Moonlighting (TV series)
Moonlighting is an American comedy-drama television series that aired on ABC from March 3, 1985, to May 14, 1989. The network aired a total of 66 episodes. Starring Cybill Shepherd and Bruce Willis as private detectives, the show was a mixture of drama, comedy and romance, was considered to be one of the first successful and influential examples of comedy-drama, or "dramedy", emerging as a distinct television genre; the show's theme song was co-written and became a hit. The show is credited with making Willis a star, while re-launching the career of Shepherd after a string of lackluster projects. In 1997, the episode "The Dream Sequence Always Rings Twice" was ranked #34 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time. In 2007, the series was listed as one of Time magazine's "100 Best TV Shows of All-Time"; the relationship between David and Maddie was included in TV Guide's list of the best TV couples of all time. The series revolved around cases investigated by the Blue Moon Detective Agency and its two partners, Madeline "Maddie" Hayes and David Addison Jr..
The show, with a mix of mystery, sharp dialogue, sexual tension between its two leads, introduced Bruce Willis to the world and brought Cybill Shepherd back into the spotlight after a nearly decade-long absence. The characters were introduced in a two-hour pilot episode; the show's storyline begins with the reversal of fortune of Maddie Hayes, a former model who finds herself bankrupt after her accountant embezzles all of her liquid assets. She is left saddled with several failing businesses maintained as tax write-offs, one of, the City of Angels Detective Agency, helmed by the carefree David Addison played by Willis. Between the pilot and the first one-hour episode, David persuades Maddie to keep the business and run it as a partnership; the agency is renamed Blue Moon Investigations because Maddie was most famous for being the spokesmodel for the Blue Moon Shampoo Company. In many episodes, she was recognized as "the Blue Moon shampoo girl," if not by name. In his audio commentary for the Season 3 DVD, creator Glenn Gordon Caron says that the inspiration for the series was a production of The Taming of the Shrew he saw in Central Park starring Meryl Streep and Raúl Juliá.
The show would parody this Shakespeare play in the Season 3 episode Atomic Shakespeare. Cybill Shepherd as Maddie Hayes: Maddie Hayes is a smart former high-fashion model. Left bankrupt when her accountant embezzles all of her money, she is forced to make a living by running the detective agency she had owned as a tax write-off. Using her celebrity as a former model, she brings in clients and tries to bring some order to a business run without any discipline. By the time he had written 50 pages for the pilot to the show, Caron says he realized he was writing the part for Cybill Shepherd. After reading the script, she realized this was a part she wanted to do and, during her first meeting with Caron and producer Jay Daniel, remarked that it was reminiscent of a “Hawksian” comedy; the two had no idea what she was talking about, so she suggested they screen Twentieth Century, Bringing Up Baby, His Girl Friday, three of her favorites, to see how the overlapping dialogue was handled. A week before shooting of the pilot began, Caron and Willis watched Bringing Up Baby and His Girl Friday.
Bruce Willis as David Addison: David Addison is a wisecracking detective running the City of Angels Detective Agency. Faced with the prospect of being put out of business, he convinces Maddie that they have always lost money because they were supposed to and talks her into rebranding the agency and going into business with him as her partner. Glenn Gordon Caron had to fight with ABC to put Willis in the lead role having signed Shepherd for both the pilot and series. Caron claims he tested Willis about a third of the way through testing over 2,000 actors, knew "this was the guy" and had to fight through twice as many more acting tests and readings while arguing with ABC executives before receiving conditional authorization to cast Willis in the pilot. ABC, according to Caron, did not feel that anyone viewing would think there could be any "believable" sexual tension between Shepherd and Willis. Allyce Beasley as Agnes DiPesto: Agnes DiPesto is the loyal and quirky receptionist for the Blue Moon Detective Agency who always answers the phone in rhyme.
