A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
In games, score refers to an abstract quantity associated with a player or team. Score is measured in the abstract unit of points, events in the game can raise or lower the score of different parties. Most games with score use it as a quantitative indicator of success in the game, in competitive games, a goal is made of attaining a better score than one's opponents in order to win. In video games that features scoring, points are optional, side component of gaming. Players may achieve points through normal gameplay, but their score will not have an immediate relevance to the game itself. Instead, playing to beat a "high score" set by the game program, another player or oneself becomes an extra challenge, adding replay value. In modern gaming, the presence of a score is not as ubiquitous. During the era of arcade games, because of the technical limitations of the time, games could not be "won" or "completed" but were instead endless cycles of continuous gameplay, points had a much greater relevance.
Many modern games no longer keep track of scores, many no longer feature an option to save or record high scores. However, some games, such as role-playing games, have experience points, skill points, use money or treasure, which can all be used to buy or upgrade skills and objects. In fighting games, scoring a high number of points could result in unlockable players or modes. In some games, reaching certain scores gives an extra life. In puzzle games, scores are gained by solving the puzzles quickly. Higher scores can be gained by performing combos of puzzle solving. There is a time bonus which can add extra points; the level number is a multiplier on the points, so higher scores are possible on harder levels. Level multipliers can be picked up in some games, to further multiply your points bonus. In other games, points are gained from defeating monsters and enemies; when defeating a boss, a proportionally large number of points is rewarded. Extra points can be gained from gathering items, such as other pick-ups.
When a player gets a certain number of points, they may get an extra life or go on to a higher level. Points can be used as currency which can be redeemed for rewards and player upgrades; the high score of a video game is the highest logged point value. Many games will have a list of several high scores, called the high score table; the concept of a high score first achieved cultural significance with the rise in popularity of pinball machines and electro-mechanical arcade games. Players who achieve a high score are greeted with a congratulatory message and are able to enter their initials or name into the machine, their score and name will remain there until someone "knocks" them off the high score list by achieving a higher score. For this reason, high scores are inherently competitive and may sometimes involve one-upmanship against other players; the high score has a close association to the "free game." When in an arcade, many games will offer a player a free chance at another game if they achieve a high score.
This has declined in popularity in recent years, as players are allowed to play for as long as they can without losing, but not given free games if they achieve a high score. The first video game to use the term "high score" was Midway's Sea Wolf. In these early video games, the player would attempt to reach a pre-determined high score within an allotted time period, after which they would win bonus playing time, since it was not possible to save the top score. Though the term "high score" was not used, the concept of reaching pre-determined scores to win bonus playing time was featured in earlier arcade video games such as Taito's racing game Speed Race; the high score concept changed in 1978 with the release of Taito's shoot'em up Space Invaders, where high scores were determined by gamers playing for as long as they could to stay alive, as high scores kept rising. This was made possible due to being the first game to save the player's score; the astounding popularity of Space Invaders stemmed from players returning to beat the current high scores, as players could now compete with each other over who had the highest score.
In 1979, Space Invaders Part IIStar Fire allowed players to enter initials next to their score. Since this data was stored in the machine's RAM, it was deleted every time the machine lost power, which in practice would invariably happen every night as operators preferred to leave the machines unplugged when the arcade was closed to avoid incurring unnecessary power costs; the popularity of the high score made it a defining feature for many games. Magazines such as Nintendo Power and Sega Visions would publish high scores submitted by their readers; the high score became most popular when, starting in 1982, the Twin Galaxies Scoreboard began to appear in the pages of Video Games Magazine, Joystik Magazine, Computer Games Magazine, VideoGiochi Magazine, Video Games Player Magazine and Electronic Fun Magazine. In the 1990s, all performances would have to be videotaped to verify the achievement; the high score exists in online games in various forms. The spread of the Internet has made it possible to compete with the rest of the world, rather than the players of a single machine or game.
