Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī, better known by his pen-name Saadi known as Saadi of Shiraz, was a major Persian poet and prose writer of the medieval period. He is recognized for the depth of his social and moral thoughts. Saadi is recognized as one of the greatest poets of the classical literary tradition, earning him the nickname "Master of Speech" or "The Master" among Persian scholars, he has been quoted in the Western traditions as well. Bustan is considered one of the 100 greatest books of all time according to The Guardian. Saadi was born in Shiraz, according to some, shortly after 1200, according to others sometime between 1213 and 1219. In the Golestan, composed in 1258, he says in lines evidently addressed to himself, "O you who have lived fifty years and are still asleep", it seems. He narrates memories of going out with his father as a child during festivities. After leaving Shiraz he enrolled at the Nizamiyya University in Baghdad, where he studied Islamic sciences, governance, Arabic literature, Islamic theology.
In the Golestan, he tells us. In the Bustan and Golestan Saadi tells many colourful anecdotes of his travels, although some of these, such as his supposed visit to the remote eastern city of Kashgar in 1213, may be fictional; the unsettled conditions following the Mongol invasion of Khwarezm and Iran led him to wander for thirty years abroad through Anatolia, Syria and Iraq. In his writings he mentions the qadis, muftis of Al-Azhar, the grand bazaar and art. At Halab, Saadi joins a group of Sufis. Saadi was captured by Crusaders at Acre where he spent seven years as a slave digging trenches outside its fortress, he was released after the Mamluks paid ransom for Muslim prisoners being held in Crusader dungeons. Saadi visited Jerusalem and set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, it is believed that he may have visited Oman and other lands in the south of the Arabian Peninsula. Because of the Mongol invasions he was forced to live in desolate areas and met caravans fearing for their lives on once-lively silk trade routes.
Saadi lived in isolated refugee camps where he met bandits, men who owned great wealth or commanded armies and ordinary people. While Mongol and European sources gravitated to the potentates and courtly life of Ilkhanate rule, Saadi mingled with the ordinary survivors of the war-torn region, he sat in remote tea houses late into the night and exchanged views with merchants, preachers, wayfarers and Sufi mendicants. For twenty years or more, he continued the same schedule of preaching and learning, honing his sermons to reflect the wisdom and foibles of his people. Saadi's works reflect upon the lives of ordinary Iranians suffering displacement and conflict during the turbulent times of the Mongol invasion. Saadi mentions honey-gatherers in Azarbaijan, fearful of Mongol plunder, he returns to Persia where he meets his childhood companions in Isfahan and other cities. At Khorasan Saadi befriends a Turkic Emir named Tughral. Saadi joins him and his men on their journey to Sindh where he meets Pir Puttur, a follower of the Persian Sufi grand master Shaikh Usman Marvandvi.
He refers in his writings about his travels with a Turkic Amir named Tughral in Sindh and Central Asia. Tughral hires Hindu sentinels. Tughral enters service of the wealthy Delhi Sultanate, Saadi is invited to Delhi and visits the Vizier of Gujarat. During his stay in Gujarat, Saadi learns more about the Hindus and visits the large temple of Somnath, from which he flees due to an unpleasant encounter with the Brahmans. Katouzian calls this story "almost fictitious". Saadi came back to Shiraz before 1257 CE / 655 AH. Saadi mourned in his poetry the fall of Abbasid Caliphate and Baghdad's destruction by Mongol invaders led by Hulagu in February 1258; when he reappeared in his native Shiraz, he might have been in his late forties. Shiraz, under Atabak Abubakr ibn Sa'd ibn Zangi, the Salghurid ruler of Fars, was enjoying an era of relative tranquility. Saadi was not only welcomed to the city but was shown great respect by the ruler and held to be among the greats of the province; some scholars believe that Saadi took his nom de plume from the name of Abubakr's son, Sa'd, to whom he dedicated the Golestan.
