Poços de Caldas
Poços de Caldas is a municipality in southwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in the microregion of the same name. Its estimated population in 2009 was 151,449 inhabitants; the city has hot springs. Poços was founded in 1872; the region had been inhabited by the Cataguases Indians, who were expelled from their lands by the Bandeiras Unidas Paulistas during their quest for gold. The place was first called Freguesia de Nossa Senhora da Saúde das Águas de Caldas. In 1874 it became a district in 1875 it was elevated to the category of city, it became famous after the discovery of the hot springs, many important people began to visit the spa in search of cures provided by the water. The name comes from a spa town in central Portugal, it lies on the boundary of the state of São Paulo at 1186 meters elevation and is the main socio-economic nucleus of its region, having an area of 544 km² in the municipality. The physical area is made up for the most part of a high plateau formed by mountains and valleys with an area of 750 km².
The average elevation is 1200 m, with the highest point, at 1686 m. The topography is suggestive of a volcanic crater and, given that the region's rocks are indeed igneous and there are hot springs, this gave rise to a common misconception that Poços de Caldas would be located inside the crater of a large extinct volcano. In reality, Poços de Caldas is inside a caldera, formed by the collapse of a central portion of terrain amid elevated areas, while the latter have volcanic origin, the process that formed the supposed "crater" had nothing to do with volcanic activity. Poços de Caldas occupies a strategic geographical location, due to its proximity to São Paulo, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro, whose connections are made with good highways, due to its integration into the routes of the hydro-mineral spas of Serra Negra, Águas de Lindóia, Monte Alegre do Sul, Águas da Prata, Cambuquira, Caxambu and São Lourenço. Poços de Caldas is close to the most developed regions of the interior of the state of São Paulo, such as Ribeirão Preto, Campinas and São José dos Campos.
The climate is characterized by mild summers. The winter is from April to September and has an average temperature of 15 °C and rainfall of 315 mm; the summer is from October to March and has an average temperature of 21 °C with rainfall of 1,430 mm. The annual rainfall is 1,745 mm; the average annual temperature is 17 °C with minima of -6 °C and maxima of 31.7 °C. Known principally for its thermal baths, there are several resorts in the city. Due to its wealth in hydro-mineral resources, Poços de Caldas is known for the quality of the soap that it produces. There are four factories in the city: Raízes, Antares and Terra Brasil. Poços is famous for its glass, known internationally; the founders of the factories were descendants of the artistic glassmakers who lived on the Island of Murano, near Venice, in Italy. In the city there are four glass factories: Ca'D'oro, São Marcos and Bonora; the local soils are rich in minerals that yield zirconium. One rare zirconium ore, was named for the area; the city has Brazil's first uranium-ore concentration plant, for use in the Angra Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis.
Poços is the home of one of the largest bauxite mines in the world, owned by Alcoa. Bauxite is an ore that contains at least 45% alumina, extracted to make aluminum; the smelting operations at Poços de Caldas have an annual capacity of 90,000 tons/year of primary aluminum. The facility is the largest aluminum-powder production facility in Latin America, the second largest in the world; the plant has a capacity of 14,000 tonnes/year of aluminum powder and meets the market demand for ferroalloys, pigments, chemicals and solid fuel for rockets. The facility began production of hydrated aluminas and hard-burned calcined aluminas in 1985; the city gets most of its electricity from hydroelectric power plants and administrated with local resources, leading to independence from the state's power system. The city is well taken care of, with several green areas, among parks, gardens and São Domingos mountain, which has trails for walking; the sulphurous water is the main attraction and can be consumed in several fountains and at the Thermas Antônio Carlos.
