Tokusatsu is a Japanese term for live-action film or television drama that makes heavy use of special effects. Tokusatsu entertainment deals with science fiction, fantasy or horror, but films and television shows in other genres can sometimes count as tokusatsu as well; the most popular types of tokusatsu include kaiju monster films like the Godzilla and Gamera film series. Some tokusatsu television programs combine several of these subgenres, for example the Ultraman and Super Sentai series. Tokusatsu is one of the most popular forms of Japanese entertainment, but despite the popularity of films and television programs based on tokusatsu properties such as Godzilla or Super Sentai, most tokusatsu films and television programs are not known outside Asia. Tokusatsu has origins in early Japanese theater in kabuki and in bunraku, which utilized some of the earliest forms of special effects puppetry. Modern tokusatsu, did not begin to take shape until the early 1950s, with the conceptual and creative birth of Godzilla, one of the most famous monsters of all time.
The special-effects artist Eiji Tsuburaya and the director Ishirō Honda became the driving forces behind 1954's Godzilla. Tsuburaya, inspired by the American film King Kong, formulated many of the techniques that would become staples of the genre, such as so-called suitmation—the use of a human actor in a costume to play a giant monster—combined with the use of miniatures and scaled-down city sets. Godzilla forever changed the landscape of Japanese science fiction and cinema by creating a uniquely Japanese vision in a genre dominated by American cinema. In 1954, Godzilla kickstarted the kaiju genre in Japan called the "Monster Boom", which remained popular for several decades, with characters such as the aforementioned Godzilla and King Ghidorah leading the market. However, in 1957 Shintoho produced the first film serial featuring the superhero character Super Giant, signaling a shift in popularity that favored masked heroes over giant monsters called the "Henshin Boom" started by Kamen Rider.
Along with the anime Astro Boy, the Super Giant serials had a profound effect on the world of tokusatsu. The following year, Moonlight Mask premiered, the first of numerous televised superhero dramas that would make up one of the most popular tokusatsu subgenres. Created by Kōhan Kawauchi, he followed-up its success with the tokusatsu superhero shows Seven Color Mask and Messenger of Allah, both starring a young Sonny Chiba; these original productions preceded the first color-television tokusatsu series, Ambassador Magma and Ultraman, which heralded the Kyodai Hero genre, wherein a regular-sized protagonist grows to larger proportions to fight large monsters. Popular tokusatsu superhero shows in the 1970s included Kamen Rider, Warrior of Love Rainbowman, Super Sentai and Spider-Man. Suitmation in Japanese identifies the process in tokusatsu movies and television programs used to portray a monster using suit acting; the exact origin of the term remains unknown. At the least, it was used to promote the Godzilla suit from The Return of Godzilla.
The many productions of tokusatsu series have general themes common throughout different groups. Kaiju productions feature monsters, or giant monsters; such series include Ultra Q, the Godzilla film series, the Gamera series, the Daimajin series, films such as Frankenstein Conquers the World, War of the Gargantuas, The X from Outer Space. Kaijin productions feature supervillains as their central character; this includes films such as The Secret of the Telegian, The Human Vapor, The H-Man, Half Human, Tomei Ningen. Since about 1960, several long-running television-series have combined various other themes. Tsuburaya Productions has had the Ultra Series starting with Ultra Q and Ultraman in 1966. P Productions began their foray into tokusatsu in 1966 with the series Ambassador Magma, they had involvement in the Lion-Maru series which concluded in November 2006. Toei Company has several series that fall under their Toei Superheroes category of programming, starting in 1961 with the single series, Moonlight Mask.
