Wooden roller coaster
A wooden roller coaster is most classified as a roller coaster with running rails made of flattened steel strips mounted on laminated wooden track. The support structure may be made out of a steel lattice or truss, but the ride remains classified as a wooden roller coaster due to the track design; because of the limits of wood, wooden roller coasters, in general, do not have inversions, steep drops, or banked turns. However, there are exceptions. Other special cases are Hades 360 at Mount Olympus Water and Theme Park in Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin; the coaster features a double-track tunnel, a corkscrew, a 90-degree banked turn. There is The Voyage at Holiday World featuring three separate 90-degree banked turns. Ravine Flyer II at Waldameer Park has a 90-degree banked turn, T Express at Everland in South Korea with a 77-degree drop, Outlaw Run at Silver Dollar City which has 3 inversions and 120-degree overbanked turn. Once a staple in every amusement park in America, wooden roller coasters began a slow decline in popularity for a number of reasons.
Steel roller coasters, while having larger up-front costs, cost much less in ongoing maintenance fees throughout the years of operation. Wooden roller coasters, on the other hand, require large amounts of devoted funds annually to keep the ride in operating condition through regular re-tracking, track lubrication, support maintenance. Wooden coasters are becoming less marketable in today's media-driven advertising world. Superlative advertising in which the "biggest", "tallest", or "fastest" ride is what brings in crowds cannot apply to new wooden roller coasters since a large majority of record-holding rides are steel. Amusement parks are always looking to add attractions that can be presented in commercials and ads as tall, fast, or extreme, which eliminates many wooden roller coasters. However, the arrival of several new wooden coasters has bucked the downward trend. In 2006, a trio of giant wooden coasters opened in the United States: The Kentucky Rumbler at Beech Bend Park, The Voyage at Holiday World, El Toro at Six Flags Great Adventure.
Another wooden coaster, Renegade at Valleyfair, opened in 2007. In Sweden Balder at Liseberg has received much attention and appreciation, it remains to be seen whether or not these new coasters mark the beginning of a wooden coaster revival, but they do indicate that amusement parks continue to show interest in wooden roller coasters. The 1920s was the Golden Era of coaster design; this was the decade. Some of these include the Giant Dipper at the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk and its counterpart at Belmont Park, the Cyclone at Coney Island, the Big Dipper at Geauga Lake, The Thriller at Euclid Beach Park, the Roller Coaster at Lagoon. All of these rides were built during this time; the decade was the design peak for some of the world's greatest coaster designers, including John A. Miller, Harry Traver, Herb Schmeck, the partnership of Prior and Church. Many wooden roller coasters of this time were demolished during the Great Depression, but a few still stand as American Coaster Enthusiasts classics and landmarks.
The popularity may have come to a short closing, but that did not stop certain amusement parks from building scream machines again, again. Cedar Point built Blue Streak in 1964, a Philadelphia Toboggan Company-manufactured coaster designed by John C. Allen; this quiet age of coaster design following the Great Depression was brought to an end by The Racer at Kings Island, which opened in 1972 and sparked a second "Golden Age" of wooden coaster design that continues today. After their success with the Racer at Kings Island, the Philadelphia Toboggan Company constructed another 9 roller coasters over the next decade. About half were small family coasters, two were racing coasters similar to the Racer, two were out and back coasters with custom designs. One of these, Screamin' Eagle at Six Flags St. Louis, was the last coaster designed by John Allen before his retirement. After these coasters, PTC stopped producing roller coasters, but continues to produce wooden roller coaster trains as Philadelphia Toboggan Coasters.
Their distinctive rectangular cars are used on wooden coasters around the world. A notable non-PTC coaster built during this time was The Beast at Kings Island. After John Allen refused to design the coaster in lieu of retirement, Kings Island built the coaster themselves, with the coaster designed by Al Collins and Jeff Gramke and construction overseen by Charlie Dinn. Rather than a typical out and back layout, the coaster sprawled over the woods at the back of the park, using the terrain to create an elevation change from lowest to highest point of 201 feet though the coaster was only 118 feet tall; the coaster had two lift hills which, while common for mine train coasters at the time, was uncommon for wooden coasters. Opening in 1979, the coaster was, still is, the longest wooden roller coaster in the world at 7,359 feet. Another significant wooden coaster of this era was the racing American Eagle at Six Flags Great America, built by Intamin in 1981, which still holds the records for racing wooden coasters of height, length and drop.