Many modern games have the ability to post his/her high score to a central webpage. Online multiplayer games first person shooters, real time strategies, role-playing video games have ranking systems; these new high score lists and ranking systems are more complex than conventional high score lists. Some are based on tournaments, while others track game servers continuously, keeping statistics for
Artificial intelligence in video games
In video games, artificial intelligence is used to generate responsive, adaptive or intelligent behaviors in non-player characters similar to human-like intelligence. Artificial intelligence has been an integral part of video games since their inception in the 1950s; the role of AI in video games has expanded since its introduction. Modern games implement existing techniques from the field of artificial intelligence such as pathfinding and decision trees to guide the actions of NPCs. Additionally, AI is used in mechanisms which are not visible to the user, such as data mining and procedural-content generation; the term "game AI" is used to refer to a broad set of algorithms that include techniques from control theory, computer graphics and computer science in general, so video game AI may not constitute "true AI" in that such techniques do not facilitate computer learning or other standard criteria, only constituting "automated computation" or a predetermined and limited set of responses to a predetermined and limited set of inputs.
Many industry and corporate voices claim that so-called video game AI has come a long way in the sense that it has revolutionized the way humans interact with all forms of technology, although many expert researchers are skeptical of such claims, of the notion that such technologies fit the definition of "intelligence" standardly used in the cognitive sciences. Industry voices make the argument that AI has become more versatile in the way we use all technological devices for more than their intended purpose because the AI allows the technology to operate in multiple ways developing their own personalities and carrying out complex instructions of the user. However, many in the field of AI have argued that video game AI is not true intelligence, but an advertising buzzword used to describe computer programs that use simple sorting and matching algorithms to create the illusion of intelligent behavior while bestowing software with a misleading aura of scientific or technological complexity and advancement.
Since game AI for NPCs is centered on appearance of intelligence and good gameplay within environment restrictions, its approach is different from that of traditional AI. Game playing was an area of research in AI from its inception. One of the first examples of AI is the computerised game of Nim made in 1951 and published in 1952. Despite being advanced technology in the year it was made, 20 years before Pong, the game took the form of a small box and was able to win games against skilled players of the game. In 1951, using the Ferranti Mark 1 machine of the University of Manchester, Christopher Strachey wrote a checkers program and Dietrich Prinz wrote one for chess; these were among the first computer programs written. Arthur Samuel's checkers program, developed in the middle 50s and early 60s achieved sufficient skill to challenge a respectable amateur. Work on checkers and chess would culminate in the defeat of Garry Kasparov by IBM's Deep Blue computer in 1997; the first video games developed in the 1960s and early 1970s, like Spacewar!, Gotcha, were games implemented on discrete logic and based on the competition of two players, without AI. Games that featured a single player mode with enemies started appearing in the 1970s.
The first notable ones for the arcade appeared in 1974: the Taito game Speed Race and the Atari games Qwak and Pursuit. Two text-based computer games from 1972, Hunt the Wumpus and Star Trek had enemies. Enemy movement was based on stored patterns; the incorporation of microprocessors would allow more computation and random elements overlaid into movement patterns. It was during the golden age of video arcade games that the idea of AI opponents was popularized, due to the success of Space Invaders, which sported an increasing difficulty level, distinct movement patterns, in-game events dependent on hash functions based on the player's input. Galaxian added more complex and varied enemy movements, including maneuvers by individual enemies who break out of formation. Pac-Man introduced AI patterns to maze games, with the added quirk of different personalities for each enemy. Karate Champ introduced AI patterns to fighting games, although the poor AI prompted the release of a second version. First Queen was a tactical action RPG which featured characters that can be controlled by the computer's AI in following the leader.
The role-playing video game Dragon Quest IV introduced a "Tactics" system, where the user can adjust the AI routines of non-player characters during battle, a concept introduced to the action role-playing game genre by Secret of Mana. Games like Madden Football, Earl Weaver Baseball and Tony La Russa Baseball all based their AI in an attempt to duplicate on the computer the coaching or managerial style of the selected celebrity. Madden, Weaver and La Russa all did extensive work with these game development teams to maximize the accuracy of the games. Sports titles allowed users to "tune" variables in the AI to produce a player-defined managerial or coaching strategy; the emergence of new game genres in the 1990s prompted the use of formal AI tools like finite state machines. Real-time strategy games taxed the AI with many objects, incomplete information, pathfinding problems, real-time decisions and economic planning, among other things; the first games of the genre had notorious problems. Herzog Zwei, for example, had broken pathfinding and basic three-state state machines for unit control, Dune II attacked the
Magical Drop, sometimes referred to in Japanese as MagiDro, is a series of puzzle games first released in the arcade, primarily for several platforms such as the Neo Geo Arcade, Super Famicom, Sega Saturn, PlayStation, Bandai WonderSwan, GBC and the Neo Geo Pocket Color. A stack of random colored bubbles descend from the top, a player is defeated when a bubble hits the bottom. Bubbles can be picked up and dropped by the player's clown at the bottom, are destroyed when three or more of the same color are put together on a single column. Chains are formed either when a single drop caused a chain reaction, or when more than one group of bubbles is destroyed in quick succession; the game is played with two players, chains cause the opponent's stack to descend faster. There are the Black Pierrot being named after a tarot card. Different characters have different attack patterns; the columns of the opponent's stack will descend at different rates relative to each other depending on the character chosen.
