Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", "friendship towns"; the European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning". Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town or city".
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy.
It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation; the importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about €12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects; the Council of European Municipalities and Regions works with the Commission to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community.
It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning. As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving 10,000 European municipalities French and German. Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London; the five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness. In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from whi
Duderstadt is a city in southern Lower Saxony, located in the district of Göttingen. It is the capital of the northern part of the Eichsfeld. In earlier times it was the private wealth of the Roman Catholic archbishop of Mainz; the earliest documentary mention of Duderstadt was in 929 AD, the city celebrates its anniversaries counting from that year. It is located on the German Timber-Frame Road; the city contains many historical buildings in the Half-timber style, most notably along the Market Street, which stretches from the St. Cyriakuskirche called "Oberkirche", down to the St. Servatiuskirche called "Unterkirche". Built in 1343, the Westerturm is one of at least eight gate towers and peels of the city's fortress wall, it burned down in 1424 and was rebuilt over the course of 12 years; the Westerturm has a distinctive twisted roof. Though not the only tower in Germany with a twisted roof, its execution was successful. There are a number of folk tales to explain the twist: one tale claims that an unoiled weather vane caused the wind to twist the roof.
Another claims that when the devil was driving the men of Duderstadt to drink, the women drove him away, but not before he grabbed the tower and twisted it while passing over the wall, making his escape. Construction of the Rathaus began in 1302, with additional wings and components added until 1674, it was restored in the 1980s and most in 2002. At particular hours, a carillon plays from one of the towers as a bust of the "Anreis" comes out and nods; the city Innenstadt is surrounded by a 3 kilometres long earthen wall, constructed by a traveling master fortress builder named Andreas. The city council of Duderstadt contracted with Andreas in 1506 to build the wall. Since the surrounding farmers were to be protected by the wall, the Rat conscripted them to work on the construction of the wall. Andreas was a cruel taskmaster, the farmers detested him, they soon blamed the citizens of Duderstadt for their woes, took to calling all of them "Anreischke", after Andreas, pronounced "Anreis" in the "platt" German spoken by the farmers.
The citizens of Duderstadt, in turn, had a wooden bust of Andreas constructed and attached to a clockwork. Every two hours since the wooden "Anreischke" would come out and nod to the farmers coming to market, to remind them of the detested Andreas, of their dependency on the city; that wooden Anreischke nods until this day from the Rathaus tower at 9 am, 11, 1 pm, 3, 5 and 7. A Duderstadt-headquartered company is the Otto Bock corporation, named after its founder. Otto Bock produces other health products. Though now an international company, it is still headquartered in Duderstadt. Revenue in 2003 was 355.5 million euros. Otto Bock was a significant contributor to economic growth in the region in the postwar period; the Duderstadt Heimatmuseum has a collection of locally significant artifacts. Georg von Kopp German Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church Official website "Duderstadt". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Colombes is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 10.6 km from the centre of Paris. In 2012, Colombes was the 53rd largest city in France; the name Colombes comes from Latin columna, meaning "column". This is interpreted as referring either to a megalithic column used in ancient times by a druidic cult which stood in Colombes until its destruction during the French Revolution, or to the columns of an atrium in a ruined Gallo-Roman villa that stood in Colombes. On 13 March 1896, 17% of the territory of Colombes was detached and became the commune of Bois-Colombes. On 2 May 1910, 19% of the territory of Colombes was detached and became the commune of La Garenne-Colombes. Thus, the commune of Colombes is now only two-thirds the size of its territory before 1896; the city is divided into two cantons: Colombes-1 Colombes-2 Colombes is served by four stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line at Colombes, Le Stade, La Garenne-Colombes and Gare Les Vallées.