After the surge in the 1970s, wooden coasters construction became stagnant due to the steel roller coaster being much more popular. Most original coaster
Train (roller coaster)
A roller coaster train is a vehicle made up of two or more cars connected by specialized joints which transports passengers around a roller coaster's circuit. It is called a train because the cars follow one another around the track, the same reason as for a railroad train. Individual cars can carry from one to eight or more passengers each. Many roller coasters operate sometimes several, simultaneously, they operate two trains at a time, with one train loading and unloading while the other train runs the course. On the Rock'n' Roller Coaster at Walt Disney World, for example, there are five trains, but only four operate at a time. Roller coaster trains have wheels that run on the sides and underneath the track as well as on top of it; the side wheels can be mounted depending on the manufacturer. The wheels are sometimes located between the cars, as well as at the front and rear of the entire train. Roller coaster trains have restraints that keep the passengers in their seats. There are two major types of restraints: over-the-shoulder.
Restraints always use one on each side, for redundancy. If one fails, the restraint will remain locked. Most roller coasters have seat belts that may act as secondary safety devices. On over-the-shoulder restraints, this seatbelt is cosmetic as the restraint locks on its own. Lap bars were first used in 1907 with Drop the Dip. Lap bar restraints consist of a padded bar mounted to the floor or side of the train that swings backwards into the rider's lap; these restraints are found on roller coasters that lack inversions. Some inverting roller coasters, notably ones created by Anton Schwarzkopf safely operate without the need for shoulder restraints. Inverting roller coasters with lap bars could only perform vertical loops, as the higher centripetal force exerted while traversing a simple clothoid loop helps to keep riders safely in the train. However, with modern advances in engineering, more roller coasters with complicated inversions are able to run without over-the-shoulder restraints. For example, most of Premier Rides' LIM-launched roller coasters operate with only lap bars.
Lap bar restraints, like buzz bars give the rider much greater freedom of movement than over-the-shoulder restraints, enhancing the feeling of danger for some. Over-the-shoulder restraints, the most common type, consist of a U-shaped padded bar mounted to the top of each seat that swings downward. Roller coasters that have inversions have this type of restraint. Additionally all Inverted roller coasters and Floorless roller coasters have this type of restraint, since it is difficult to mount a lap bar restraint. One disadvantage of over-the-shoulder restraints is that they can provide discomfort to the rider on rougher roller coasters, it is recommended that earrings should be removed before riding roller coasters with Over the Shoulder restraints. Some rides, such as Maverick at Cedar Point, require. However, there are some operating roller coasters. Rollo Coaster at Idlewild and Soakzone is a good example of this. Roller coasters with little to no air-time do not have restraints; until early 2006, The Rollercoaster at Blackpool Pleasure Beach in the UK operated without any restaints, although seatbelts were added to the ride in the 2007 Season.
During 2008, trains from the Big Dipper Rollercoaster were installed on the ride. "The Rollercoaster" now operates with lap bars, although the original train is still stored on the transfer track in the station. At a given velocity, the longer a roller coaster train becomes, the more momentum it gains throughout the ride's course. A roller coaster train, loaded will have more momentum than one, empty or nearly empty. Roller coaster
Twister roller coaster
A twister roller coaster is the generic name given to any roller coaster layout which tends to twist or interweave its track within itself several times. It is the opposite of an Out and Back roller coaster, a much more simplistic layout. Twister roller coasters have the illusion of having small or tight clearances due to the track travelling through several support structures; this is known as a head chopper effect. Twister roller coasters were unheard of before the 1920s. John Miller is credited with inventing upstop wheels and secure lap bar restraints, both which led roller coaster designers to create wilder and twistier layouts. A good example of the difference between an out and back design and twister design is layouts of Apollo's Chariot and Raging Bull, two Bolliger & Mabillard designed hypercoaster roller coasters that debuted in 1999. Apollo's Chariot uses a traditional out and back layout while Raging Bull is a twister
A lift hill, or chain hill, is an upward-sloping section of track on a roller coaster on which the roller coaster train is mechanically lifted to an elevated point or peak in the track. Upon reaching the peak, the train is propelled from the peak by gravity and is allowed to coast throughout the rest of the roller coaster ride's circuit on its own momentum, including most or all of the remaining uphill sections; the initial upward-sloping section of a roller coaster track is a lift hill, as the train begins a ride with little speed, though some coasters have raised stations that permit an initial drop without a lift hill. Although uncommon, some tracks contain multiple lift hills. Lift hills propel the train to the top of the ride via one of two methods: a chain lift involving a long, continuous chain which trains hook on to and are carried to the top. A typical chain lift consists of a heavy piece of metal called a chain dog, mounted onto the underside of one of the cars which make up the train.