Some of Saadi's most famous panegyrics were composed as a gesture of gratitude in praise of the ruling house and placed at the beginning of his Bustan. The remainder of Saadi's life seems to have been spent in Shiraz; the traditional date for Saadi's death is between 1291 an
Jayanto Nath Chaudhuri
General Jayanto Nath Chaudhuri, OBE was an Indian four-star general who served as the Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army from 1962 to 1966 and the Military Governor of Hyderabad State from 1948 to 1949. After his retirement from the Indian Army, he served as the Indian High Commissioner to Canada from 19 July 1966 until August 1969. Chaudhuri was born into an aristocratic and distinguished Bengali family which produced many renowned lawyers and writers, his family were the Zamindars of Haripur and the family was known as the Chaudhuris of Haripur in the province of Bengal, British India. Chaudhuri's paternal grandfather, Durgadas Chaudhuri, was the landlord of Chatmohar Upazila of Pabna district of present-day Bangladesh, his paternal grandmother, Sukumari Devi, was a sister of the nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Chaudhuri's mother, Pramila Chaudhuri, was the daughter of Womesh Chandra Bannerjee, the first president of the Indian National Congress. Other members of Chaudhuri's family were distinguished in their fields law and literature.
Indeed, all six of his father's elder brothers, namely Sir Ashutosh Chaudhuri, Jogesh Chaudhuri, Kumudnath Chaudhuri, Pramathanath Chaudhuri, Capt. Manmathanath Chaudhuri and Dr. Suhridnath Chaudhuri, were distinguished on their own right. Two of them were married to their first cousins, the nieces of Rabindranath Tagore, the others were married to women from distinguished Bengali families; the pioneering Indian actress, Devika Rani, was Chaudhuri's first cousin, being the daughter of his father's brother, Manmathnath Chaudhuri. Among Chaudhuri's other close relatives were Barrister Kumud Nath Chaudhuri and Raisahib Babu Narendra Krishna Talukdar, Zamindar of Maligacha and honorary first class magistrate for Pabna District, Rajshahi. Noted writer Pramatha Chaudhuri, who married a niece of Nobel laureate poet Rabindranath Tagore, was his uncle. Chaudhuri studied at St. Xavier's College, Calcutta of the University of Calcutta in the city of Kolkata, he studied at Highgate School in London, from May 1923 until July 1926, the Royal Military College, Sandhurst.
At Sandhurst, he got his nickname, "Muchhu". He was commissioned from Sandhurst as a second lieutenant onto the Unattached List, Indian Army on 2 February 1928. Returning to India, he was attached to the 1st battalion North Staffordshire Regiment from 19 March 1928, he was accepted for the Indian Army and joined the 7th Light Cavalry on 19 March 1929. In 1934, he attended the course at the Equitation Saugor, he attended the Staff course at Command and Staff College, Quetta from December 1939 to June 1940. In 1940, as an acting major, he went overseas on the staff of the 5th Infantry Division and saw service in Sudan, Eritrea and the western deserts of Africa. For his services, he was Mentioned in Dispatches on 30 December 1941, for distinguished services in the Middle East Feb to July 1941, again on 30 June 1942 for the same from July to October 1941, he was awarded the OBE on 18 February 1943 for gallant and distinguished services in the Middle East between May to Oct 1942. Recalled to India, he was appointed as a senior Instructor at the Command and Staff College, Quetta as a GSO-1 in 1943.
In August 1944 he was transferred to the 16th Light Cavalry. A temporary Lieut-Colonel, he commanded this unit from September 1944 to October 1945 in Burma for which he was twice more Mentioned in Dispatches, for gallant and distinguished services in Burma and for gallant and distinguished services in Burma. At the end of the Burma campaign, he saw service in French Indochina and in Java, Indonesia with his regiment. In 1946, he was promoted to the temporary rank of Brigadier with the war-substantive rank of lieutenant-colonel, in Charge of Administration in British Malaya and in the same year was selected to command the Indian Victory Contingent to London. Following a course at the Imperial Defence College in London in 1947, he returned to India and was appointed Director of Military Operations & Intelligence at Army Headquarters in New Delhi in November 1947. Chaudhuri worked with Major General Mohite to complete military evacuation from Pakistan, he had to organise the Kashmir war effort up to May 1948, when he was succeeded by the Brig.