The commune has 19 elementary schools. Secondary schools: Junior high schools: Robert Paparemborde, Marguerite Duras, Gay Lussac, Moulin Joly, Jean-Baptiste Clément, Lakanal Senior high schools: Lycée Guy de Maupassant, Lycee Polyvalent Claude Garamont, Lycee Polyvalent Anatole de France Quilapayún, Groupe de musique Chilien qui s'exila en 1973 à Colombes Jordan Aboudou, basketball player Lens Aboudou, basketball player Kelly Berville, footballer Zoumana Camara, footballer Pierre Clayette, artist Mathieu Cossou, karateka Simone Jorry, deaf/hoh rights activist Claude Mérelle, actress Eliaquim Mangala, footballer Samuel Nadeau, basketball player Alexandre Postel, writer Steven Nzonzi, footballer Kevin Thalien, basketball player Elodie Thomis, footballer Axel Tony, singer Jonathan Toto, footballer Eddy Viator, footballer Rama Yade, moved into a council flat in Colombes with her mother and three sisters at the age of fourteen. Pierpoljak, reggae singer The stadium was built in 1907. Named the Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir, the Olympic Stadium of Colombes was the site of the opening ceremony and several events of the 1924 Summer Olympics.
The arena's capacity was increased to 60,000 for the 1938 World Cup. The stadium lost its importance after the restoration in 1972 of Paris' 49,000-seat Parc des Princes. In the 1990s, three of the four grandstands were torn down due to decay and the stadium's capacity was down to 7,000. Through November 2017, it had been home to the Racing 92 rugby club playing in France's Top 14, but Racing has since moved to the new U Arena in Nanterre; the RCF Paris football club, which plays in the fourth division, remains at Yves-du-Manoir. The stadium will be the field hockey venue at the 2024 Summer Olympics. Frankenthal, Germany Legnano, Italy Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department INSEE permanent dead link] Official website Colombes in postal card History of the Olympic Stadium Article: Chariots of Fire stadium reprieved
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Montreuil is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 6.6 km from the center of Paris. It is the fourth most populous suburb of Paris. Montreuil is located near the Bois de Vincennes park; the name Montreuil was recorded for the first time in a royal edict of 722 as Monasteriolum, meaning "little monastery" in Medieval Latin. The settlement of Montreuil started as a group of houses built around a small monastery. Under the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XVI the "Peach Walls" which provided the royal court with the fruits were located in Montreuil, it was later home to the Lumière brothers and George Méliès whose workshops were located in lower Montreuil. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighboring communes. On that occasion, the commune of Charonne was disbanded and divided between the city of Paris and Bagnolet. Montreuil received a small part of the territory of Charonne. Today Montreuil is divided into several districts: Le bas Montreuil (which joins together the old workshops, the marché aux puces, The Mairie, La Noue, Le Bel Air, La Boissière.
Decorations in the state school "Voltaire" by Maurice Boitel. Montreuil's inhabitants exaggeratedly nickname the town the "second Malian town after Bamako", or sometimes "Mali-sous-Bois" or "Bamako-sur-Seine" if the Seine doesn't cross the town. Montreuil has indeed a important Malian population: more than 2,000 inhabitants according to the INSEE in 1999, between 6,000 and 10,000 people according to the mairie, which estimates that Montreuil has the largest Malian community in France. 10 % of the population has Malian origins. The mayor of Montreuil is the member of Parti communiste français Patrice Bessac, elected on the second round of 2014 municipal elections, defeating the former ex-Communist mayor Jean-Pierre Brard in a four sides second round; the city is divided into two cantons: canton of Montreuil-1 and canton of Montreuil-2. Video game company Ubisoft has its corporate head office in Montreuil; the Air France Paris office is in Montreuil. The commune's educational services are operated out of the Opale B Administrative Building.