In season two, it is revealed. As problems arose with getting Willis and Shepherd on screen due to personal issues, the writers started to focus on the relationship between Agnes and fellow Blue Moon employee Herbert Viola. In the series finale, Agnes berates Maddie and David for not being able to figure out their nitwit relationship as the entire set is dismantled and states “if there’s a God in heaven, he’ll spin Herbert and me off in our own series.” Curtis Armstrong as Herbert Viola: Herbert Viola started at Blue Moon as an employee from a temp agency. The producers brought Armstrong in based on his work in Revenge of the Nerds and Better Off Dead, hoping to expand the role of Agnes DiPesto by giving her a love interest, thereby taking some of the filming pressure off Willis and Shepherd; as Herbert begins to shine in his duties, he gets promoted to working real cases as a junior detective. Debuting in season three, he appeared in 36 of the series' 66 episodes. Jack Blessing as MacGillicudy: MacGillicudy is a Blue Moon employee and became a foil for Herbert Viola and a rival for Agnes’s affections.
Debuting in season three, he appeared in 17 of the series’ 66 episodes
Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary
Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English, by the Cambridge University Press. The dictionary has over 140,000 words and meanings, it is suitable for learners at CEF levels B2-C2. First edition first published in 2003 Second edition first published in 2005 Third edition first published in 2008 Fourth edition first published in 2013 Advanced learner's dictionary Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary online
In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra
Room 222 is an American comedy-drama television series produced by 20th Century Fox Television that aired on ABC for 112 episodes from September 17, 1969, until January 11, 1974. The show was broadcast on Wednesday evenings at 8:30 for its first two seasons before settling into its best-remembered time slot of Friday evenings at 9:00, following The Brady Bunch and The Partridge Family, preceding The Odd Couple and Love, American Style. In 1970, Room 222 earned the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding New Series, while Michael Constantine and Karen Valentine won for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series and Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series, respectively; the series focused on an American history class in Room 222 of the fictional Walt Whitman High School, an racially diverse school in Los Angeles, although it depicted other events at and outside the school, such as the home lives of students and faculty. The class is taught by an idealistic African-American school teacher.
Other characters featured in the show were the school's compassionate guidance counselor, Liz McIntyre, Pete's girlfriend. Patsy Garrett played Miss Hogarth. In addition, many recurring students were featured from episode to episode. Pete Dixon delivers gentle lessons in understanding to his students, they admire his wisdom and easygoing manner. The themes of the episodes were sometimes topical, reflecting the contemporary political climate of the late 1960s and early to mid-1970s, such as the Vietnam War, women's rights, race relations, Watergate. However, most plots featured themes still common to modern-day teenagers. For example, the 1969 episode "Funny Boy" deals with a class clown, self-conscious about being overweight, the 1971 episode "What Is a Man?" Deals with a student, mistakenly the victim of anti-gay harassment and the 1974 episode "I Didn't Raise My Girl to Be a Soldier" with parent–teenager issues. Lloyd Haynes as Mr. Pete Dixon, the protagonist, an African-American who teaches 11th grade American History in room 222 of Walt Whitman High School Denise Nicholas as Miss Liz McIntyre, the African-American guidance counselor at Whitman, dating Pete Michael Constantine as Mr. Seymour Kaufman, the Caucasian principal of Whitman, preoccupied with his duties but dryly humorous Karen Valentine as Miss Alice Johnson, a Caucasian student teacher learning from Pete Ramon Bieri as Mr. Gil Casey, vice principal Howard Rice as Richie Lane, the "brainy" kid in the class Heshimu Cumbuka as Jason Allen, the "tough guy" of the class Eve McVeagh as Madge Morano, Mrs Cates, PTA Member Eric Laneuville as Larry Ta-Tanisha as Pamela, the "popular girl" of the class Judy Strangis as Helen Loomis, the "quiet kid" of the class David Jolliffe as Bernie, the school's sports star Bruno Kirby as Herbie Constadine Patsy Garrett as Miss Hogarth Ivor Francis as Mr. Kenneth Dragen Helen Kleeb as Miss TandyBernie Kopell, Cindy Williams, Teri Garr, Ed Begley Jr. Jamie Farr, Rob Reiner, Anthony Geary, Richard Dreyfuss, Chuck Norris, Kurt Russell, Bob Balaban, Donny Most, Mark Hamill all made guest appearances on the show.
