International Council on Archives
The International Council on Archives is an international non-governmental organization which exists to promote international cooperation for archives and archivists. It was set up in 1948, with Charles Samaran, the director of the Archives nationales de France, as chairman, membership is open to national and international organisations, professional groups and individuals. In 2015 it grouped together about 1400 institutional members in territories, its mission is to promote the conservation and use of the world's archives. ICA has close partnership links with UNESCO, is a founding member of the Blue Shield, which works to protect the world's cultural heritage threatened by wars and natural disasters, and, based in The Hague. ICA's mission statement reads: "The International Council on Archives is dedicated to the effective management of records and the preservation and use of the world's archival heritage through its representation of records and archive professionals across the globe. Archives are an incredible resource.
They are the documentary by-product of human activity and as such are an irreplaceable witness to past events, underpinning democracy, the identity of individuals and communities, human rights. But they are fragile and vulnerable; the ICA strives to protect and ensure access to archives through advocacy, setting standards, professional development, enabling dialogue between archivists, policy makers and users of archives. The ICA is a neutral, non-governmental organisation, funded by its membership, which operates through the activities of that diverse membership. For over sixty years ICA has united archival institutions and practitioners across the globe to advocate for good archival management and the physical protection of recorded heritage, to produce reputable standards and best practices, to encourage dialogue and transmission of this knowledge and expertise across national borders." The ICA is organized in thirteen regional branches with varying levels of activity, including the Caribbean branch, the Eastern and Southern Africa branch, the South and West Asian branch, the European branch and the Pacific Region branch.
The North American branch operates "virtually" and by contributions to meetings of the Society of American Archivists and the Association of Canadian Archivists. ICA has twelve professional sections, which provide much of the organization's archival content and activity, including the Section for Archival Education, the Section for Architectural Records, the Section for Business Archives, the Section for Archives of Literature and Art, the Section for Local and Territorial Archives, the Section on Sports Archives, the Section for Archives of Parliaments and Political Parties and the Section for University and Research Institutions, it is based in the Marais quarter of the 3rd arrondissement of Paris, rue des Francs-Bourgeois, in the premises of the French national archives. Member groups include the Arxivers sense Fronteres, among others. ICA publishes a review Comma, which appears once or twice a year and includes material in United Nations languages as well as German; every fourth year, ICA hosts its major International Congress.
In recent years, these have been held in Vienna, Kuala Lumpur and Seoul. The next ICA Congress will be held in Abu Dhabi in 2020; until 2011, ICA hosted the annual meetings of CITRA, the International Conference of the Round Table on Archives, which brought together heads of national archival institutions, presidents of national professional associations and the ICA sections and committees. The last three CITRA meetings were held in Malta. After the CITRA in Toledo, ICA replaced CITRA meetings with an annual conference; the first three annual conferences were in European venues: Brussels and Reykjavik. The venues for future annual conferences will be Mexico City in 2017, Yaoundé in 2018, Edinburgh in 2019, before the four-yearly Congress in Abu Dhabi in 2020. In 1993, the International Council on Archives approved the first draft of ISAD, intended to be a standard for elements that should be included in a finding aid register for archival documents produced by corporations and families. A revised version, known as ISAD2, was issued in 2000.
International Standard Archival Authority Record Records in Contexts List of archives Coordinating Council of Audiovisual Archives Association ICA website ICA European Branch web-page ICA European Branch Facebook page ICA Pacific Branch Recordkeeping for Good Governance Toolkit ICA Section for Archival Education - Training the Trainer Resource Pack ICA Section for International Organizations - Guide to the Archives of International Organizations ICA Section for Literary Archives blog ICA Section for Local Municipal and Territorial Archives - Constitution ICA Section for Professional Associations: A history of SPA by Didier Grange ICA Section for Professional Associations: SPA brochure on Advocacy
Polygonia c-album, the comma, is a food generalist butterfly species belonging to the family Nymphalidae. The angular notches on the edges of the forewings are characteristic of the genus Polygonia, why species in the genus are referred to as anglewing butterflies. Comma butterflies can be identified by their prominent orange and dark brown/black dorsal wings. To reduce predation, both the larval and adult stages exhibit protective camouflage, mimicking bird droppings and fallen leaves, respectively. During the stage of development, the larvae develop strong spines along their backs; the species is found in Europe, North Africa, Asia, contains several subspecies. Although the species is not migratory, the butterflies are strong fliers, resulting in an open population structure with high gene flow and increased genetic variation; the comma belongs to the largest family of butterflies with 13 subfamilies. Within the genus Polygonia, a sister-group relationship between P. c-album and P. faunus is supported by larval development analysis and synapomorphies.