This causes a disjunction of colors that may make it more difficult for the other player to clear their stack. For example, with the character Devil, all the columns will descend at the same rate, whereas with Sun, the middle columns will descend faster than the others. In 1995, Data East released the first game in the series as a coin-operated version of this game titled Magical Drop. Despite the arcade game being released worldwide while using the English title in North America and Europe, Data East gave the official English names of its successors the same names as their Japanese counterparts, while the home versions of the first game were never released outside Japan; the series became better known for its Neo-Geo sequels, Magical Drop II and Magical Drop III, due to the popularity of the Neo-Geo platform. The last games in the series released in the United States were Magical Drop Pocket for the Neo Geo Pocket Color in 1999 and Magical Drop for the Game Boy Color in 2000. G-mode bought and now owns the intellectual rights to the Magical Drop franchise along with several other of Data East's franchises and titles.
While Data East declared bankruptcy in 2003, other publishers have re-released the PlayStation titles Magical Drop 3 + Wonderful and Magical Drop F. Magical Drop II and Magical Drop III are available on the subscription service GameTap. In 2007, the Super Famicom version of the first Magical Drop title was released in Japan on the Virtual Console for the Wii by G-mode. In 2009, versions of Magical Drop for Android phones and iPhone were released in May and September, respectively. On May 25, 2010, Magical Drop II was released on the Virtual Console by G-mode. In 2010, Magical Drop III was included as part of Data East Arcade Classics and released on the Virtual Console in Japan on July 6, 2010. At E3 2011, UTV Ignition Entertainment announced a new sequel, Magical Drop V. Handled by the French developer Golgoth Studio, the game was released for PC on November 15, 2012. Fool: A little man wearing a purple robe, he is always seen carrying a cat with him. In the sequel, it is revealed in his ending that there are, in fact, two Fools, they are brothers Magician: A young man with a narcissistic streak.
While seeming mature, he has an absurd sense of humor High Priestess: A scholarly young lady who spends most of her time reading books Chariot: A hot-blooded knight who has no fear and never backs down from danger Devil: A mischievous young boy with demonic traits such as horns and dragon wings Star: A young girl holding two jugs of water. While cheerful, she can turn into a crybaby World: A goddess-like woman with three eyes and a ribbon covering parts of her body, she debuted in the original game as the final opponent, was not playable until the sequel Justice: A teenage girl with a strong sense of justice, true to her namesake Strength: A muscular man who wears iron knuckles. He is sometimes referred to as Father Strength Empress: A villainous woman who wears a dominatrix outfit, though she was a kind and gentle woman, she debuted in the game as the final opponent Black Pierrot: An evil jester-like demon who acts as the game's secret boss. He was responsible for the corruption of Empress Emperor Hierophant Lovers Young Strength Death Temperance Sun Judgement Hermit Moon Hanged Man Tower Wheel of Fortune The first game in the series, first released to arcades in 1995.