They produced several other long running series, starting with Shotaro Ishinomori's Kamen Rider Series in 1971, the Super Sentai series in 1975, the Metal Hero Series in 1982, the Toei Fushigi Comedy Series in 1981. Toei produced several other television series based on Ishinomori's works, including Android Kikaider and Kikaider 01, Robot Detective and Inazuman Flash, Kaiketsu Zubat. Toei was involved in the Spider-Man television series, which influenced their subsequent Super Sentai series. In 2003, TV Asahi began broadcasting the Super Sentai and Kamen Rider series in a weekly one-hour block known as Super Hero Time. Toho, the creators of Godzilla had their hands in creating the Chouseishin Series of programs from 2003 to 2006. In 2006, Keita Amemiya's Garo, a mature late-night tokusatsu drama was released, starting a franchise composed of several television series and films. Other mature late-night series followed, including a revival of Lion-Maru in Lion-Maru G, the Daimajin Kanon television series, Shougeki Gouraigan!!.
Various movies classified as tokusatsu work like generalized science fiction films. These include Warning from Space (宇宙人東京に現わる, Uchūjin Tokyo ni arawaru, Spacemen Appear in Toky
A fantasy world is an author-conceived world created in fictional media, such as literature, film or games. Typical fantasy worlds involve magic or magical abilities, nonexistent technology and sometimes, either a historical or futuristic theme; some worlds may be a parallel world connected to Earth via magical items. Many fantasy worlds draw on real world history, sociology and folklore; the setting of a fantasy work is of great importance to the plot and characters of the story. The setting itself can be imperiled by the evil of the story, suffer a calamity, be restored by the transformation the story brings about. Stories that use the setting as a backdrop for the story have been criticized for their failure to use it fully; when the land itself is not in danger, it is used symbolically, for thematic purposes, to underscore moods. Early fantasy worlds appeared as fantasy lands, part of the same planet but separated by geographical barriers. For example, Oz, though a fantasy world in every way, is described as part of this world.
Although medieval peasants who if traveled far from their villages could not conclusively say that it was impossible that, for example, an ogre could live a day's travel away, distant continents were necessary from the Renaissance onwards for such fantastic speculation to be plausible, until further exploration rendered all such terrestrial fantasy lands implausible. Within the span of mere decades, Oz, situated in a desert in the United States when first written about in 1900, was relocated to a spot in the Pacific Ocean. An early example of the fantasy land/world concept can be seen in the One Thousand and One Nights, where places of which little was known, but where the occurrence of marvels was thus more credible, had to be set "long ago" or "far away"; this is a process that continues, culminates in the fantasy world having little connection, if any, to actual times and places. A more recent example of a fantasy land with definite connections to the actual world is Austin Tappan Wright's Islandia.
Islandia's remoteness and aura of mystery, as well as its preservation of an arcadian society, are explained by means of a law which allows only limited contact with foreigners. Dream frames were once common for encasing the fantasy world with an explanation of its marvels; such a dream frame was added to the story of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz for the movie version. H. P. Lovecraft made active use of the dream frame, creating elaborate geographies accessible to humans only when they were asleep and dreaming; these dream-settings have been criticized, are far less frequent today. This change is part of a general trend toward more self-consistent and substantive fantasy worlds; this has altered the nature of the plots. The most common fantasy world is one based on medieval Europe, has been since William Morris used it in his early fantasy works, such as The Well at the World's End. and since the 1954 publication of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings; such a world is called "pseudo-medieval"—particularly when the writer has snatched up random elements from the era, which covered a thousand years and a continent, thrown them together without consideration for their compatibility, or introduced ideas not so much based on the medieval era as on romanticized views of it.
When these worlds are copied not so much from history as from other fantasy works, there is a heavy tendency to uniformity and lack of realism. The full width and breadth of the medieval era is drawn upon. Governments, for instance, tend to be uncompromisingly feudal-based, or evil empires or oligarchies corrupt, while there was far more variety of rule in the actual Middle Ages. Fantasy worlds tend to be medieval in economy, disproportionately pastoral. Careful world-building plus meticulous attention to detail is cited as the reason why certain fantasy works are convincing and contain a magical sense of place. Heavy and faithful use of real-world setting for inspiration, as in Barry Hughart's Bridge of Birds derived from China, or Lloyd Alexander's use of real world cultures such as Welsh for The Chronicles of Prydain or Indian for The Iron Ring, make the line between fantasy worlds and alternate histories fuzzy; the use of cultural elements, still more history and geography, from actual settings pushes a work toward alternative history.