In both species, the adults and larvae have similar polyphagous habits. The genus Polygonia is closely related to the genera Kanisha and Roddia, each containing a single species: K. canace and R. l-album. The comma inhabits areas including Europe, North Africa, Asia, it is a woodland butterfly, living in low-density forests with sunshine and moist soil. The species is found in the woodland, country lanes, garden areas of Norway and Great Britain; as a food generalist, or polyphagous species, comma butterflies can feed upon a variety of host plants, leading to widespread ranges across continents. In response to climate change, they are undergoing range expansion; the following subspecies are found in the indicated parts of the comma's range: P. c. c-album Europe P. c. imperfecta North Africa P. c. extensa western China, central China P. c. kultukensis Transbaikalia P. c. hamigera Ussuri P. c. koreana Korea P. c. sachalinensis Sakhalin P. c. asakurai Taiwan P. c. agnicula Nepal For comma butterflies, food resources consumed during development are the primary source of nitrogen and protein during adulthood.
Because they feed on plants, making them a phytophagous species, the quality of plants upon which the larvae feed is correlated with their future fitness. The larval form is divided into five developmental stages known as instars. Although during the first three instars larvae are observed to remain entirely upon the underside of leaves, the fourth and fifth instar larvae are more active in obtaining food resources; the instar larvae are specialized feeders and favor several host plants during the larval stage: Urtica dioica, Ulmus glabra, Salix caprea, R. uva-crispa, Betula pubescens. While pupal weight and overall larval survival rates are similar among larvae regardless of host plant, the larval development times differ significantly; as a result, larvae prefer feeding on plants that allow them to develop in the shortest amount of time. Larvae reared on U. dioica demand the shortest development time and is thus favored over other plants. On the other hand, B. pubescens is at the bottom of the host plant preference hierarchy.
Favoring plants in the family Urticaceae is speculated to have originated from the species’ ancestors, providing an explanation for larval preference for U. dioica. Within the U. dioica plant, larvae are not shown to differentiate between high quality and low quality nettles, a pattern expected of a polyphagous species. Comma butterflies have a polyandrous mating system where females mate with multiple males to receive the necessary amount of sperm to fertilize their eggs; the polyandrous female distributes her matings over her lifetime, so males' mating success increases proportionally to their lifespan. The mating success of both sexes is correlated to the duration of an individual's life, so no difference in mortality rates is observed between males and females. Females exercise mate choice before and after mating and can distinguish between males who were reared on high-quality versus low-quality host plants; the ability to recognize adults reared on higher quality host plants is selected for because males fed better plants during development provide superior nuptial gifts.
In comma butterflies, nuptial gifts are edible spermatophores containing spermatozoa and nutrients. When comparing the two common host plants U. dioica and S. caprea, females preferentially choose to mate with males reared on U. dioica, because these males have higher protein content and increased spermatophore production. Females preferentially mate with males which provide larger investments, in the form of nuptial gifts; when females mated with males with higher-quality nuptial gifts, they not only allocate more resources to egg production but use the resources to improve their own reproductive success. The investments can be used to increase female life expectancy, female maintenance, future reproduction. During each mating, males allocate a constant amount of investment towards each nuptial gift, indicating that male mate choice does not play a role in allocation of resources. Females recognize and select a host plant before laying their eggs upon it favoring host plants where larval development time is minimized.
Akin to the preferred host plants for larvae, females prefer plants in the order Urticales. Despite the overall preference for plants leading to short larval development, host plant preference variation between
Commer was a British manufacturer of commercial vehicles from 1905 until 1979. Commer vehicles included car-derived vans, light vans, medium to heavy commercial trucks, military vehicles and buses; the company designed and built some of its own diesel engines for its heavy commercial vehicles. This business belonged to Commercial Cars Limited a company incorporated in September 1905 by directors H C B Underdown and director of Direct United States Cable Co with H G Hutchinson a director of Royal Exchange Assurance to manufacture: commercial cars, charabancs, fire engines and every kind of industrial vehicle. In 1920, it was described as the first Company to specialise in the manufacture of internal combustion industrial commercial vehicles. In order to go into volume production a site was bought in September 1905 at Biscot Road, Luton. Construction of extensive new workshops began on the five acre site, complete by late 1906. Commercial Cars became a member of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders in August 1906.