Sam Manekshaw as DMO and Chand Narayan Das as Director of Military Intelligence. In February 1948, he was promoted to acting Major General and became the officiating Chief of the General Staff. In May 1948, he took over command of the 1st Armoured Division which played a major role in the 1948 Hyderabad Operations. Following Operation Polo in 1948, he was appointed as the Military Governor of Hyderabad State. In the years following, he occupied important military posts and led an Indian Military Delegation to China. In 1949, he was appointed as the first Colonel Commandant of the Electrical & Mechanical Engineers, was promoted to substantive brigadier on 1 January 1950. In January 1952, he was appointed as the Adjutant General, Army HQ, as a substantive major-general, in January 1953, he again took over as the Chief of the General Staff, he was promoted to local lieutenant-general on 16 December 1955 and given command of a corps, with promotion to substantive lieutenant-general on 8 May 1957.
He was appointed GOC-in-C Southern Command on 25 May 1959. The debacle of the Sino-Indian War and subsequent government inquiries revealing India's military unpreparedness and mismanagement
General Sir Walter Pipon Braithwaite, was a British Army officer who held senior commands during the First World War. After being dismissed from his position as Chief of Staff for the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, he received some acclaim as a competent divisional commander on the Western Front. After the war, he was commissioned to produce a report analysing the performance of British staff officers during the conflict. Braithwaite was born in the son of the Reverend William Braithwaite and Laura Elizabeth Pipon, he was the youngest of twelve children. He was educated at Victoria College between 1875 and 1880, at Bedford School between 1880 and 1884. Braithwaite studied at the Royal Military College and was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Somerset Light Infantry on 3 January 1886, he was promoted to captain on 8 November 1894. He served in the Second Boer War, seeing action at Ladysmith, Spion Kop, Vaal Krantz and Tugela Heights, he was mentioned in despatches three times and in a South Africa honours list received the brevet rank of major on 29 November 1900.
Staying in South Africa until the war ended, he only returned to the United Kingdom on the SS Briton three months in September 1902. After his return he was on in early October posted to Southern Command as a deputy assistant quartermaster-general on the staff of Sir Evelyn Wood, General Officer in Command of the 2nd Army Corps. In 1906, Braithwaite was promoted to major, transferred to The Loyal North Lancashire Regiment, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel, served as an instructor at the Staff College, Camberley. In 1909, he was assigned to the staff of Douglas Haig at the War Office, promoted to colonel, he was subsequently named commandant of the Staff College, Quetta, a position he still held at the outbreak of the First World War. At this point, the college was closed, he was again transferred to the War Office, this time as Director of Staff Duties. In 1915, during the First World War, he was appointed Chief of Staff for the Mediterranean Expedition, commanded by Ian Hamilton, he was regarded by many of the Australians involved in that effort as "arrogant and incompetent".
After the failure of the Mediterranean expedition, Braithwaite was recalled to London. He was assigned to command of the 62nd Division, a Territorial Force formation, posted to France in January 1917. Here he experienced considerable success. Although the division struggled to make headway during the Battle of Arras, it proved a solid and reliable unit during the German Spring Offensive the following year. Following success in repelling German advances at Bullecourt and Cambrai, he was given command of IX Corps on 13 September 1918 and XII Corps. On 29 September 1918 Braithwaite's IX Corps was on the southern front line at the village of Bellenglise facing the canal, when the order came from Haig to attack through the Hindenburg Line; the assault was much more successful than earlier American efforts, encountering as they did, multiple gas attacks. The spearhead was led by the 46th Division; as Major H. J. C. Marshall, a divisional staff officer, recorded they were not expected to advance far, leaving that to the Americans and Australians to their left.
If they could not get a foothold they were had orders to swim across the canal in ice cold water. But divisional HQ had spared no effort to find all necessary equipment to achieve the objective, they advanced one hour than the Americans under a hail of machine gun bullets and "cyclone of shells". A thick fog came down helping to mask them from German sight. Pushing on through the dawn's early light, a battalion of the North Staffordshire Regiment overran the German machine gun positions. 5,000 German prisoners of war were taken. For the first time in the war the attack had been an outstanding success. Brathwaite received plaudits from Rawlinson; the 46th Division recovered over 1,000 machine guns. Weeks King George V visited Bellenglise, the site where the Hindenburg Line was breached by a Territorial unit. Braithwaite was devastated by his son's death on 1 July 1916, the first day of the Battle of the Somme. Having no heir, he burnt all his family papers; as successes emerged in late 1918, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force on the Western Front, was effusive in praise of his officer's and men's achievement, showing the friendship and esteem for which he was held by General Braithwaite all his life.