Conversely, the creation by an author of an imaginary country—such as Ruritania or Graustark—does not automatically transform that imaginary country into a fantasy world if the location would be impossible in reality owing to a lack of land to contain it. According to Lin Carter in Imaginary Worlds: the Art of Fantasy, fantasy worlds, by their nature, contain some element of magic; this element may be the magical abilities of the people inhabiting the world. These are drawn from mythology and folklore t
A legendary and mythological creature traditionally called a fabulous beast and fabulous creature, is a fictitious and supernatural animal a hybrid, sometimes part human, whose existence has not or cannot be proved and, described in folklore or fiction but in historical accounts before history became a science. In the classical era, monstrous creatures such as the cyclops and the Minotaur appear in heroic tales for the protagonist to destroy. Other creatures, such as the unicorn, were claimed in accounts of natural history by various scholars of antiquity; some legendary creatures have their origin in traditional mythology and were believed to be real creatures, for example dragons and unicorns. Others were based on real encounters, originating in garbled accounts of travelers' tales, such as the Vegetable Lamb of Tartary, which grew tethered to the earth. A variety of mythical animals appear in the art and stories of the Classical era. For example, in the Odyssey, monstrous creatures include the Cyclops and Charybdis for the hero Odysseus to confront.
In other tales there appear the Medusa to be defeated by Perseus, the Minotaur to be destroyed by Theseus, the Hydra to be killed by Heracles, while Aeneas battles with the harpies. These monsters thus have the basic function of emphasizing the greatness of the heroes involved; some classical era creatures, such as the centaur, chimaera and the flying horse, are found in Indian art. Sphinxes appear as winged lions in Indian art and the Piasa Bird of North America. In medieval art, both real and mythical, played important roles; these included decorative forms as in medieval jewellery, sometimes with their limbs intricately interlaced. Animal forms were used to add majesty to objects. In Christian art, animals carried symbolic meanings, where for example the lamb symbolized Christ, a dove indicated the Holy Spirit, the classical griffin represented a guardian of the dead. Medieval bestiaries included animals regardless of biological reality. One function of mythical animals in the Middle Ages was allegory.
Unicorns, for example, were described as extraordinarily swift and uncatchable by traditional methods. It was believed; the unicorn was supposed to leap into her lap and go to sleep, at which point a hunter could capture it. In terms of symbolism, the unicorn was a metaphor for Christ. Unicorns represented the idea of purity. In the King James Bible, Psalm 92:10 states, "My horn shalt thou exalt like the horn of an unicorn." This is because the translators of the King James erroneously translated the Hebrew word re'em as unicorn. Versions translate this as wild ox; the unicorn's small size signifies the humility of Christ. Another common legendary creature which served allegorical functions within the Middle Ages was the dragon. Dragons were identified with serpents, though their attributes were intensified; the dragon was supposed to have been larger than all other animals. It was believed that the dragon had no harmful poison but was able to slay anything it embraced without any need for venom. Biblical scriptures speak of the dragon in reference to the devil, they were used to denote sin in general during the Middle Ages.