The program was filmed at 20th Century Fox studios. Exterior shots of Los Angeles High School were shown behind the opening credits and for some outdoor scenes in the early seasons. Room 222's initial episodes garnered weak ratings, ABC was poised to cancel the program after one season. However, the show earned several nominations at the 1970 Emmy Awards, ABC relented. In the spring of 1970, Room 222 won Emmy Awards for Best New Series; the following year and Valentine were again nominated in the supporting acting awards category. After the shaky first season, Room 222 managed to receive respectable ratings during its next three years. Ratings peaked during the 1971 -- 72 season. By the start of the 1973–74 season, ratings had fallen drastically, ABC canceled the show at mid-season. After the series ended, the program entered syndication and was rerun on several television stations throughout the United States; the theme song was written by film composer Jerry Goldsmith, written in a 7/4 time signature.
His theme and two episode scores for the series were issued by Film Score Monthly on an album with his score for the film Ace Eli and Rodger of the Skies. The show draws some comparisons to a theatrical movie which premiered during the show's first season, Halls of Anger. In that movie, a new, black teacher joins a southern California high school; the film and television show share actors. However, while Room 222 is a comedy-drama, milder in tone, Halls of Anger is purposefully aggressive, using deliberately controversial language and some forceful violence to highlight the real and dangerous potential of unresolved racial conflict. A series of novels based on characters and dialog of the series was written by William Johnston and published by Tempo Books in the early 1970s. Dell Comics published a comic book for four issues during 1970 and 1971. Shout! Factory has released the first two seasons of Room 222 on DVD in Region 1. White savior § Appearance in tel
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words, in which parts of multiple words or their phones are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel. In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph; the definition overlaps with the grammatical term contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept. A portmanteau differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, starfish is not a portmanteau, of star and fish; the word portmanteau was first used in this sense by Lewis Carroll in the book Through the Looking-Glass, in which Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the coinage of the unusual words in "Jabberwocky", where slithy means "slimy and lithe" and mimsy is "miserable and flimsy".
Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the practice of combining words in various ways: You see it's like a portmanteau—there are two meanings packed up into one word. In his introduction to The Hunting of the Snark, Carroll uses portmanteau when discussing lexical selection: Humpty Dumpty's theory, of two meanings packed into one word like a portmanteau, seems to me the right explanation for all. For instance, take the two words "fuming" and "furious." Make up your mind that you will say both words, but leave it unsettled which you will say first … if you have the rarest of gifts, a balanced mind, you will say "frumious." In then-contemporary English, a portmanteau was a suitcase. The etymology of the word is the French porte-manteau, from porter, "to carry", manteau, "cloak". In modern French, a porte-manteau is a clothes valet, a coat-tree or similar article of furniture for hanging up jackets, hats and the like. An occasional synonym for "portmanteau word" is frankenword, an autological word exemplifying the phenomenon it describes, blending "Frankenstein" and "word".
Many neologisms are examples of blends. In Punch in 1896, the word brunch was introduced as a "portmanteau word." In 1964, the newly independent African republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar chose the portmanteau word Tanzania as its name. Eurasia is a portmanteau of Europe and Asia; some city names are portmanteaus of the border regions they straddle: Texarkana spreads across the Texas-Arkansas border, while Calexico and Mexicali are the American and Mexican sides of a single conurbation. A scientific example is a liger, a cross between a male lion and a female tiger. Many company or brand names are portmanteaus, including Microsoft, a portmanteau of microcomputer and software. "Jeoportmanteau!" is a recurring category on the American television quiz show Jeopardy!. The category's name is itself a portmanteau of the words "Jeopardy" and "portmanteau." Responses in the category are portmanteaus constructed by fitting two words together. Portmanteau words may be produced by joining together proper nouns with common nouns, such as "gerrymandering", which refers to the scheme of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry for politically contrived redistricting.