After the war, Braithwaite was commissioned by Haig to produce a report evaluating the performance of British staff officers in all theatres of the conflict. Although the decision-making abilities of many staff officers had been questioned during the war, Braithwaite's report was favourable, he became General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Western Command, India in 1920, General Officer Commanding-in-Chief at Scottish Command in 1923, General Officer Commanding-in Chief at Eastern Command in 1926 before being appointed Adjutant-General to the Forces in 1927. In 1928 he was in charge of arranging Douglas Haig's funeral, he retired in 1931. He served as a commissioner of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission from 1927 to 1931, as Governor of the Royal Hospital Chelsea from 1931 to 1938, as King of Arms of the Order of the Bath from 1933 until his death, he died at his home in Rotherwick on 7 September 1945. Braithwaite married in 1895 Jessie Ashworth, with whom he had Valentine. BibliographyEdmonds, Sir John.
Military Operations: France and Belgium 1914–1918. I, II, III, IV. London: Macmillan. Edmonds
Mirza Aslam Beg
General Mirza Aslam Beg LOM, NI, HI), SBt, TeJ known as M. A. Beg, is a retired four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who served as its Chief of Army Staff from 1988 until his retirement in 1991, his appointment as chief of army staff came when his predecessor, President General Zia-ul-Haq, died in an air crash on 17 August 1988. Beg's tenure witnessed Benazir Bhutto as being elected Prime Minister in November 1988, the restoration of democracy and the civilian control of the military in the country. Controversial accusations were leveled against him of financing the Islamic Democracy Alliance, the conservative and right-wing opposition alliance against left-wing PPP, rigging subsequent general elections in 1990; as a result of general elections, Nawaz Sharif was elected Prime Minister in 1990, but fell out with Beg when the latter recommended support for Iraq during the Gulf War. Beg was denied an extension from President Ghulam Ishaq Khan soon after in 1991, replaced by General Asif Nawaz as chief of army staff.
Apart from his military career, Beg tenured as professor of security studies at the National Defence University and writes columns in The Nation. Beg's post-retirement has been characterized by controversies: first, Beg was accused of playing an internal role in the airplane crash that killed President Zia, second, he was summoned to the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 2012 for his alleged role in releasing the financial funding to the conservative politicians as opposed to the Pakistan Peoples Party's politicians during the general elections held in 1990. Mirza Aslam Beg was born in the small village, Muslimpatti, in Azamgarh district, Uttar Pradesh in British India, to the Urdu-speaking family, well known for its Mughal nobility, on 2 August 1931, his father, Mirza Murtaza Beg, was an advocate and practicing lawyer who had hold a well known prestige and respected name in the law circles of the Allahabad High Court. The Beg family had traced a long ancestral roots of the Mughal Royal family who once were emperors of India from the early 15th century to the early 18th century.
He was educated at the Azamgarh where he graduated from a local high school and enrolled at the Shibli National College for his undergraduate studies, in 1945. Subsequently, he earned Bachelor of Arts degree in Liberal Arts from Shibli National College in 1949. During his college years, Mirza played collegiate field hockey and was vital member of his hockey team which consisted Muslims. According to his memories, Beg sought revenge on a Hindu politician belonging to Congress Party after the politician had beaten up a member of his hockey team. Egged on by a mob of students, Beg used his hockey stick to beat up the politician at a public meeting; this incident came after his graduation from college in 1949, Beg's family decided to move to Pakistan in 1949 after the Indian partition in 1947. The Beg family set sailed for Karachi from Mumbai via Pakistan Navy ship in 1949, his elder brother was a commissioned officer in the Pakistan Army and encouraged young Beg to follow his path to seek a career in the army.