There is an aerial tram to get to the Statue of Christ the Redeemer. At the top of the mountain there is a great view of the nearby mountains; the city offers options such as a Japanese tea garden, a theme park, museums and other cultural events, including the yearly Music in the Mountains Festival. The city is served by Emb. Walther Moreira Salles Airport. Caldas da Rainha, Portugal Mount Vernon, New York, United States Official city government site Music in the Mountains Festival
Municipalities of Brazil
The municipalities of Brazil are administrative divisions of the Brazilian states. At present, Brazil has 5,570 municipalities, making the average municipality population 34,361; the average state in Brazil has 214 municipalities. Roraima is the least subdivided state, with 15 municipalities, while Minas Gerais is the most subdivided state, with 853; the Federal District cannot be divided into municipalities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal District assumes the same constitutional and legal powers and obligations of the states and municipalities, instead, it is divided by administrative regions. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the Federation and not dependent subdivisions of the states; each municipality has an autonomous local government, comprising a mayor and a legislative body called municipal chamber. Both the local government and the legislative body are directly elected by the population every four years; these elections take place at the same time all over the country.
Each municipality has the constitutional power to approve its own laws, as well as collecting taxes and receiving funds from the state and federal governments. However, municipal governments have no judicial power, courts are only organised at the state or federal level. A subdivision of the state judiciary, or comarca, can either correspond to an individual municipality or encompass several municipalities; the seat of the municipal administration is a nominated city, with no specification in the law about the minimum population, area or facilities. The city always has the same name as the municipality. Municipalities can be subdivided, only for administrative purposes, into districts. Other populated sites with no legal effect or regulation. All municipalities are subdivided into neighbourhoods, although most municipalities do not define their neighbourhood limits. Municipalities can be split or merged to form new municipalities within the borders of the state, if the population of the involved municipalities expresses a desire to do so in a plebiscite.
However, these must abide by the Brazilian Constitution, forming exclaves or seceding from the state or union is expressly forbidden. Municipalities of Acre Municipalities of Alagoas Municipalities of Amapá Municipalities of Amazonas Municipalities of Bahia Municipalities of Ceará Municipalities of Espírito Santo Municipalities of Goiás Municipalities of Maranhão Municipalities of Mato Grosso Municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul Municipalities of Minas Gerais Municipalities of Pará Municipalities of Paraíba Municipalities of Paraná Municipalities of Pernambuco Municipalities of Piauí Municipalities of Rio de Janeiro Municipalities of Rio Grande do Norte Municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul Municipalities of Rondônia Municipalities of Roraima Municipalities of Santa Catarina Municipalities of São Paulo Municipalities of Sergipe Municipalities of Tocantins Lists of cities List of largest cities in Brazil List of municipalities of Brazil Administrative region Map on the World Gazetteer at Archive.today Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
Manari is a city established in 1997 in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The population in 2009, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, was 18093 and the area is 406.64 km². In 2000, Manari had the lowest HDI of any municipality in the state. State - Pernambuco Region - Sertão Pernambucano Boundaries - Ibimirim. Economy by sector http://www.contasnacional.com.br/pe/pmmanari http://www.ferias.tur.br/informacoes/5337/manari-pe.html
Uberaba is a municipality in the west of the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil. Its population is 318.813 with an area of 4529.7 km2, The population density was 65,43 inhabitants/km2 according to Brazilian Statistics Agency. It is located on a plateau with an elevation of 823 meters, it became a city in 1856. The town was founded in 1809 by the sergeant Antônio Eustáquio da Silva e Oliveira; the name was taken from one of the native languages of Brazil and means "bright water". It was classified as indigenous territory in February 1811 and as a freguesia on March 2, 1809 with the name of Santo Antônio e São Sebastião do Uberaba. Uberaba became a city on February 22, 1836; the region known as Triângulo Mineiro, where Uberaba is located, was part of the State of Goiás until 1816, when it became part of the State of Minas Gerais. The district of Peirópolis, located 19 km from the city's center, is an important Cretaceous paleontological site, first studied by the Brazilian paleontologist Llewellyn Price.