It was one of the first manufacturers of commercial vehicles in the United Kingdom, its speciality being the Commer Car. At Olympia's Commercial Motor Show in March 1907, Commer exhibited a motor-bus chassis with a 30–36 horsepower engine and a gearbox invented by Mr Linley, the works manager. Dog-clutches made the change rather than the spur wheels; as well as the bus chassis Commer displayed a char-a-banc for thirty passengers and delivery vans being run by a substantial enterprise. A new "large and powerful" lorry, E43, registration BM 787, took part in the Great Commercial Motor Trials in September 1907, it had a constant mesh gearbox. Unladen weight was 3 tons 13 cwt, the engine had four-cylinders, its output was 33 horsepower at 800 rpm, it was driven by side chains. Length 20 feet, width just over seven feet and height two inches under six feet; the platform was twelve feet long. The newspaper noted. Production of the first truck, the 3-ton RC type started in 1907; this was modernized into the SC and so on through the YC range, known as the "Barnet" series of trucks.
Their first bus was made in 1909. With the outbreak of the First World War the factory turned to the manufacture of military vehicles for the British Army, by 1919 more than 3000 had been made. Though obliged to undergo financial restructure in 1920 in the hope of avoiding creditors, the business was unable to avoid repayment of a debt of £75,000 due to the Treasury, raised in order to pay 60 per cent Excess Profits Duty on wartime activities. After agreeing terms with the Receiver in 1925, Commer was bought in 1926 by Humber. In 1931 Humber became a 60-percent-owned subsidiary of the Rootes Group; the Commer name was replaced by the Dodge name during the 1970s, following the takeover of Rootes by Chrysler Europe. After Peugeot purchased Chrysler Europe in 1978, the Commer factory was run in partnership with the truck division of Renault, Renault Trucks. For some time, it continued to produce the Dodge commercial truck range with Renault badges, there was a small amount of product development.
Dodge production was cancelled in favour of mainstream Renault models, there was a switch to the production of Renault truck and bus engines in the early 1990s. Many Commer vans and lorries are notable for being fitted with the Rootes TS3 engine, a two-stroke diesel three-cylinder horizontally opposed piston engine, which came to be known as the "Commer Knocker" owing to the distinct noise it produced. Newer Commer vehicles had Perkins and Cummins diesel engines, less Mercedes diesel engines; the N-series was introduced in 1935, was used by the British armed forces in World War II. Production was not recommenced after the war. Cab-over and bonneted trucks were both fitted with petrol or diesel engines; the six-cylinder petrol engine was available in 4,086 cc versions. The Perkins Leopard diesel engine was available; the range included N as well as the lighter-duty LN range of trucks, as well as the PN-series of buses fitted with diesels. There was the 4/5 ton PLNF5 introduced in 1938; the LN was capable of carrying weights similar to those of the corresponding N-series trucks, but had a lower overall max weight and was "definitely not intended to carry an overload" - a tacit recognition of British truckers' habitual overloading of their trucks.
The LN-range was designed to operate within the 1930s 30 mph speed limit for heavier lorries. After the introduction of the 4/5-ton LN5, the 5½-ton N5 was discontinued. However, the market decreed otherwise and the N5's revival was announced in February 1938; the Commer Superpoise range was introduced in 1939, with both semi-forward and full-forward control options. The line included trucks of 1 1/2 to six tons capacity powered by 6-cylinder diesel engines. A new Superpoise range with payloads of between two and five tons was introduced in 1955. Commer produced buses and is recorded as delivering four to Widnes in 1909; the Commando was released after the Second World War, the Avenger on 28 February 1948, fitted with the TS3 engine from 1954. The Commando was used as a Crew Bus by the Royal Air Force following the Second World War with a 1 1/2 Length Observation deck; the Commer Light Pick-Up was
Kama means "desire, longing" in Hindu and Buddhist literature. Kama connotes sexual desire and longing in contemporary literature, but the concept more broadly refers to any desire, passion, pleasure of the senses, desire for, longing to and after, the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love, enjoyment of love is with or without enjoyment of sexual and erotic desire, may be without sexual connotations. Kama is one of the four goals of human life in Hindu traditions, it is considered an essential and healthy goal of human life when pursued without sacrificing the other three goals: Dharma and Moksha. Together, these four aims of life are called Puruṣārtha. Kama means "desire, wish or longing". In contemporary literature, kama refers to sexual desire. However, the term refers to any sensory enjoyment, emotional attraction and aesthetic pleasure such as from arts, music, painting and nature; the concept kama is found in some of the earliest known verses in the Vedas. For example, Book 10 of the Rig Veda describes the creation of the universe from nothing by the great heat.