Montreuil has eight collèges, three lycées, two lycées techniques, the IUT of the University of Paris 8. Senior high schools/sixth form colleges: Lycée Eugénie-Cotton Lycée Jean Jaurès Lycée CondorcetThe Montreuil Library consists of the Robert-Desnos Central Library, the Daniel-Renoult Library, the Colonel-Fabien Library, the Paul-Eluard Library. Robert-Desnos, in a park near the commune's town hall, is the largest library in the commune, it houses a Internet access points. Daniel-Renoult, near Montreau Park, serves the Montreau-Ruffins Théophile Sueur community. Colonel-Fabien, in the Ramenas-Fabien-Léo Lagrange community, is near the Intercommunal Hospital. Paul-Eluard is near the La Grande Porte shopping centre and is within 50 metres of the Robespierre Paris Métro station and Rue de Paris. Pierre de Montreuil, famous 13th century architect, died in 1267 in Paris Gaston-Auguste Schweitzer, sculptor Djamel Abdoun, Algerian footballer who played at the 2010 FIFA World Cup Mehdi Abeid, Algerian footballer Oumar Bakari, footballer Rosette Bir, sculptor Souarata Cisse, basketball player Olivier Dacourt, footballer Emmanuel Flipo, artist Mamadou Samassa, footballer Tignous and activist killed in the Charlie Hebdo shooting Élodie Bouchez, actress Henri Decaë, cinematographer Nicolas Aithadi, Visual Effects, Guardians of the Galaxy Jean Delannoy, director Émile Reynaud, director Frédéric Verger, writer Christophe Guilluy, geographer Helno, singer with Lucrate Milk, Bérurier Noir & Les Négresses Vertes Montreuil is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 9: Robespierre, Croix de Chavaux, Mairie de Montreuil.
Montreuil is twinned with: Bistriţa, Bistrița-Năsăud County, Romania Cottbus, Germany Hornec gang Gaston-Auguste Schweitzer Birthplace of this sculptor Pierre de Montreuil Musée de l'Histoire vivante INSEE Official website
Salaberry-de-Valleyfield is a city in southwestern Quebec, Canada, in the Regional County Municipality of Beauharnois-Salaberry. The population as of the Canada 2011 Census was 40,077. Situated on Grande-Île, an island in the Saint Lawrence River, it is bordered at its western end by Lake Saint Francis, with the Saint Lawrence to the north and the Beauharnois Canal to its south; the Port of Valleyfield is on the canal. Salaberry was named after Colonel Charles de Salaberry who served with the British army during the War of 1812. "Valleyfield" came from a paper mill south of Edinburgh in Scotland. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Valleyfield. Salaberry-de-Valleyfield is the seat of the judicial district of Beauharnois. In 2002, the city of 26,170 amalgamated with the following communities: Saint-Timothée Grande-Île The city council is composed of the mayor and eight city councillors; the municipal elections are at each 4 years, each councillor stands for his/her district. The Écomusée des Deux-Rives, which covers the economic and cultural history of the region, is found in the city.
The city has been the site of the Valleyfield Regatas since 1938. The event takes place every year at the beginning of July over a three-day period in the heart of the city on Bay Saint-Francois, it is an international hydroplane. Attracting over 130,000 visitors per year and includes other cultural activities. 9 daycare facilities 3 pre-kindergarten centres 12 elementary schools, of which one is English-language. 1 high school 1 adult education centre 2 vocational training centres 1 CEGEP: Collège de Valleyfield 1 French-language university centre The Gault Institute was created by Andrew Frederick Gault. He created this school during the time. To heat the school at one time he used underground pipes connecting from the school to the Cotton Mills since at the time there was no electricity. Armand Frappier: physician and microbiologist J. Albert Leduc: hockey player and businessman. Jean Ouimet: former leader of the Green Party of Quebec Lise Bacon: Quebec politician Serge Marcil: politician and Minister of Employment in 1994 Line Beauchamp: Quebec politician Pierre Cossette: television and Broadway producer.