This is in place to line up with the chain on the lift hill. The chain travels through a steel trough, is powered by one or more motors which are positioned under the lift hill. Chain dogs underneath each train are engaged by the chain and the train is pulled up the lift. Anti-rollback dogs engage a rack alongside the chain to prevent the train from descending the lift hill. At the crest of the lift, the chain wraps around a gear wheel where it begins its return to the bottom of the lift; the spring-loaded chain and anti-rollback dogs will disengage themselves. The cable lift is a type of lift mechanism, first used on Millennium Force at Cedar Point in Sandusky, Ohio; this type of lift has been used for Kings Dominion's Intimidator 305, Holiday Park's Expedition GeForce, Walibi Holland's Goliath, Djurs Sommerland's Piraten, Tokyo Dome City's Thunder Dolphin, Hersheypark's Skyrush, Flying Aces at Ferrari World and Altair at Cinecittà World. There are only two wooden roller coasters that utilize a cable lift hill: El Toro at Six Flags Great Adventure and T Express at Everland.
The cable lift utilizes a cable loop in place of the traditional chain, attached to a short section of chain that engages the trains chain dog. Because a cable is much lighter than a chain, cable lifts are much faster than chain lifts and can be used on much steeper hills - vertical. A cable requires far less maintenance than a chain. Another advantage to park guests is that a cable lift is quiet because the main drive winch is located directly beneath the top of the lift, a location which will be far from guest-accessible areas. Despite having several advantages over a chain lift, it has a significant disadvantage, that it must return to the bottom of the lift hill after lifting each train; this limits the usefulness of the cable lift in applications where the cable must travel a long distance and the interval between train departures is short. The Ferris wheel lift is a type of lift based on the rotating circular design of a ferris wheel. Created by Premier Rides, it exists on'Round About' which operated at Freestyle Music Park in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina prior to being dismantled and moved to a park in Vietnam.
It uses a Ferris Wheel like motion to lift the cars to the top, as on a Ferris Wheel. The cars are released onto the track; the elevator lift is a new technology used to make the ascension of the roller coaster faster and more comfortable due to the fact all riders are doing is moving vertically up. It is used in indoor rollercoasters like Scooby-Doo Spooky Coaster; the most notable coaster to use this lift system is Cobra's Curse at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay. A tilt lift is a new way to elevate coasters; the tilt lift is an elevator lift, but the elevator lift rotates 90 degrees so that the train is now vertical, with the nose of the train facing the ground. This design has not been made yet. However, there are coaster designs; the first operating tilt coaster in the world is Gravity Max at Lihpao Land in Taiwan. The coaster was built by Vekoma. In this coaster, after going up a chain hill, the train is held on a horizontal section of track, which tilts forwards, to become a vertical section, which leads into a vertical drop accelerated by gravity.
The second and at the moment last tilt coaster is Battle of Jungle King at Hefei Wanda Theme Park. The familiar "click-clack" sound that occurs as roller coaster train ascends the lift hill is not caused by the chain itself; the cause for this noise is a safety device used on lift hills—the anti-rollback device. The anti-rollback device is a standard safety feature consisting of a continuous, saw-toothed, section of metal, forming a linear ratchet. Roller coaster trains are fitted with anti-rollback "dogs" which are heavy-duty pieces of metal which fall and rest in each groove of the anti-rollback device on the track as the trains ascend the lift-hill; this makes the "clicking" sound and allows the train to go upwards only preventing the train from rolling back down the hill should it encounter a power failure
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Lincoln Park (Dartmouth, Massachusetts)
Lincoln Park was a park opened in 1894 by the Union Street Railway Company of New Bedford, located in North Dartmouth, Massachusetts on the border of Westport, Massachusetts on U. S. Highway 6. Lincoln Park closed in 1987 and remained abandoned and vacant until the Comet roller coaster was torn down on July 11, 2012. Lincoln Park used to be known as "Midway Park" or "Westport Park" until a new name was chosen in a lottery; the Union Street Railway Company created Lincoln Park in 1894 as a way to connect Fall River to New Bedford. 46 acres of land in Dartmouth was purchased and the park began. The park had picnic tables, a playground, several grill stoves for cookouts; this continued into the 1920s, when Lincoln Park became more of an amusement park. In 1941, the facility was purchased by John Collins & Associates for $40,000, they invested $150,000 installing a fourteen lane bowling alley and updating an existing dance hall, added a full complement of amusement park rides. The park was successful until the mid-1980s.
A fatal accident on the park's 1946 "Comet" wooden roller coaster in 1986 caused people to question the safety of the park. Facing declining attendance, Jay Hoffman, the park's owner, invested $75,000 in updating the park; this plan included moving the park's 1921 carousel to Battleship Cove in Fall River, dismantling a smaller "kiddy" version of the "Comet" roller coaster. In a May 1987 story from The Providence Journal, he is quoted as saying that the park had been inspected and was safe. However, just four months on September 29, the braking system on the roller coaster failed, causing one of the cars to jackknife. Although no one was injured, this was the final ride of the coaster; the park closed December 1987, owing $48,000 in taxes and $13,000 in unpaid police details. All of the rides were dismantled and auctioned off; the park's Ferris wheel was moved to the New Bedford waterfront. The jack-knifed car remained stuck on the roller coaster track well into the 1990s, until vandals tore it off.
The abandoned park suffered a string of fires after its closing, a total of six as of May 2012. For years the only remaining structures in the park were some badly damaged food buildings and the roller coaster; the coaster's high starting "lift hill" collapsed during a heavy January 2005 snowstorm, the roof of the platform collapsed in May 2008 and much of the rear curve collapsed due to water damage, around mid-May 2009. Two of the remaining buildings near the roller coaster collapsed in early 2008, both buildings collapsed by early 2010; the remainder of the roller coaster, left standing was demolished on July 11, 2012. The most popular ride was the "Monster Ride," where diabolical creatures were plotting your demise from beyond the railways, it featured two paper mache monsters overlooking your entry from the second floor balcony. It has appeared in several newspaper articles; the 42-acre site is being considered for a 252-unit housing project. In May 2012, developers began clearing shrubbery and abandoned buildings in the former amusement park.
In July 2012, the Comet roller coaster was demolished. Single family homes, apartment buildings and commercial space will be constructed in its place; the fir wood used for the coaster will be used to make Adirondack chairs that will be sold for charity. List of amusement parks in New England List of defunct amusement parks Amusement ride Comet Lincoln Park at the Roller Coaster DataBase A MySpace tribute site for Lincoln Park & the Comet. Comet Roller Coaster at Lincoln Park in Oct 2006. A tribute site to Lincoln Park and The Comet with hundreds of photos from past and present, information and more! http://mark-wiley.artistwebsites.com/featured/the-comet-mark-wiley.html
Little Amerricka is an amusement park located in Marshall, Wisconsin, USA. Little Amerricka features the 16 in gauge Whiskey River Railway, a 1/3 size railroad operating an array of steam and diesel engines and proto-typical freight and passenger cars with over 3 miles of track on the ground; the line begins at the amusement park and wanders over 2 miles through scenic trees, past the wildlife pond area and crosses the Whiskey river. Passengers will hear the whistle blow as they go through the tunnel, past the locomotive shops including roundhouse and turntable, over bridges and around a lake; the location is the home of Merrick Light Railway Equipment, where 1/3 size steam and car equipment are still being built. Other attractions include 24 rides, including scrambler, tilt a whirl, bumper cars, Ferris wheel, blow up slides, haunted house, roller coasters, go-karts, an 18-hole miniature golf course, more. Little Amerricka Website Little Amerricka at the Roller Coaster DataBase