Dragons were said to have dwelled in places like Ethiopia and India, based on the idea that there was always heat present in these locations. Physical detail was not the central focus of the artists depicting such animals, medieval bestiaries were not conceived as biological categorizations. Creatures like the unicorn and griffin were not categorized in a separate "mythological" section in medieval bestiaries, as the symbolic implications were of primary importance. Animals we know to have existed were still presented with a fantastical approach, it seems the religious and moral implications of animals were far more significant than matching a physical likeness in these renderings. Nona C. Flores explains, "By the tenth century, artists were bound by allegorical interpretation, abandoned naturalistic depictions." The historian Richard Kieckhefer explains, "Magic is not meant to work but to express wishes, or to encode in symbols a perception of how things do or should work." Cryptozoology Lists of legendary creatures List of legendary creatures by type Mythical creature in the New World Encyclopedia
Fantasy comics have been around as long as the medium itself. In the US market, early years of fantasy comics began in the Golden Age of Comic Books and were populated with such notable works range from All-American comics' Greek myth inspired super hero Wonder Woman to Dell's Tarzan. Starting in the late 1940s through the mid-1950s horror-themed fantasy anthologies gained prominence. Though fantasy comics were able to survive in this new atmosphere though in a diminished capacity compared to its much stronger output in these early years. Fantasy-themed super heroes continued to populate comics through the 1950s and regained popularity in the 1960s with such characters as Steve Ditko's Doctor Strange published by Marvel comics and Jack Kirby's Thor both appearing in two of Marvel's fantasy-themed anthologies – Strange Tales and Journey into Mystery. In the 1970s, Conan the Barbarian, created by Robert E. Howard, became one of the most popular publications of Marvel Comics. After some changes of publishers, it continued to be published in the 2010s.
In the 1990s, The Sandman, created by Neil Gaiman, Sam Kieth and Mike Dringenberg was popular. Al Feldstein Frank Frazetta Otto Binder Gardner Fox Steve Ditko Jack Kirby Moebius Joe Orlando Osamu Tezuka Bernie Wrightson Hal Foster Jim Starlin Al Williamson Wallace Wood Several fantasy manga have been or will be adapted into anime television series, including Hakkenden: Eight Dogs of the East, Akame ga Kill!, The Seven Deadly Sins, Trinity Seven and Akatsuki no Yona. List of fantasy comics
A ghost story may be any piece of fiction, or drama, that includes a ghost, or takes as a premise the possibility of ghosts or characters' belief in them. The "ghost" may be summoned by magic. Linked to the ghost is the idea of "hauntings", where a supernatural entity is tied to a place, object or person. Ghost stories are examples of ghostlore. Colloquially, the term "ghost story" can refer to any kind of scary story. In a narrower sense, the ghost story has been developed as a short story format, within genre fiction, it is a form of supernatural fiction and of weird fiction, is a horror story. While ghost stories are explicitly meant to be scary, they have been written to serve all sorts of purposes, from comedy to morality tales. Ghosts appear in the narrative as sentinels or prophets of things to come. Belief in ghosts is found in all cultures around the world, thus ghost stories may be passed down orally or in written form. A widespread belief concerning ghosts is that they are composed of a misty, airy, or subtle material.
Anthropologists link this idea to early beliefs that ghosts were the person within the person, most noticeable in ancient cultures as a person's breath, which upon exhaling in colder climates appears visibly as a white mist. Belief in ghosts is found in all cultures around the world, thus ghost stories may be passed down orally or in written form; the campfire story, a form of oral storytelling involves recounting ghost stories, or other scary stories. Some of the stories are decades old, with varying versions across multiple cultures. Many schools and educational institutions encourage ghost storytelling as part of literature. In 1929, five key features of the English ghost story were identified in "Some Remarks on Ghost Stories" by M. R. James; as summarized by Frank Coffman for a course in popular imaginative literature, they were: The pretense of truth "A pleasing terror" No gratuitous bloodshed or sex No "explanation of the machinery" Setting: "those of the writer's own day"The introduction of pulp magazines in the early 1900s created new avenues for ghost stories to be published, they began to appear in publications such as Good Housekeeping and The New Yorker.
Ghosts in the classical world appeared in the form of vapor or smoke, but at other times they were described as being substantial, appearing as they had been at the time of death, complete with the wounds that killed them. Spirits of the dead appear in literature as early as Homer's Odyssey, which features a journey to the underworld and the hero encountering the ghosts of the dead, as well as the Old Testament in which the Witch of Endor calls the spirit of the prophet Samuel; the play Mostellaria, by the Roman playwright Plautus, is the earliest known work to feature a haunted dwelling, is sometimes translated as The Haunted House. Another early account of a haunted place comes from an account by Pliny the Younger. Pliny describes the haunting of a house in Athens by a ghost bound in chains, an archetype that would become familiar in literature. Ghosts appeared in the tragedies of the Roman writer Seneca, who would influence the revival of tragedy on the Renaissance stage Thomas Kyd and Shakespeare.