The city is famous in Brazil for having been the home of Chico Xavier, a respected and popular medium, as well as hosting some of largest events related to cattle breeding and genetic improvement, being home to the Brazilian Association of Zebu Breeders and to the Brazilian Association of Girolando Breeders. Uberaba is the trade centre of an important agricultural area, producing cattle, soy and sugarcane is now becoming an important activity as new two ethanol plants are being implanted on the city. A well-known cattle and agricultural exhibition is held there each May. In 2006 there were 133,204 head of cattle on 825 establishments, 4,216,778 head of poultry on 448 establishments and 36,230 head of swine on 303 establishments. Milk production was substantial with 29,542 liters being produced a day on 576 farms in 2006; the city's well-developed industries include cement and phosphate fertilizer plants, processed foods, shoe factories, furniture factories and electronics represented by a Stanley Black & Decker plant.
The city has around twenty four chemical companies which are the largest producers of phosphated fertilizers in Latin America. Among them are Vale, FMC, Sipcam Nichino Brasil and Agronelli. Uberaba is known nationally as a center of livestock genetic improvement and as an important producer of grain in Minas Gerais. Freight is transported by rail and road to Belo Horizonte 460 km to the east, to neighbouring communities in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states; the city is one of the largest centers of cattle auctions in the country. During the expositions of zebu cattle, there are many events, which attract Brazilians and foreigners. During the year there are about 300 auctions with the sale of about 200,000 animals for reproduction and milk. Uberaba is served by Mário de Almeida Franco Airport. Vale Black & Decker Skala Fertigran Valmont Bananas: 28 ha. Coffee: 1,000 ha. Oranges: 1,410 ha. Tangerine: 168 ha. Cotton: 3,145 ha. Rice: 543 ha. Peanuts: 100 ha. Potatoes: 2,190 ha. Sugarcane: 36,000 ha. Onions: 450 ha.
Beans: 1,450 ha. Manioc: 1,300 ha. Corn: 50,000 ha. Soybeans: 100,000 ha. Sorghum: 1,250 Tomatoes: 240 ha. Wheat: 336 ha. Number of farms: 1,093 Agricultural area: 282,692 ha. Planted area: 105,000 ha. Area of natural pasture: 112,678 Workers related to producer: 1,764 Workers not related to producer: 2,533 Spiritist Medium Chico Xavier moved to Uberaba at the age of 49 where he lived until his death in 2002. City Hall of Uberaba website Government of the State of Minas Gerais website
Prata, Minas Gerais
Prata is a Brazilian municipality located in the west of the state of Minas Gerais. Its population as of 2015 was 27.469, living in a total area of 4,856 km². The city belongs to the statistical mesoregion of Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba and to the statistical microregion of Uberlândia, it became a municipality in 1873. Prata is located at an elevation of 631 meters in the rich region known as the Triângulo Mineiro, it is southwest of Uberlândia and northwest of Uberaba and is connected to Uberlândia by federal highway BR-497. The distance to Uberlândia is 74 km. Neighboring municipalities are: Monte Alegre de Minas; the main economic activities are services and small industries. The GDP in 2005 was R$261 million, with 112 million from services, 29 million from industry, 102 million from agriculture. There were 1,487 rural producers on 327,000 hectares of land. 607 farms had tractors. The main crops were peanuts, sugarcane, beans and soybeans. There were 344,000 head of cattle; the social indicators rank it in the top tier of municipalities in the state.
Municipal Human Development Index: 0.769 State ranking: 177 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000 National ranking: 1368 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000 Literacy rate: 87% Life expectancy: 70 The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568. Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha. In more recent statistics Manari in the state of Pernambuco has the lowest rating in the country--0,467--putting it in last place. There was one hospital with 41 beds in 2005. Patients with more serious health conditions are taken care of in Uberaba. At Prata there were found rock paintings and fossils of the biggest dinosaur found in Brazil which lived 80 million years ago in the region of Serra da Boa Vista, 40 km from the municipal seat; the dinosaur was called Maxakalisaurus topai and, after popular vote, it is now known as DINOPRATA. The model of the 13 meter long titanossauro has been on display in the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro since August, 2006.
List of municipalities in Minas Gerais Prefeitura de Prata
Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. The state of Pernambuco includes the archipelago Fernando de Noronha. With an estimated population of 9.2 million people in 2013, it is the seventh most populous state of Brazil, is the sixth most densely populated and the 19th most extensive among the states and territories of the country. Its capital and largest city, Recife, is one of the most important economic and urban hubs in the country; as of 2013 estimates, Recife's metropolitan area is the fifth most populous in the country, the largest urban agglomeration in Northeast Brazil. In 1982, the city of Olinda, the second oldest city in Brazil, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Recife, the state capital and Olinda have one of the most traditional Brazilian Carnivals. Both have architecture of Portugal, with centuries-old casarões and churches, kilometers of beaches and much culture; the proximity of the equator guarantees sunshine throughout the year, with average temperatures of 26 °C.
Pernambuco comprises a comparatively narrow coastal zone, a high inland plateau, an intermediate zone formed by the terraces and slopes between the two. Its surface is much broken by the remains of the ancient plateau, worn down by erosion, leaving escarpments and ranges of flat-topped mountains, called chapadas, capped in places by horizontal layers of sandstone. Ranges of these chapadas form the boundary lines with three states–the Serra dos Irmãos and Serra Vermelha with Piauí, the Serra do Araripe with Ceará, the Serra dos Cariris Velhos with Paraíba; the coastal area is fertile, was covered by the humid Pernambuco coastal forests, the northern extension of the Atlantic Forests of eastern Brazil. It is now placed to extensive sugar cane plantations, it has a humid climate, relieved to some extent by the south-east trade winds. The middle zone, called the agreste region, has a drier climate and lighter vegetation, including the semi-deciduous Pernambuco interior forests, where many trees lose their leaves in the dry season.
The inland region, called the sertão is high and dry, devastated by prolonged droughts. The climate is characterized by cool nights. There are two defined seasons, a rainy season from March to June, a dry season for the remaining months; the interior of the state is covered by the dry thorny scrub vegetation called caatinga. The Rio São Francisco is the main water source for this area; the climate is more mild in the countryside of the state because of the Borborema Plateau. Some towns are located more than 1000 meters above sea level, temperatures there can descend to 10 °C and 5 °C in some cities during the winter; the island of Fernando de Noronha in the Atlantic Ocean, 535 km northeast of Recife, has been part of Pernambuco since 1988. The rivers of the state include a number of small plateau streams flowing southward to the São Francisco River, several large streams in the eastern part flowing eastward to the Atlantic; the former are the Moxotó, Pajeú, Terra Nova, Boa Vista and Pontai, are dry channels the greater part of the year.
The largest of the coastal rivers are the Goiana River, formed by the confluence of the Tracunhaem and Capibaribe-mirim, drains a rich agricultural region in the north-east part of the state. A large tributary of the Uná, the Rio Jacuhipe, forms part of the boundary line with Alagoas. Inhabited by numerous tribes of Tupi-Guarani speaking indigenous peoples, Pernambuco was first settled by the Portuguese in the 16th century; the French under Bertrand d'Ornesan tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco in 1531. Shortly after King John III of Portugal created the Hereditary Captaincies in 1534, Pernambuco was granted to Duarte Coelho, who arrived in Nova Lusitânia in 1535. Duarte directed military actions against the French-allied Caetés Indians and upon their defeat in 1537 established a settlement at the site of a former Marin Indian village, henceforth known as Olinda, as well as another village at Igarassu. Due to the cultivation of sugar and cotton, Pernambuco was one of the few prosperous captaincies.
