is home to Australias most extensive network and has the worlds largest urban tram network. Before the arrival of settlers, humans had occupied the area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 2000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous tribes, the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong.
The area was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and it would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. Batman selected a site on the bank of the Yarra River. Batman returned to Launceston in Tasmania, in early August 1835 a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe Fawkner, left Launceston on the ship Enterprize
Augsburg is a city in Swabia, Germany. It was a Free Imperial City for over 500 years and it is a university town and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is a district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is the third-largest city in Bavaria with a population of 286,000 citizens, after Neuss and Trier, Augsburg is Germanys third oldest city, being founded by the Romans as Augusta Vindelicorum, named after the Roman emperor Augustus. Augsburg is the only German city with its own legal holiday and this gives Augsburg more legal holidays than any other region or city in Germany. Augsburg was the home of two families that rose to great prominence internationally, replacing the Medicis as Europes leading bankers, the Fugger. Augsburg lies at the convergence of the Alpine rivers Lech and Wertach, in the south extends the Lechfeld, an Outwash plain of the post ice age between the rivers Lech and Wertach, where rare primeval landscapes were preserved.
The Augsburg city forest and the Lech valley heaths today rank among the most species-rich middle European habitats, on Augsburg borders the nature park Augsburg Western Woods - a large forestland. The city itself is heavily greened, as a result, in 1997 Augsburg was the first German city to win the Europe-wide contest Entente Florale for Europes greenest and most livable city. Augsburg is surrounded by the counties Landkreis Augsburg in the west, the neighboring towns and cities are Friedberg, Königsbrunn, Neusäß, Rehling, Kissing, Merching, Gessertshausen und Diedorf. Augsburg has a continental climate. The city was founded in 15 BC by Drusus and Tiberius as Augusta Vindelicorum, the name means Augusta of the Vindelici. This garrison camp soon became the capital of the Roman province of Raetia, Augsburg was the intersection of many important European east-west and north-south connections, which evolved as major trade routes of the Middle Ages. Around 120 AD Augsburg became the capital of the Roman province Raetia, Augsburg was sacked by the Huns in the 5th century AD, by Charlemagne in the 8th century, and by Welf of Bavaria in the 11th century, but arose each time to greater prosperity.
Augsburg was granted the status of a Free Imperial City on March 9,1276 and from until 1803, it was independent of its former overlord, the Prince-Bishop of Augsburg. Frictions between the city-state and the prince-bishops were to remain frequent however, particularly after Augsburg became Protestant and curtailed the rights, with a strategic location as intersection of trade routes to Italy, the Free Imperial City became a major trading center. Augsburg produced large quantities of goods and textiles. Augsburg became the base of two banking families that rose to prominence, the Fuggers and the Welsers
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, nonmagnetic, ductile metal, Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite, Aluminium is remarkable for the metals low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium, despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts abundance, the potential for a role for them is of continuing interest. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight, ductile. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite, a fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation.
The yield strength of aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel and it is easily machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a cubic structure. Aluminium has an energy of approximately 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin. Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits, the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals. In highly acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, primarily because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium