Digital terrestrial television
Digital terrestrial television is a technological evolution of broadcast television and an advancement over analog television. A terrestrial implementation of digital television uses a aerial to broadcast to a conventional television antenna instead of a satellite dish or cable television connection. The amount of data that can be transmitted is directly affected by channel capacity, the modulation method in DVB-T is COFDM with either 64 or 16-state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. In general, a 64QAM channel is capable of transmitting a bit rate. 16 and 64QAM constellations can be combined in a single multiplex, the DVB-T standard is not used for terrestrial digital television in North America. Instead, the ATSC standard calls for 8VSB modulation, which has similar characteristics to the vestigial sideband modulation used for analog television. This provides considerably more immunity to interference, but is not immune — as DVB-T is — to multipath distortion, both systems use the MPEG transport stream and H.
262/MPEG-2 Part 2 video codec specified in MPEG-2, they differ significantly in how related services are encoded. DTTV is received either via a digital set-top box, TV gateway or integrated tuner included with television sets, some set-top-boxes and TV gateways include digital video recorder functionality. This is quite common in the UK, see external links, indoor aerials are even more likely to be affected by these issues and possibly need replacing. Main articles, List of digital television deployments by country, Digital television transition Afghanistan started digital transmissions in MPEG-4 on Sunday,31 August 2014, Afghanistan adopted DVB-T2 system for digital television. India adopted DVB-T system for television in July 1999. The first DVB-T transmission was started on 26 January 2003 in the four metropolitan cities by Doordarshan. Currently the terrestrial transmission is available in digital and analog formats. 4 high power DVB-T transmitters were set up in the top 4 cities, an additional 190 high power, and 400 low power DVB-T2 transmitters have been approved for Tier I, II and III cities of the country by 2017.
The Indian telecom regulator, TRAI, had recommended the I&B to allow private broadcast companies to use the DTT technology, so far, the Indian I&B ministry only permits private broadcast companies to use satellite, cable and IPTV based systems. Israel started digital transmissions in MPEG-4 on Sunday,2 August 2009, Israel was the first nation in the Middle East and the first non-European nation to shut down its analogue TV distribution system. The new service which is operated by the Second Authority for Radio, according to government decisions, the system will expand to include two additional multiplexes that will carry new channels and HD versions of the existing channels. In this matter nothing has been decided upon until the end on 2012, on 20 March 2013 it was announced that Thomson Broadcast had won a major contract with The Second Authority for Television and Radio for the extension of its nationwide DVB-T/DVB-T2 network
Poltergeist: The Legacy
Poltergeist, The Legacy is a Canadian horror television series which ran from 1996 to 1999. The series tells the story of the members of a society known as the Legacy. Despite bearing the Poltergeist name, there is no connection between the show and the Poltergeist trilogy aside from the title. Poltergeist, The Legacy debuted on Showtime, and all episodes of the first three seasons premiered on that network, though they were syndicated. After the third season, Showtime cancelled the show, and the rights were purchased by Sci Fi Channel which continued the series for another season. This same pattern was followed by Stargate SG-1, which debuted on Showtime, was sold into syndication. It was hoped that this cameo would help boost awareness of the new show, in 2009 Poltergeist, The Legacy aired on NBC Universals horror and suspense-themed cable channel Chiller. As of 2016, the airs in primetime on digital network Comet. Founded in England in the 6th century, the Legacy was established to collect dangerous and ancient knowledge and artifacts, solve paranormal problems, over time, the membership expanded around the world.
As the Legacy grew, it established branches in cities and countries. Known as Legacy Houses, these are staffed by small teams of specialist members, each House is ruled by a Precept who wears a signet ring engraved with a distinctive L. Other Houses are mentioned and occasionally seen in the series, dr. Derek Rayne is the Precept of the San Francisco House, set in a castellated mansion on Angel Island in San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco House operates under the guise of the Luna Foundation, dr. Derek Rayne – The Precept of the San Francisco House. Derek is a brilliant scholar with a background and connections to many powerful people. He is Dutch, and holds doctorates in anthropology and theology, Derek follows in the footsteps of his father Winston, who was a Legacy member. Winston was corrupted and killed by forces when Derek was a teenager, eventually. Derek has the Sight, a form of precognition that allows him to see things happen before they become real, at times and he had a son named Lucas who died in infancy along with Dereks former lover.
Derek appeared to be killed off in the episode of the series
Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L. A. is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California. With a census-estimated 2015 population of 3,971,883, it is the second-most populous city in the United States, Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The citys inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos, historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was founded on September 4,1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence, in 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4,1850, the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city.
The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles has an economy in culture, fashion, sports, education, medicine. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index, the city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical area has a gross metropolitan product of $831 billion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. The city has hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984 and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and thus become the second city after London to have hosted the Games three times. The Los Angeles area hosted the 1994 FIFA mens World Cup final match as well as the 1999 FIFA womens World Cup final match, the mens event was watched on television by over 700 million people worldwide.
The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva, a Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning poison oak place. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2,1769, in 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary, two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small town for decades, but by 1820. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, during Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta Californias regional capital
The Terminator is a 1984 American science fiction action film directed by James Cameron. Michael Biehn plays Kyle Reese, a soldier from the future sent back in time to protect Connor, the screenplay is credited to Cameron, along with producer Gale Anne Hurd. Executive producers John Daly and Derek Gibson of Hemdale Film Corporation were instrumental in the films financing, the Terminator topped the US box office for two weeks and helped launch Camerons film career and solidify Schwarzeneggers. It received critical acclaim, with praising its pacing, action scenes. Its success led to a franchise consisting of four sequels, a series, comic books, novels. In 2008, The Terminator was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the National Film Registry, being deemed culturally, historically, in 1984 Los Angeles, a cyborg assassin known as a Terminator arrives from 2029 and steals guns and clothes. Shortly afterwards, Kyle Reese, a soldier from 2029. He steals clothes and evades the police, the Terminator begins systematically killing women named Sarah Connor, whose addresses he finds in the telephone directory.
He tracks the third Sarah Connor to a nightclub, but Kyle rescues her, the two steal a car and escape with the Terminator pursuing them in a police car. As they hide in a lot, Kyle explains to Sarah that an artificial intelligence defense network, known as Skynet, will become self-aware in the near future. Sarahs future son John will rally the survivors and lead a movement against Skynet. With the Resistance on the verge of victory, Skynet sent a Terminator back in time to kill Sarah before John is born, the Terminator is an efficient killing machine with a powerful metal endoskeleton and an external layer of living tissue that makes it appear human. Kyle and Sarah are apprehended by the police after another encounter with the Terminator, criminal psychologist Dr. Silberman concludes that Kyle is paranoid and delusional. The Terminator repairs his body and attacks the station, killing many police officers in his attempt to locate Sarah. Kyle and Sarah escape, steal another car and take refuge in a motel, Kyle admits that he has been in love with Sarah since John gave him a photograph of her, and they have sex.
The Terminator discovers their location, and they attempt to escape in a pickup truck, in the ensuing chase, Kyle is wounded by gunfire while throwing pipe bombs at the Terminator. Enraged‚ Sarah knocks the Terminator off his motorcycle but loses control of the truck, the Terminator hijacks a tank truck and attempts to run down Sarah, but Kyle slides a pipe bomb onto the tanker, causing an explosion that burns the flesh from the Terminators endoskeleton. It pursues them to a factory, where Kyle activates machinery to confuse the Terminator and he jams his final pipe bomb into the Terminators abdomen, blowing the Terminator apart, injuring Sarah, and killing Kyle
Fantasy is a fiction genre set in an imaginary universe, often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Most fantasy uses magic or other elements as a main plot element, theme. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds, in popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy works by many writers, filmmakers. Fantasy is studied in a number of disciplines including English and other studies, cultural studies, comparative literature, history. The identifying trait of fantasy is the reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent. This differs from realistic fiction in that whereas realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, an author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Fantasy has often compared with science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction.
Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements, a science fiction narrative is unlikely, though seeming possible through logical scientific and/or technological extrapolation, whereas fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. The imagined elements of fantasy do not need an explanation to be narratively functional. Authors have to rely on the suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment. Despite both genres heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable, horror primarily evokes fear through the protagonists weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Beginning perhaps with the earliest written documents and other elements that would come to define fantasy. MacDonald was an influence on both J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis. The other major fantasy author of this era was William Morris, lord Dunsany established the genres popularity in both the novel and the short story form.
Many popular mainstream authors began to write fantasy at this time, including H. Rider Haggard, Rudyard Kipling and Edgar Rice Burroughs. Indeed, juvenile fantasy was considered more acceptable than fantasy intended for adults, nathaniel Hawthorne wrote fantasy in A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys, intended for children, though works for adults only verged on fantasy. Political and social trends can affect a societys reception towards fantasy, in the early 20th century, the New Culture Movements enthusiasm for Westernization and science in China compelled them to condemn the fantastical shenmo genre of traditional Chinese literature
United Artists is an American film and television entertainment studio. The studio was bought and restructured over the ensuing century. On December 14 of the year, however, MGM acquired the 48% stake of UAMG it did not own. UA was incorporated as a joint venture on February 5,1919, by Pickford, Fairbanks, each held a 20% stake, with the remaining 20% held by lawyer William Gibbs McAdoo. The idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Pickford, already Hollywood veterans, the four stars talked of forming their own company to better control their own work. They were spurred on by established Hollywood producers and distributors who were tightening their control over salaries and creative decisions. With the addition of Griffith, planning began, but Hart bowed out before anything was formalized, when he heard about their scheme, Richard A. Rowland, head of Metro Pictures, is said to have observed, The inmates are taking over the asylum. The four partners, with advice from McAdoo, formed their distribution company and its headquarters was established at 729 Seventh Avenue in New York City.
The original terms called for each of the stars to produce five pictures each year, UAs first film was a success. Without selling stock to the public, following the other studios, as a result, production was slow and the company distributed an annual average of five films during its first five years. By 1924 Griffith had dropped out and the company was facing a crisis, veteran producer Joseph Schenck was hired as president. He had been producing pictures for a decade, and he brought commitments for films starring his wife, Norma Talmadge, his sister-in-law, Constance Talmadge, contracts were signed with independent producers, most notably Samuel Goldwyn, and Howard Hughes. In 1933, Schenck organized a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, called Twentieth Century Pictures, Schenck formed a separate partnership with Pickford and Chaplin to buy and build theaters under the United Artists name. They began international operations, first in Canada and in Mexico, by the end of the 1930s, United Artists was represented in over 40 countries.
When he was denied a share in 1935, Schenck resigned. He set up 20th Century Pictures merger with Fox Film Corporation to form 20th Century Fox, al Lichtman succeeded Schenck as company president. Other independent producers distributed through United Artists in the 1930s including, Walt Disney Productions, Alexander Korda, Hal Roach, David O. Selznick, as the years passed, and the dynamics of the business changed, these producing partners drifted away. Samuel Goldwyn Productions and Disney went to RKO, and Wanger to Universal Pictures, in the late 1930s, UA turned a profit
Men into Space
Men Into Space is an American black-and-white science fiction television series, produced by Ziv Television Programs, Inc. that was first broadcast from September 30,1959 to September 7,1960 by CBS. The syndicated series depicts future efforts by the United States Air Force to explore, the series star, William Lundigan, played Col. Edward McCauley. Props were occasionally futuristic, but the shows Earthly clothing and environs, including automobiles, the program aired in the year just prior to the beginning of manned spaceflight, with Vostok I and the Mercury program launching manned spacecraft in 1961. Men Into Space was somewhat unusual for a TV action series in that it had numerous recurring characters, but only one protagonist, Col. Edward McCauley, tyler McVey appeared in seven episodes as Major General Norgath. Ron Foster appeared five times as Lieutenant Neil Templeton, joyce Taylor had a recurring role in eight episodes as Col. McCauleys wife, Mary McCauley. McCauley was a sort of character who was viewed in the show as the most experienced.
In many episodes the astronauts were faced with accidents or technical problems that required innovation, the program was not idealistic, missions sometimes failed and astronauts sometimes died. Scripts often considered the human factor, and while action was the forte, humor. Men Into Space predicted women astronauts and scientists and married couples in space, the spacecraft designs, veered inconsistently between early 1950s Wernher Von Braun concept vehicles, and later, totally scaled-down spacecraft proposals. Visual backdrops and conceptual designs of spacecraft, space stations, the series availed itself of extensive documentary footage of early missile launches, notably the Atlas missile. Several scenes used footage from the cancelled Navaho missile program to depict spacecraft landings on a desert runway, the distinctive design of the North American X-10 can be seen in the desert landing sequences. Men Into Space used for its plots many technical and human problems anticipated by engineers and planners, although the series was modestly budgeted, it was cleverly mounted with what, for its era, were good special effects helmed by Louis DeWitt.
Even decades later, the series can still be appreciated for its attention to detail, the spacecraft in the program were shown gliding to a powerless landing on a dry lake bed, just like the real Space Shuttle nearly 25 years later. Footage of these landings used documentary film of the X-10 Navaho cruise missile landing at Edwards AFB, dramatic license was used when depicting the spacesuits being worn by the actors. They did not inflate when exposed to the vacuum of space, the program was produced by Ziv Television Programs, Inc. whose other notable series included Sea Hunt. The theme and recurring background music were written and conducted by David Rose, the series was produced by Lewis J. Rachmil. Among the guest stars was Keith Larsen of the CBS series Brave Eagle, joyce Taylor played the role of Mary McCauley in the series, but Angie Dickinson plays the role in the original pilot episode. Spacesuit costumes and special-effects footage of space vehicles were re-used in The Outer Limits, the spacesuits bore a strong resemblance to the spacesuits worn in the first half of the one-season comedy series Its About Time
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. Its headquarters are in Beverly Hills, California and it is one of the worlds oldest film studios. In 1971, it was announced that MGM would merge with 20th Century Fox, over the next thirty-nine years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3,2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol MGM, is not currently affiliated with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would buy Universal Studios, the studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios, mostly United Artists. Kerkorian did, commit to increased production and a film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up production, as well as keeping production going at UA.
It incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production, the studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few later, sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt. The series of deals left MGM even more heavily in debt, MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio. The French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the major creditor. Even more deeply in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, and Australias Seven Network in 1996, the debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGMs ability to survive as an independent motion picture studio. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem and he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loews Theatres chain. With Loews lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters.
Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17,1924, Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production. MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years, in 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. Marcus Loew died in 1927, and control of Loews passed to Nicholas Schenck, in 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew familys holdings with Schencks assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision, Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds
Stargate Atlantis is a Canadian-American adventure and military science fiction television series and part of MGMs Stargate franchise. The show was created by Brad Wright and Robert C. Cooper as a series of Stargate SG-1. All five seasons of Stargate Atlantis were broadcast by the Sci-Fi Channel in the United States, the show premiered on July 16,2004, its final episode aired on January 9,2009. The series was filmed in and around Vancouver, British Columbia, the series was a ratings success for the Sci Fi Channel, and was particularly popular in Europe and Australia. Although it received critical response, Stargate Atlantis was honored with numerous awards. Merchandise for Stargate Atlantis includes games and toys, print media, with the cancellation of Stargate Universe, the intended direct-to-DVD Stargate Atlantis movie, entitled Stargate, was cancelled. They use a device known as a Stargate that was built millions of years ago by an advanced race of humans known as the Ancients. The expedition is based in the Lost City of Atlantis on the planet Lantea, the city was built millions of years ago and abandoned 10,000 years ago by the Ancients.
Each season has featured a two-part episode, and some episodes that, while not technically two-parters. Each episode begins with an open, sometimes preceded by a recap of events relevant to the upcoming narrative. The opening credits feature a theme by Joel Goldsmith. Though they were cut at the start of season 2. They were again cut short in the 5th season, Season one began airing in the United States on July 16,2004. The Atlantis expedition, led by Dr. Elizabeth Weir, arrives at Atlantis, the expedition quickly finds itself in a dire situation that forces them to seek new friends, the Athosians, but they acquire a powerful new enemy, the Wraith. Due to the requirements for reaching Lantea, they are unable to contact Earth. The expedition must survive in a new galaxy, while deciphering the Ancients technology in order to find a way to destroy the Wraith and to acquire important new knowledge. Major Sheppard puts together a team consisting of himself, Dr. Rodney McKay, Lt. Ford and the Athosian leader Teyla Emmagan, in one of their first missions, they make another enemy, the Genii, a human militaristic civilization with a 1950s level of technology.
After several more revelations about the Wraith are made, the expedition prepares to evacuate, just before they do, a military contingent from Earth arrives to help defend the city against the impending Wraith attack long enough for Earths latest battleship to arrive
The Outer Limits (1995 TV series)
The Outer Limits is a Canadian-American television series that originally aired on Showtime, Syfy and in syndication between 1995 and 2002. The series is a revival of the original The Outer Limits series that aired from 1963–65, the revival series maintained an anthology format, but occasionally featured recurring story elements that were often tied together during season-finale clip shows. Over the course of the series,154 episodes were aired, after an attempt to bring back The Outer Limits during the early 1980s, it was finally relaunched in 1995. The success of television speculative fiction such as Star Trek, The X-Files, a deal was made with Trilogy Productions, the company behind such cinema hits as Backdraft and Robin Hood, Prince of Thieves. The show would run on the pay-TV channel Showtime, the episodes appeared in syndication the following season. It continued on Showtime until 2001, when Sci Fi quietly took over production for the seventh, as a result that series, unlike the previous ones, was completely free of any swearing or nudity.
It was canceled in 2002, after a total of 154 episodes—far more than the incarnation of the show. In the revived show, the Control Voice was supplied by Kevin Conway, the series was filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia. The series contained a story arc about mysterious or extraterrestrial forces. Leslie Stevens was a consultant for the first four seasons, while Joseph Stefano served as an executive consultant. Stefano remade his episode A Feasibility Study, retitling it Feasibility Study for the third season, Mark Mancina and John Van Tongeren composed new music different from that of Dominic Frontiere and Harry Lubin. They scored ten episodes for the first season, the musical theme for the modern Outer Limits series is credited to Mark Mancina and John VanTongeren. However, the music is used in The Ambush, a theme in the soundtrack of Dune 2000. In most seasons there was a show that intertwines the plots of several of the shows episodes. At each commercial interval, the Control Voice can be heard saying The Outer Limits. please stand by, the voice repeats this phrase upon return from the television ads.
The surreal images from the opening are mostly the work of Jerry Uelsmann, a number of episodes from seasons 1–6 feature nudity and adult content, though originally broadcast uncensored, those episodes have been edited for commercial syndication. These DVDs all contain the uncut episodes, as originally aired. The Aliens and Sex titles were released by MGM in the UK