The term gerrymander has itself contributed to portmanteau terms playmander. Oxbridge is a common portmanteau for the UK's two oldest universities, those of Oxford and Cambridge. In 2016, Britain's planned exit from the European Union became known as "Brexit". David Beckham's English mansion Rowneybury House was nicknamed "Beckingham Palace", a portmanteau of his surname and Buckingham Palace. Many portmanteau words do not appear in all dictionaries. For example, a spork is an eating utensil, a combination of a spoon and a fork, a skort is an item of clothing, part skirt, part shorts. On the other hand, turducken, a dish made by inserting a chicken into a duck, the duck into a turkey, was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2010; the word refudiate was first used by Sarah Palin when she misspoke, conflating the words refute and repudiate. Though a gaffe, the word was recognized as the New Oxford American Dictionary's "Word of the Year" in 2010; the business lexicon is replete with newly coined portmanteau words like "permalance", "advertainment", "advertorial", "infotainment", "infomercial".
A company name may be portmanteau as well as a product name. Two proper names can be used in creating a portmanteau word in r
The multiple-camera setup, multiple-camera mode of production, multi-camera or multicam is a method of filmmaking and video production. Several cameras—either film or professional video cameras—are employed on the set and record or broadcast a scene, it is contrasted with single-camera setup, which uses one camera. The two outer cameras shoot close-up shots or "crosses" of the two most active characters on the set at any given time, while the central camera or cameras shoot a wider master shot to capture the overall action and establish the geography of the room. In this way, multiple shots are obtained in a single take without having to start and stop the action; this is more efficient for programs that are to be shown a short time after being shot as it reduces the time spent in film or video editing. It is a virtual necessity for regular, high-output shows like daily soap operas. Apart from saving editing time, scenes may be shot far more as there is no need for re-lighting and the set-up of alternative camera angles for the scene to be shot again from the different angle.
It reduces the complexity of tracking continuity issues that crop up when the scene is reshot from the different angles. It is an essential part of live television. Drawbacks include a less optimized lighting which needs to provide a compromise for all camera angles and less flexibility in putting the necessary equipment on scene, such as microphone booms and lighting rigs; these can be efficiently hidden from just one camera but can be more complicated to set up and their placement may be inferior in a multiple-camera setup. Another drawback is in film usage—a four-camera setup may use up to four times as much film per take, compared with a single-camera setup. While shooting, the director and assistant director create a line cut by instructing the technical director to switch between the feeds from the individual cameras. In the case of sitcoms with studio audiences, this line cut is displayed to them on studio monitors; the line cut might be refined in editing, as the output from all cameras is recorded, both separately and as a combined reference display called the q split.
The camera being recorded to the line cut is indicated by a tally light controlled by a camera control unit on the camera as a reference both for the actors and the camera operators. The use of multiple film cameras dates back to the development of narrative silent films, with the earliest example being the first Russian feature film Defence of Sevastopol and directed by Vasily Goncharov and Aleksandr Khanzhonkov; when sound came into the picture multiple cameras were used to film multiple sets at a single time. Early sound was recorded onto wax discs; the use of multiple video cameras to cover a scene goes back to the earliest days of television. The BBC used multiple cameras for their live television shows from 1936 onward. Although it is claimed that the multiple-camera setup was pioneered for television by Desi Arnaz and cinematographer Karl Freund on I Love Lucy in 1951, other filmed television shows had used it, including the CBS comedy The Amos'n Andy Show, filmed at the Hal Roach Studios and was on the air four months earlier.
The technique was developed for television by Hollywood short-subject veteran Jerry Fairbanks, assisted by producer-director Frank Telford, first seen on the anthology series The Silver Theater, another CBS program, in February 1950. Desilu's innovation was to use 35mm film instead of 16mm and to film with a multiple-camera setup before a live studio audience. In the late 1970s, Garry Marshall was credited with adding the fourth camera to the multi-camera set-up for his series Mork & Mindy. Actor Robin Williams could not stay on his marks due to his physically active improvisations during shooting, so Marshall had them add the fourth camera just to stay on Williams so they would have more than just the master shot of the actor. Soon after, many productions followed suit and now having four cameras is the norm for multi-camera situation comedies; the multiple-camera method gives the director less control over each shot but is faster and less expensive than a single-camera setup. In television, multiple-camera is used for sports programs, news programs, soap operas, talk shows, game shows, some sitcoms.