Beg recalled his memoirs to his Indian interviewer and called Pakistan as "my dream country". In 1950, Beg was accepted at the Pakistan Military Academy in Kakul, graduating from a class of 6th PMA Long Course in 1952. In 1952, he gained commissioned as 2Lt. in the 16 Baloch Regiment of Pakistan Army and assisting the command of an infantry platoon. From 1952–1958, he progressed well towards the military ranks, having been promoted to army lieutenant in 1956, he received recommendations from his field commanding officer for the selection by the special branch to join the special forces, departed to the United States in 1958 to complete the special forces training with the U. S. Army Special Forces in Fort Bragg, North Carolina. In 1960, Major Beg returned to Pakistan, joined the elite Army Special Service Group commanding a company that specialized in military infiltration. Major Beg was deployed in Western Pakistan, in areas adjacent to Afghanistan, where his first combat experience took place when he led his company in removing the Nawab of Dir in Chitral in North-West Frontier Province.
In 1965, Major Beg served well in the second war with India and led the Special Forces team against the Indian Army/ In 1967, Major Beg was promoted as Lieutenant-Colonel sent to attend the National Defence University to continue his higher education, alongside with then-Lieutenant-Colonel Zahid Ali Akbar, an engineering officer from the Corps of Engineers. After attending the Armed Forces War College and graduated with MSc in Strategic studies in 1971, Lt. Col. Beg was stationed in East-Pakistan to serve as a military adviser to the Eastern Command led by its GOC-in-C, Lieutenant-General A. A. K. Niazi. Upon arriving and observing the military deployments and actions, Lt. Col. Beg became critical of Gen. Niazi's strategy and became involved in acrimonious argument with his Gen. Niazi's staff in Dacca, having been critical of armed forces interference in the political events in East, his open mindedness and arguments with his senior officer led his transfer back to Pakistan and was threatened with facing the court martial.
In 1971, he commanded an infantry regiment in third war with India but was sent back to attend the National Defence University where he became more involved with his studies. In 1971–72, he earned his MSc in War Studies and publishing his thesis, entitled: "A journey of pain and fear" which provide critical analysis of state sponsored terrorism and its effects on geo-military positions of the countries. Lt. Col. Beg left the special forces
University of Balochistan
The University of Balochistan known as Balochistan University, is a public university located in the downtown area of Quetta, Pakistan. The University of Balochistan was established in June 1970 through an ordinance issued by the Governor of Balochistan. In June 1996, the Provincial Assembly of Balochistan passed the University of Balochistan Act 1996, thus the University of Balochistan became the sole general university of the province, imparting higher education in arts, science and humanities. After dissolution of One Unit, 200 acres of land, along with the teaching and residential structures built to house the College for Mineral Technology, were handed over to the University of Balochistan; the following are the authorities of the University: The Senate The Syndicate The Academic Council The Board of Faculties The Board of Studies The Selection Board The Advanced Studies and Research Board The Finance and Planning Committee The Affiliation Committee The Discipline Committee The university started with three departments, Physics and Geology in 1971 but now it has 46 departments.
The University has 5 centers. Fine Arts Department was established in March 1984 with four faculty members, Jamal Shah, Faryal Gohar, Akram Dost and Kaleem Khan; the department offered a certificate course. Fine Arts Department deals with painting, drawing and graphic art as well as historical theories of human development through the ages; the department plays important role in introducing Balochistan's heritage and its indigenous art and architecture. Since the civilization of Mehrgarh is a great source of inspiration for researchers and provide linkage with the other world of art and craft; the Department of Fine Arts provides a facility to study in depth the cultural heritage of Balochistan. The University has established computer science department to promote IT. Here is the list of faculties and respective departments/programs: 1. Faculty of Management Sciences and Information Sciences Commerce Institute of Management Sciences Economics Department of Computer Science & Information Technology Library and Information Science2.