It features Fool, High Priestess, Chariot and Star as playable characters. It features a single-player mode, where the player battles each playable character before taking on World in one final encounter, as well as a two-player multiplayer mode; the game received an updated version named Magical Drop Plus 1!, which adds a Solo Play mode that challenges players to obtain a high score without having to battle an AI opponent. Magical Drop Plus 1! was released in English as Chain Reaction. Magical Drop was ported to the Super Famicom, which includes a puzzle mode that challenges players to solve preset puzzles given a limited number of possible moves; the game was re-imagined for the Sony PlayStation and Sega Saturn with different, pre-rendered characters. A port of the game is part of Magical Drop III + Wonderful. Name as opposed to using Chain Reaction; the second game in the series moved from Data East's proprietary arcade hardware to SNK's Neo Geo. It first released in 1996. In addition to the cast of the first Magical Drop, Magical Drop II introduces Justice, as
Tony Hawk's Pro Skater
Tony Hawk's Pro Skater, released as Tony Hawk's Skateboarding in the UK, New Zealand and parts of Europe, is a skateboarding-simulation video game developed by Neversoft and published by Activision. It was released for the PlayStation on August 31, 1999, was ported to the Nintendo 64, Game Boy Color, N-Gage. Tony Hawk's Pro Skater takes place in a 3-D environment permeated by an ambience of rock and hip-hop music; the player takes control of a variety of famous skateboarders and must complete missions by performing skateboarding tricks and collecting objects. The game offers several modes of gameplay, including a career mode in which the player must complete objectives and evolve their character's attributes, a free-play mode in which the player may skate without any given objective, a multi-player mode that features a number of competitive games. Tony Hawk's Pro Skater was met with critical acclaim for all versions but the Game Boy Color version, which had a more mixed reception; the game resulted in a successful franchise, receiving eight annualized sequels developed by Neversoft from 2000's Pro Skater 2 to 2007's Proving Ground.
Tony Hawk's Pro Skater puts the player in control of a famous skateboarder and takes place in a third-person view with a fixed camera. The goal of the game is to perform tricks and combinations thereof in an effort to increase the player's score. Movement can be altered using the d-pad, ollies, grabs and slides are each assigned to individual buttons; each skateboarder has eight slides and eight flips. The number of points earned from a successful trick sequence is dependent on the amount of time spent in the air, the degree of rotation, the number and variety of tricks performed; when the player succeeds in performing tricks, a special gauge increases. When this gauge is full and flashing, the player is capable of performing a special trick, worth many more points than ordinary tricks. If the player botches a landing and falls off their skateboard, any potential points that may have been earned from the immediately-preceding tricks are negated, the special gauge is emptied. In the game's "Career Mode", the player must complete five objectives in each level within a period of two minutes.
The player is not obligated to complete all the objectives within a single run. Two common objectives in each level are achieved by accumulating two defined scores, while one other common objective is to collect letters of the word "SKATE", another common objective is to destroy five of a certain object within each level; the fifth objective is more varied, but is oriented around a specific element found in each level. Completing objectives unlocks additional levels and equipment for use. Three of the mode's levels take place in a competition in which the player perform for judges and accumulate the highest score within three one-minute rounds; the player receives a silver or gold medal depending on the final score they are given. Other single-player modes include the "Simple Session", in which the player can accumulate a high score within two minutes using any previously-obtained levels and characters, the "Free Skate", in which there is no time limit imposed; the multiplayer mode is played by two players in a split screen view and offers three games: "Graffiti", "Trick Attack", "HORSE".
In "Graffiti", players must accumulate the highest score by changing level elements into their own color via the use of tricks. If a player performs a higher-scoring trick on an element, marked, the element will change to that player's color. "Trick Attack" is a mode in which players must accumulate the highest score by chaining tricks together. "HORSE" is a game, played intermittently between two players, who must compete in rounds lasting either eight seconds or until a trick has been made. The player with the lower score on any given turn receives a letter in the word "HORSE" or whatever word the players had generated prior to the game's start; the first player to accumulate the entire word loses. Following the releases of Sega's Top Skater and Electronic Arts' Street Sk8er, Activision identified skateboarding-simulation games as a growing market in the gaming industry and concluded that such a title would resonate with a young audience. Preceding Neversoft's involvement in the project, the task of developing a skateboarding title for Activision was given to another studio.