There in hymn 129, it states: The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, one of the oldest Upanishads of Hinduism, uses the term kama in a broader sense, to refer to any desire: Ancient Indian literature such as the Epics, which followed the Upanishads and explain the concept of kama together with Artha and Dharma. The Mahabharata, for example, provides one of the expansive definitions of kama; the Epic claims kama to be any agreeable and desirable experience generated by the interaction of one or more of the five senses with anything congenial to that sense and while the mind is concurrently in harmony with the other goals of human life. Kama implies the short form of the word kamana. Kama, however, is more than kamana. Kama is an experience that includes the discovery of an object, learning about the object, emotional connection, the process of enjoyment and the resulting feeling of well-being before and after the experience. Vatsyayana, the author of the Kamasutra, describes kama as happiness, a manasa vyapara.
Just like the Mahabharata, Vatsyayana's Kamasutra defines kama as pleasure an individual experiences from the world, with one or more senses: ̨hearing, tasting and feeling—in harmony with one's mind and soul. Experiencing harmonious music is kama, as is being inspired by natural beauty, the aesthetic appreciation of a work of art, admiring with joy something created by another human being. Kama Sutra, in its discourse on kama, describes many forms of art and music, along with sex, as the means to pleasure and enjoyment. Pleasure enhances ourself appreciation of incense, candle’s, scented oil, yoga stretching and meditation, the experience of the heart chakra. Negativity and hesitation blocks the heart chakra, openness is impaired while attached to desires. Kamala in the heart chakra, is considered to be a seat of devotional worship. Opening the heart chakra is awareness of a divine communion and joy for communion with deities and the self. John Lochtefeld explains kama as desire, noting that it refers to sexual desire in contemporary literature, but in ancient Indian literature kāma includes any kind of attraction and pleasure such as those deriving from the arts.
Karl Potter describes kama as an capacity. A little girl who hugs her teddy bear with a smile is experiencing kama, as are two lovers in embrace. During these experiences, the person connects and identifies the beloved as part of oneself and feels more complete and whole by experiencing that connection and nearness. This, in the Indian perspective, is kāma. Hindery notes the diverse expositions of kama in various ancient texts of India; some texts, such as the Epic Ramayana, paint kama through the desire of Rama for Sita — a desire that transcends the physical and marital into a love, spiritual, something that gives Rama his meaning of life, his reason to live. Sita and Rama both express their unwillingness and inability to live without the other; this romantic and spiritual view of kama in the Ramayana by Valmiki is quite different, claim Hindery and others, than the normative and dry description of kama in the law codes of smriti by Manu for example. Gavin Flood explains kama as "love" without violating dharma and one's journey towards moksha.
In Hinduism, kama is regarded as one of the four proper and necessary goals of human life, the others being Dharma and Moksha. Ancient Indian literature emphasizes that dharma is essential. If dharma is ignored and kama lead to social chaos. Vatsyayana in Kama Sutra recognizes relative value of three goals as follows: artha precedes kama, while dharma precedes both kama and artha. Vatsyayana, in Chapter 2 of Kama Sutra, presents a series of philosophical objections argued against kama and offers his answers to refute those objections. For example, one objection to kama, acknowledges Vatsyayana, is this concern that kāma is an obstacle to moral and ethical life, to religious pursuits, to hard work, to productive pursuit of prosperity and wealth; the pursuit of pleasure, claim objectors, encourages individuals to commit unrighteous deeds, bring distress