Jean-Luc Brassard: Olympic gold medalist in skiing. Mélodie Daoust: Olympics gold medalist in ice hockey. Anne Minh-Thu Quach: MP for Beauharnois—Salaberry. Vladimir Katriuk alleged Nazi war criminal List of cities in Quebec Salaberry-de-Valleyfield official website Port of Valleyfield Photograph of the Salaberry-de-Valleyfield Basilica
Mauritania is a country in Northwest Africa. It is the eleventh largest sovereign state in Africa and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north and northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, Senegal to the southwest; the country derives its name from the ancient Berber kingdom of Mauretania, which existed from the 3rd century BCE into the 7th century CE in the far north of modern-day Morocco and Algeria. 90% of Mauritania's land is within the Sahara. The capital and largest city is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, home to around one-third of the country's 4.3 million people. The government was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup d'état led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 April 2009, Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won. Mauritania (. In other languages, it is known variously as Agawej or Cengiṭ, Gànnaar and Moritani; the ancient tribes of Mauritania were Berber people.
The Bafours were agricultural, among the first Saharan people to abandon their nomadic lifestyle. With the gradual desiccation of the Sahara, they headed south. Many of the Berber tribes claimed Yemeni origins. There is little evidence to support such claims, but a 2000 DNA study of Yemeni people suggested there might be some ancient connection between the peoples. Other peoples migrated south past the Sahara to West Africa. In 1076, Moorish Islamic warrior monks attacked and conquered the large area of the ancient Ghana Empire; the Char Bouba war was the unsuccessful final effort of the peoples to repel the Yemeni Maqil Arab invaders. The invaders were led by the Beni Hassan tribe; the descendants of the Beni Hassan warriors became the upper stratum of Moorish society. Hassaniya, a bedouin Arabic dialect that derives its name from the Beni Hassan, became the dominant language among the nomadic population. Berbers retained a niche influence by producing the majority of the region's marabouts: those who preserve and teach Islamic tradition.
Imperial France absorbed the territories of present-day Mauritania from the Senegal River area and northwards, starting in the late 19th century. In 1901, Xavier Coppolani took charge of the imperial mission. Through a combination of strategic alliances with Zawaya tribes, military pressure on the Hassane warrior nomads, he managed to extend French rule over the Mauritanian emirates. Trarza and Tagant were occupied by the French armies in 1903–04, but the northern emirate of Adrar held out longer, aided by the anti-colonial rebellion of shaykh Maa al-Aynayn, as well by insurgents from Tagant and the other regions. Adrar was defeated militarily in 1912, incorporated into the territory of Mauritania, drawn up and planned in 1904. Mauritania was part of French West Africa from 1920, as a protectorate and a colony. French rule brought legal prohibitions against an end to inter-clan warfare. During the colonial period, 90% of the population remained nomadic. Many sedentary peoples, whose ancestors had been expelled centuries earlier, began to trickle back into Mauritania.
The previous capital of the country under the French rule, Saint-Louis, was located in Senegal, so when the country gained independence in 1960, Nouakchott, at the time little more than a fortified village, was chosen as the site of the new capital of Mauritania. After gaining independence, larger numbers of indigenous Sub-Saharan African peoples entered Mauritania, moving into the area north of the Senegal River. Educated in French language and customs, many of these recent arrivals became clerks and administrators in the new state; this occurred. This changed the former balance of power, new conflicts arose between the southern populations and Moors. Between these groups stood African origins, part of the Arab society, integrated into a low-caste social position. Modern-day slavery still exists in different forms in Mauritania. According to some estimates, thousands of Mauritanians are still enslaved. A 2012 CNN report, "Slavery's Last Stronghold," by John D. Sutter and documents the ongoing slave-owning cultures.
This social discrimination is applied chiefly against the "black Moors" in the northern part of the country, where tribal elites among "white Moors" hold sway. Slavery practices exist within the sub-Saharan African ethnic groups of the south; the great Sahel droughts of the early 1970s caused massive devastation in Mauritania, exacerbating problems of poverty and conflict. The Arabized dominant elites reacted to changing circumstances, to Arab nationalist calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and the education system; this was a reaction to the consequences of the French domination under the colonial rule. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity have been suggested, but none were implemented; this ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out in April 1989, but has since subsided. Mauritania expelled some 70,000 sub-Saharan African Mauritanians in the late 1980s. Ethnic tensions and the sensitive issue of