This studio's attempt didn't move past the concept stage. The publisher decided to entrust the project to Neversoft, which had completed the third-person shooter game Apocalypse within nine months. Although Neversoft had never developed a sports video game before, the development team was confident in its ability to accomplish the task before its given deadline of the 1999 Christmas season. During development, the Neversoft team would spend its lunch breaks at a bowling alley near the studio, where they would play and study from Sega's Top Skater in the arcade; the game's design served as a strong basic influence, along with observances of real skaters performing in the X Games. Although the team decided that Top Skater's linearity lacked the sense of fun they aimed for, the "racetrack" element was retained in two of the game's levels. Contrariwise to subsequent titles in the series, Neversoft did not use existing locations as reference for the game's level design, but envisioned potential skating areas such as a school or a city and incorporated elements such as ramps and rails
Street Fighter II: The World Warrior
Street Fighter II is a competitive fighting game developed by Capcom and released for arcades in 1991. The sequel to the 1987 game Street Fighter, Street Fighter II adds multiple playable characters, each with their own fighting style, features such as command-based special moves, a six-button configuration, a combo system, competitive two-player multiplayer, it was the fourteenth Capcom game to use the CP System arcade system board. In 1992, Street Fighter II was ported to the Super Nintendo Entertainment System console, for which it became a longstanding system-seller, its success led to a series of updated versions. By 1994, Street Fighter II had been played by at least 25 million people in the United States, at home and in arcades; the console ports sold more than 14 million copies worldwide, including 6.3 million copies on SNES, making it Capcom's bestselling game for the next two decades and their bestselling game on a single platform. Adjusted for inflation, all versions of Street Fighter II are estimated to have exceeded $10 billion in gross revenue, making it one of the highest-grossing video games.
The success of Street Fighter II is credited with popularizing the fighting game genre and sparking a renaissance for the arcade game industry. It appears on several lists of the greatest video games of all time. Street Fighter II follows several of the conventions and rules established by its original 1987 predecessor; the player engages opponents in one-on-one close quarter combat in a series of best-two-out-of-three matches. The objective of each round is to deplete the opponent's vitality. If both opponents knock each other out at the same time or the timer runs out with both fighters having an equal amount of vitality left a "double KO" or "draw game" is declared and additional rounds will be played until sudden death. In the first Street Fighter II, a match could last up to ten rounds. If there is no clear winner by the end of the final round either the computer-controlled opponent will win by default in a single-player match or both fighters will lose in a 2-player match. After every third match in the single player mode, the player will participate in a bonus stage for additional points.
The bonus games include a car-breaking event similar to another bonus round featured in Final Fight. Between the matches, a Pacific-centered world map is seen; when the upcoming match and its location have been chosen, an airplane moves across the map. Like in the original, the game's controls use a configuration of an eight-directional joystick and six attack buttons; the player uses the joystick to jump and move the character towards or away from the opponent, as well as to guard the character from an opponent's attacks. There are three punch buttons and three kick buttons of speed; the player can perform a variety of basic moves in any position, including grabbing/throwing attacks, which were not featured in the original Street Fighter. Like in the original, the player can perform special moves by inputting a combination of directional and button-based commands. Street Fighter II differs from its predecessor due to the selection of multiple playable characters, each with distinct fighting styles and special moves.
Combos were possible. According to IGN, "the concept of combinations, linked attacks that can't be blocked when they're timed came about more or less by accident. Street Fighter II's designers didn't quite mean for it to happen, but players of the original game found out that certain moves flowed into other ones." This "combo" system was adopted as a standard feature of fighting games and was expanded upon in subsequent Street Fighter installments. The original Street Fighter II features a roster of eight playable characters that could be selected by the player; the roster included Ryu and Ken —the main characters from the original Street Fighter game— plus six new characters of different nationalities. In the single-player tournament, the player faces off against the other seven main fighters, before proceeding to the final opponents, which are four non-selectable CPU-controlled boss opponents, known as the "Grand Masters", which included Sagat from the original game. Playable characters: Ryu, a Japanese karateka seeking to hone his skills.
Ken, Ryu's rival and former training partner, from the United States. E. Honda, a sumo wrestler from Japan. Guile, a former USAF special forces operative from the United States, seeking to defeat the man who killed his best friend. Chun-Li, a Chinese martial artist who works as an Interpol officer, seeking to avenge her deceased father. Blanka, a beast-like mutant from Brazil, raised in the jungle. Zangief, a sambo fighter from the USSR. Dhalsim, a fire-breathing yoga master from India. CPU-exclusive characters, in the order that the player fights them: Balrog, an American boxer, with a similar appearance to Mike Tyson. Called M. Bison in Japan. Vega, a Spanish bullfighter who wields a claw and uses a unique style of ninjutsu. Called Balrog in Japan. Sagat, a Muay Thai kickboxer and former World Warrior champion from the original Street Fighter, scarred by Ryu in the end of the previous tournament. M. Bison, the leader of the criminal organization Shadaloo, who uses a mysterious power known as "Psycho Power," and the final opponent of the game.