Before the pre-filmed continuing series became the dominant dramatic form on American television, the earliest anthology programs utilized multiple camera methods. Multiple cameras can take different shots of a live situation as the action unfolds chronologically and is suitable for shows which require a live audience. For this reason, multiple camera productions can be taped much faster than single camera. Single camera productions are shot in takes and various setups with components of the action repeated several times and out of sequence. Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, The Cosby Show, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, One Day at a Time. Many American sitcom
Radio drama is a dramatised, purely acoustic performance. With no visual component, radio drama depends on dialogue and sound effects to help the listener imagine the characters and story: "It is auditory in the physical dimension but powerful as a visual force in the psychological dimension."Radio drama achieved widespread popularity within a decade of its initial development in the 1920s. By the 1940s, it was a leading international popular entertainment. With the advent of television in the 1950s, radio drama began losing its audience, however, in most countries it remains popular. Recordings of OTR survive today in the audio archives of collectors and museums, as well as several online sites such as Internet Archive. By the 21st century, radio drama had a minimal presence on terrestrial radio in the United States, with much American radio drama being restricted to rebroadcasts of programmes from previous decades. However, other nations still have thriving traditions of radio drama. In the United Kingdom, for example, the BBC produces and broadcasts hundreds of new radio plays each year on Radio 3, Radio 4, Radio 4 Extra.
Like the USA, Australia ABC has abandoned broadcasting drama but in New Zealand RNZ continues to promote and broadcast a variety of drama over its airwaves. Thanks to advances in digital recording and Internet distribution, radio drama experienced a revival around 2010. Podcasting offered the means of inexpensively creating new radio dramas, in addition to the distribution of vintage programs; the terms "audio drama" or "audio theatre" are sometimes used synonymously with "radio drama". Audio drama can be found on CDs, cassette tapes, webcasts as well as broadcast radio; the Roman playwright "Seneca has been claimed as a forerunner of radio drama because his plays were performed by readers as sound plays, not by actors as stage plays. Radio drama traces its roots back to the 1880s: "In 1881 French engineer Clement Ader had filed a patent for ‘improvements of Telephone Equipment in Theatres’". English-language radio drama seems to have started in the United States. A Rural Line on Education, a brief sketch written for radio, aired on Pittsburgh's KDKA in 1921, according to historian Bill Jaker.
Newspaper accounts of the era report on a number of other drama experiments by America's commercial radio stations: KYW broadcast a season of complete operas from Chicago starting in November 1921. In February 1922, entire Broadway musical comedies with the original casts aired from WJZ's Newark studios. Actors Grace George and Herbert Hayes performed an entire play from a San Francisco station in the summer of 1922. An important turning point in radio drama came when Schenectady, New York's WGY, after a successful tryout on August 3, 1922, began weekly studio broadcasts of full-length stage plays in September 1922, using music, sound effects and a regular troupe of actors, The WGY Players. Aware of this series, the director of Cincinnati's WLW began broadcasting one-acts in November; the success of these projects led to imitators at other stations. By the spring of 1923, original dramatic pieces written specially for radio were airing on stations in Cincinnati and Los Angeles; that same year, WLW and WGY sponsored scripting contests, inviting listeners to create original plays to be performed by those stations' dramatic troupes.
Listings in The New York Times and other sources for May 1923 reveal at least 20 dramatic offerings were scheduled, either as in-studio productions or by remote broadcast from local theaters and opera houses. An early British drama broadcast was of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream on 2LO on 25 July 1923Serious study of American radio drama of the 1920s and early 1930s is, at best limited. Unsung pioneers of the art include: WLW's Fred Smith. Elizabeth McLeod's 2005 book on Gosden and Correll's early work is a major exception, as is Richard J. Hand's 2006 study of horror radio, which examines some programs from early 1930s. Another notable early radio drama, one of the first specially written for the medium in the UK, was A Comedy of Danger by Richard Hughes, broadcast by the BBC on January 15, 1924, about a group of people trapped in a Welsh coal mine. One of the earliest and most influential French radio plays was the prize-winning "Marémoto", by Gabriel Germinet and Pierre Cusy, which presents a realistic account of a sinking ship before revealing that the characters are actors rehearsing for a