The One Thousand and One Nights, sometimes known as Arabian Nights, contains a number of ghost stories involving jinn and corpses. In particular, the tale of "Ali the Cairene and the Haunted House in Baghdad" revolves around a house haunted by jinns. Other medieval Arabic literature, such as the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity contain ghost stories; the 11th century Japanese work The Tale of Genji contains ghost stories, includes characters being possessed by spirits. In the mid-16th century, the works of Seneca were rediscovered by Italian humanists, they became the models for the revival of tragedy. Seneca's influence is evident in Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy and Shakespeare's Hamlet, both of which share a revenge theme, a corpse-strewn climax, ghosts among the cast; the ghosts in Richard III resemble the Senecan model, while the ghost in Hamlet plays a more complex role. The shade of Hamlet's murdered father in Hamlet has become one of the more recognizable ghosts in English literature.
In another of Shakespeare’s works, the murdered Banquo returns as a ghost to the dismay of the title character. In English Renaissance theatre, ghosts were depicted in the garb of the living and in armour. Armour, being out-of-date by the time of the Renaissance, gave the stage ghost a sense of antiquity; the sheeted ghost began to gain ground on stage in the 1800s because an armoured ghost had to be moved about by complicated pulley systems or lifts, became clichéd stage elements and objects of ridicule. Ann Jones and Peter Stallybrass, in Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory, point out, "In fact, it is as laughter threatens the Ghost that he starts to be staged not in armor but in some form of'spirit drapery'." An interesting observation by Jones and Stallybrass is that "at the historical point at which ghosts themselves become implausible, at least to an educated elite, to believe in them at all it seems to be necessary to assert their immateriality, their invisibility. The drapery of ghosts must now, indeed, be as spiritual as the ghosts themselves.
This is a striking departure both from the ghosts of the Renaissance stage and from the Greek and Roman theatrical ghosts upon which that stage drew. The most prominent feature of Renaissance ghosts is their gross materiality, they appear to us conspicuously clothed." Ghosts figured prominently in traditional
Gods and demons fiction
Gods and demons fiction is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that revolves around the deities and monsters of Chinese mythology. The term shenmo xiaoshuo, coined in the early 20th century by the writer and literary historian Lu Xun means "fiction of gods and demons". Works of shenmo fiction include The Investiture of the Gods. Shenmo first appeared in the Ming Dynasty as a genre of vernacular fiction, a style of writing based on spoken Chinese rather than Classical Chinese; the roots of the genre are found in traditional legends. Plot elements like the use of magic and alchemy were derived from Chinese mythology and religion, including Taoism and Buddhism, popular among Ming intellectuals; the Sorcerer's Revolt is an early demons novel attributed to Luo Guanzhong. In the story, Wang Ze begins a rebellion against the government with the aid of magic; the Four Journeys is another early shenmo work composed of four novels and published during the dynasty as a compilation of folk stories. The Story of Han Xiangzi, a Taoist novel from the same period shares this supernatural theme but contains heavier religious overtones.
The most well known examples of shenmo fiction are Journey to the West and The Investiture of the Gods. Journey to the West in particular is considered by Chinese literary critics as the chef-d'oeuvre of shenmo novels; the novel's authorship is attributed to Wu Cheng'en and was first published in 1592 by Shitedang, a Ming publishing house. The popularity of Journey to the West inspired a series of shenmo copycats that borrowed plot elements from the book. Works of gods and demons fiction drifted away from the purely fantastical themes of novels like Journey to the West. Shenmo novels carried more humanistic themes. During the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty, a subgenre of comedic shenmo had emerged; the grotesque exposés of the Qing dynasty reference the supernatural motifs of shenmo xiaoshuo, but in the Qing exposés, the division between the real and unreal is less clear cut. The supernatural is placed outside conventional fantasy settings and presented as a natural part of a realistic world, bringing about its grotesque nature.
This trait is embodied in the Journey to the West and other shenmo parodies of the late Qing dynasty. In A Ridiculous Journey to the West by Wu Jianwen, the protagonist Bare-Armed Gibbon, a more venal version of Sun Wukong, aids the Vulture King once he is unable to wring any money out of a penniless fish that the vulture had caught and dropped in a puddle; the monkey returns in another Wu Jianwen story, Long Live the Constitution, bickers with other characters from Journey to the West over a constitution for Heaven. The four main characters of Journey to the West, the monkey, Tang Sanzang, Zhu Bajie, Sha Wujing, travel to modern Shanghai in the New Journey to the West by Lengxue. In Shanghai, they mingle with prostitutes, suffer from drug addiction, play games of mahjong. Journey to the West was not the only demons novel lampooned. New Investiture of the Gods is a parody of Investiture of the Gods by Dalu, published as a guji xiaoshuo comedy. Novels in this subgenre include an expanded revision of The Sorcerer's Revolt, What Sort of Book Is This?, Romance of Devil Killing, Quelling the Demons.
Instead of focusing only on a supernatural realm, shenmo comedies used fantasy as a social commentary on the follies of the human world. Lu Xun theorized that the shenmo genre shaped the satirical works written in the Qing Dynasty; the genre influenced the science fantasy novels of the late Qing. Shenmo literature declined in the early 20th century; the generation of writers following the May Fourth Movement rejected fantasy in favor of literary realism influenced by the trends of 19th-century European literature. Chinese writers regarded fantasy genres like shenmo as superstitious and a product of a feudal society. Stories of gods and monsters were seen as an obstacle to the modernization of China and scientific progress; the writer Hu Shih wrote that the spells and magical creatures of Chinese fiction were more harmful to the Chinese people than the germs discovered by Louis Pasteur. Stories of the supernatural were denounced during the Cultural Revolution, an era when "Down with ox-ghosts and snake-spirits" was a popular Communist slogan.
Shenmo and other fantasy genres experienced a revival in Taiwan, Hong Kong, in Mainland China after the Cultural Revolution ended. Having returned to Chinese popular culture, fantasy has populated film, television and literature. Contemporary writers use supernatural themes to accentuate the otherworldly atmosphere of their works; the term shenmo xiaoshuo was coined by the writer and literary historian Lu Xun in his book A Brief History of Chinese Fiction, which has three chapters on the genre. The literary historian Mei Chun translates Lu Xun's term as "supernatural/ fantastic"; the term was adopted as a convention by the generations of Chinese literary critics that followed him. In their 1959 translation of Lu Xun's book, Gladys Yang and Yang Xianyi translate shenmo as "Gods and Devils". Lin Chin, a historian of Chinese literature, categorized the fantasy novels of the Ming dynasty as shenguai xiaoshuo, "novels of gods and strange phenomenon". Zhong Kui Wang, David Der-wei. Fin-de-siècle Splendor: Repressed Modernities of Late Qing Fiction, 1849-1911.
Stanford University Press. ISBN 978
Steampunk is a subgenre of science fiction or science fantasy that incorporates technology and aesthetic designs inspired by 19th-century industrial steam-powered machinery. Although its literary origins are sometimes associated with the cyberpunk genre, steampunk works are set in an alternative history of the 19th century's British Victorian era or American "Wild West", in a future during which steam power has maintained mainstream usage, or in a fantasy world that employs steam power; however and Neo-Victorian are different in that the Neo-Victorian movement does not extrapolate on technology while technology is a key aspect of steampunk. Steampunk most recognizably features anachronistic technologies or retrofuturistic inventions as people in the 19th century might have envisioned them, is rooted in the era's perspective on fashion, architectural style, art; such technology may include fictional machines like those found in the works of H. G. Wells and Jules Verne, or of the modern authors Philip Pullman, Scott Westerfeld, Stephen Hunt, China Miéville.