With the support of the Dutch West India Company, sugar mills were built and a sugar-based economy developed. In 1612, Pernambuco produced 14,000 tons of sugar. While the sugar industry relied at first on the labor of indigenous peoples the Tupis and Tapuyas, high mortality and economic growth led to the importation of enslaved Africans from the late 17th century; some of these slaves escaped the sugar-producing coastal regions and formed independent inland communities called mocambos, including Palmares. In 1630, Pernambuco, as well as many Portuguese possessions in Brazil, was occupied by the Dutch until 1654; the occupation was resisted and the Dutch conquest was only successful, it was repelled by the Spaniards. In the interim, thousands of the enslaved Africans had fled to Palmares, soon the mocambos there had grown into two significant states; the Dutch Republic, who allowed sugar production to remain in Portuguese hands, regarded suppression of Palmares impor
Southeast Region, Brazil
The Southeast Region of Brazil is composed by the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It is the richest region of the country, responsible for 60% of the Brazilian GDP. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais are three richest states of Brazil, the top three Brazilian states in terms of GDP; the Southeast of Brazil has the highest GDP per capita among all Brazilian regions. The Southeast region leads the country in population, urban population, population density, industries, airports, highways, schools and many other areas. São Paulo Heart of the largest continued remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, the Ribeira Valley is a Natural Heritage of Humanity, granted heritage as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. One of the biggest attractions is the biologic and ecosystems diversity, where 400 species of birds, amphibians and mammals live; the Alto Ribeira Tourist State Park is paradise for ecotourists, for its enormous diversity in geologic formations, among grottos and caves and waterfalls.
There are 454 caves registered by the Brazilian Society of Speleology in the State of São Paulo, all at the Ribeira Valley. The 280 caves located at PETAR represent the biggest concentration of caves in Brazil. Minas Gerais The landscape of the State is marked by mountains and caverns. In the Serra do Cipó, Sete Lagoas and Lagoa Santa, the caves and waterfalls. Minas Gerais is the source of some of the biggest rivers in Brazil, most notably the São Francisco, the Paraná and to a lesser extent, the Rio Doce; the state holds many hydroelectric power plants, including Furnas dam. Some of the highest peaks in Brazil are in the mountain ranges in the southern part of the state, such as Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Cervo, that mark the border between Minas and its neighbors São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro; the most notable one is the Pico da Bandeira, the third highest mountain in Brazil at 2890 m, standing on the border with Espírito Santo state. The state has huge reserves of iron and sizeable reserves of gold and gemstones, including emerald and aquamarine mines.
Rio de Janeiro The state is part of the Mata Atlântica biome, its topography comprises both mountains and plains, located between the Mantiqueira Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. Its coast is carved by the bays of Guanabara and Ilha Grande. There are prominent slopes near the ocean, featuring diverse environments, such as restinga vegetation, bays and tropical forests. Rio de Janeiro is one of the smallest in Brazil, it has, the third longest coastline in the country, extending 635 kilometers. Espírito Santo With 46.180 square kilometers, it is about the size of Estonia, or half the size of Portugal, has a variety of habitats including coastal plains, mountain forest and many others. The main river in the state is the Doce. Other important river basins include the Santa Maria River Basin, the northern branch of rivers which join the sea at Vitoria, Jucu River Basin which flows into the sea at the same place, but corresponds to the southern branch. Espírito Santo's climate is tropical with dry winters and rainy summers.
North of Doce River it's drier and hot. In the mountainous regions in the south and south west of the state, the tropical climate is influenced by altitude, the average temperatures are colder; the state can be divided into two areas: the low lying coastline and the highland area known as Serra, part of the larger Serra do Caparaó, the Caparaó Mountain Range. In the map to the right it is in the gray area in the extreme southwest of the state, is shared with Minas Gerais. São Paulo state is responsible for one-third of Brazilian GDP; the state's GDP consists of 550 billion dollars, making it the second biggest economy of South America after Brazil and the biggest subdivision economy in Latin America. Its economy is based on machinery, the automobile and aviation industries, financial companies, textiles, orange growing, sugar cane and coffee production. Minas Gerais is a growing state. Vehicles: 36,030,943. Portuguese is the official national language, thus the primary language taught in schools.
English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. French is widely studied. Universidade de São Paulo. São Paulo São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport connects Brazil to 28 countries and is visited every day by nearly 100 thousand people. With capacity to serve 15 million passengers a year, in two terminals, the airport handles 12 million users. Construction of a third passenger terminal is pending, to raise yearly capacity to 29 million passengers; the project, in the tendering phase, is part of the