Called Vega in Japan. A mistranslation in Ryu's words to a defe
A software bug is an error, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways. The process of finding and fixing bugs is termed "debugging" and uses formal techniques or tools to pinpoint bugs, since the 1950s, some computer systems have been designed to deter, detect or auto-correct various computer bugs during operations. Most bugs arise from mistakes and errors made in either a program's source code or its design, or in components and operating systems used by such programs. A few are caused by compilers producing incorrect code. A program that contains a large number of bugs, and/or bugs that interfere with its functionality, is said to be buggy. Bugs can trigger errors. Bugs may cause the program to crash or freeze the computer. Other bugs qualify as security bugs and might, for example, enable a malicious user to bypass access controls in order to obtain unauthorized privileges; some software bugs have been linked to disasters.
Bugs in code that controlled the Therac-25 radiation therapy machine were directly responsible for patient deaths in the 1980s. In 1996, the European Space Agency's US$1 billion prototype Ariane 5 rocket had to be destroyed less than a minute after launch due to a bug in the on-board guidance computer program. In June 1994, a Royal Air Force Chinook helicopter crashed into the Mull of Kintyre, killing 29; this was dismissed as pilot error, but an investigation by Computer Weekly convinced a House of Lords inquiry that it may have been caused by a software bug in the aircraft's engine-control computer. In 2002, a study commissioned by the US Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology concluded that "software bugs, or errors, are so prevalent and so detrimental that they cost the US economy an estimated $59 billion annually, or about 0.6 percent of the gross domestic product". The term "bug" to describe defects has been a part of engineering jargon since the 1870s and predates electronic computers and computer software.
For instance, Thomas Edison wrote the following words in a letter to an associate in 1878: It has been just so in all of my inventions. The first step is an intuition, comes with a burst difficulties arise—this thing gives out and that "Bugs"—as such little faults and difficulties are called—show themselves and months of intense watching and labor are requisite before commercial success or failure is reached; the Middle English word bugge is the basis for the terms "bugbear" and "bugaboo" as terms used for a monster. Baffle Ball, the first mechanical pinball game, was advertised as being "free of bugs" in 1931. Problems with military gear during World War II were referred to as bugs. In a book published in 1942, Louise Dickinson Rich, speaking of a powered ice cutting machine, said, "Ice sawing was suspended until the creator could be brought in to take the bugs out of his darling."Isaac Asimov used the term "bug" to relate to issues with a robot in his short story "Catch That Rabbit", published in 1944.
The term "bug" was used in an account by computer pioneer Grace Hopper, who publicized the cause of a malfunction in an early electromechanical computer. A typical version of the story is: In 1946, when Hopper was released from active duty, she joined the Harvard Faculty at the Computation Laboratory where she continued her work on the Mark II and Mark III. Operators traced an error in the Mark II to a moth trapped in a relay; this bug was removed and taped to the log book. Stemming from the first bug, today we call errors or glitches in a program a bug. Hopper did not find the bug, as she acknowledged; the date in the log book was September 9, 1947. The operators who found it, including William "Bill" Burke of the Naval Weapons Laboratory, Virginia, were familiar with the engineering term and amusedly kept the insect with the notation "First actual case of bug being found." Hopper loved to recount the story. This log book, complete with attached moth, is part of the collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of American History.
The related term "debug" appears to predate its usage in computing: the Oxford English Dictionary's etymology of the word contains an attestation from 1945, in the context of aircraft engines. The concept that software might contain errors dates back to Ada Lovelace's 1843 notes on the analytical engine, in which she speaks of the possibility of program "cards" for Charles Babbage's analytical engine being erroneous:... an analysing process must have been performed in order to furnish the Analytical Engine with the necessary operative data. Granted that the actual mechanism is unerring in its processes, the cards may give it wrong orders; the first documented use of the term "bug" for a technical malfunction was by Thomas Edison. The Open Technology Institute, run by the group, New America, released a report "Bugs in the System" in August 2016 stating that U. S. policymakers should make reforms to help researchers address software bugs. The report "highlights the need for reform in the field of software vulnerability discovery and disclosure."
One of the report’s authors said that Congress has not done enough to address cyber software vulnerability though Congress has passed a number of bills to combat the larger issue of cyber security. Government researchers and cyber security experts are the people who discover software flaws