Other examples of steampunk contain alternative-history-style presentations of such technology as steam cannons, lighter-than-air airships, analogue computers, or such digital mechanical computers as Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine. Steampunk may incorporate additional elements from the genres of fantasy, historical fiction, alternate history, or other branches of speculative fiction, making it a hybrid genre; the first known appearance of the term steampunk was in 1987, though it now retroactively refers to many works of fiction created as far back as the 1950s or 1960s. Steampunk refers to any of the artistic styles, clothing fashions, or subcultures that have developed from the aesthetics of steampunk fiction, Victorian-era fiction, art nouveau design, films from the mid-20th century. Various modern utilitarian objects have been modded by individual artisans into a pseudo-Victorian mechanical "steampunk" style, a number of visual and musical artists have been described as steampunk.
Steampunk is influenced by and adopts the style of the 19th-century scientific romances of Jules Verne, H. G. Wells, Mary Shelley, Edward S. Ellis's The Steam Man of the Prairies. Several more modern works of art and fiction significant to the development of the genre were produced before the genre had a name. Titus Alone, by Mervyn Peake, is regarded by scholars as the first novel in the genre proper, while others point to Michael Moorcock's 1971 novel The Warlord of the Air, influenced by Peake's work; the film Brazil was an important early cinematic influence that helped codify the aesthetics of the genre. The Adventures of Luther Arkwright was an early comic version of the Moorcock-style mover between timestreams. In fine art, Remedios Varo's paintings combine elements of Victorian dress and technofantasy imagery. In television, one of the earliest manifestations of the steampunk ethos in the mainstream media was the CBS television series The Wild Wild West, which inspired the film. Although many works now considered seminal to the genre were published in the 1960s and 1970s, the term steampunk originated in the late 1980s as a tongue-in-cheek variant of cyberpunk.
It was coined by science fiction author K. W. Jeter, trying to find a general term for works by Tim Powers, James Blaylock, himself —all of which took place in a 19th-century setting and imitated conventions of such actual Victorian speculative fiction as H. G. Wells' The Time Machine. In a letter to science fiction magazine Locus, printed in the April 1987 issue, Jeter wrote: Dear Locus, Enclosed is a copy of my 1979 novel Morlock Night. Though of course, I did find her review in the March Locus to be quite flattering. I think Victorian fantasies are going to be the next big thing, as long as we can come up with a fitting collective term for Powers and myself. Something based on the appropriate technology of the era. While Jeter's Morlock Night and Infernal Devices, Powers' The Anubis Gates, Blaylock's Lord Kelvin's Machine were the first novels to which Jeter's neologism would be applied, the three authors gave the term little thought at the time, they were far from the first modern science fiction writers to speculate on the development of steam-based technology or alternative histories.
Keith Laumer's Worlds of the Imperium and Ronald W. Clark's Queen Victoria's Bomb apply modern speculation to past-age technology and society. Michael Moorcock's Warlord of the Air is another early example. Harry Harrison's novel A Transatlantic Tunnel, Hurrah! Portrays a British Empire of an alternative year 1973, full of atomic locomotives, coal-powered flying boats, ornate submarines, Victorian dialogue; the Adventures of Luther Arkwright was the first steampunk comic. In February 1980, Richard A. Lupoff and Steve Stiles published the first "chapter" of their 10-part comic strip The Adventures of Professor Thintwhistle and His Incredible Aether Flyer; the first use of the word in a title was in Paul Di Filippo's 1995 Steampunk Trilogy, consisting of three short novels: "Victoria", "Hottentots", "Walt and Emily", which imagine the replacement of Queen Victoria by a human/newt clone, an invasion of Massachusetts by Lovecraftian monsters, a love affair between