Faculty of Social Science Political Science Sociology Social work International Relations Law Pakistan Study Centre Balochistan Study Centre Disaster Management and Development Studies3. Faculty of Education & Humanities Media & Journalism Gender Studies History Philosophy Psychology Fine Arts Islamic Studies Area study centre Institute of Education And Research4. Faculty of Literature & Languages Balochi Brahvi English Language English Literature Pashto Persian Urdu Literature5. Faculty of Basic Sciences Physics Chemistry Mathematics Statistics6. Faculty of Earth & Environment Sciences Geology Geography Environmental Science Center of Excellence in Mineralogy7. Faculty of Life Sciences Physiotherapy Bio-Chemistry Botany Zoology Pharmacy Microbiology Center for Advance Studies in Vaccinology and Bio-Technology The university has a constituent law college and 88 affiliated colleges including: Balochistan Agriculture College Bolan Medical College Command and Staff College, Quetta Balochistan Agriculture College List of universities in Pakistan Official website Quetta Results website University of Balochistan info on HEC, Pakistan's website
M. A. G. Osmani
Muhammad Ataul Gani Osmani known as Bangabir, was the commander-in-chief of the Bangladesh Forces during the 1971 Bangladesh War of Independence. Osmani's career spanned five decades, beginning with service in the British Indian Army in 1939, he fought in Burma during World War II, served in the Pakistan Army until 1967. Osmani was appointed head of the Bengali armed resistance in 1971 by the Provisional Government of Bangladesh, he is regarded as the founder of the Bangladesh Armed Forces. General Osmani retired in 1972. Osmani entered politics in independent Bangladesh, serving as a member of parliament and cabinet minister in the government of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, he resigned from the government after he opposed the creation of BAKSAL. Osmani is credited with introducing Kazi Nazrul Islam's "Chol Chol Chol" as Bangladesh's national march. Osmani was born to a landowning family in Sunamganj, Assam Province, British India, on 1 September 1918, he was a descendant of a 14th-century associate of Shah Jalal.
His ancestral village is in Dayamir Union within Osmani Nagar Upazila of Sylhet District. Osmani attended the Cotton School in Sylhet, matriculating at the Sylhet Government Pilot High School in 1934, he won the Pritoria Prize for excellence in English. Osmani studied geography at Aligarh Muslim University, graduated in 1938, he enrolled as a cadet at the Indian Military Academy the following year. When he joined the British Indian Army, Osmani was a member of the 4th Urban Infantry from 1939 to 1940, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant artillery officer in October 1940. Osmani was attached to the 2nd Battalion, Duke of Wellington Regiment, tasked with a New Delhi depot. After he completed the Short Mechanical Transport Course and Junior Tactical Course, he was attached to a mechanical transport battalion of the XV Corps and posted in Burma during World War II. Osmani was promoted to temporary captain on 17 February 1941, received a battlefield promotion to temporary major on 23 May 1942.
Between 1941 and 1945, he held the posts of platoon commander, battalion adjutant, company 2IC and battalion commander. From November 1944 to February 1945, Osmani was a grade-two general staff officer at his formation headquarters, completing the Senior Officers Course after the war, he was attached to British Indian Army HQ Bihar and Orissa Area from May to July 1946 before attending the Senior Officers Course. When Osmani completed the course in February 1947, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel, he was posted to British Indian Army GHQ in Simla in the Quartermaster General and Ordnance Branches until August 1947, from August to 6 October 1947 as GSO-2 at the HQ of Claude Auchinleck in New Delhi. Although Osmani had passed the Indian Civil Service examination, he declined a foreign-service position in 1947 to remain with the Pakistan Army, he witnessed the end of the British Indian Army, representing Pakistan during the division of army assets between India and Pakistan. After the 1947 birth of India and Pakistan in 1947 following the departure of Lord Mountbatten, Governor-General of British India, Osmani joined the Pakistan Army on 7 October 1947 and was promoted to acting lieutenant colonel on 7 January 1948.
He was assigned to general-staff headquarters as GSO-1, Coordination and Personnel. Osmani attended the Long Term Staff Course at the Quetta Staff College and served with Yahya Khan, Tikka Khan and A. A. K. Niazi, all of whom led the Pakistan Army against his Bangladesh forces in 1971. After completing the course, Osmani joined the staff of army chief of staff Reginald Hutton in January 1949 and recommended the establishment of cadet colleges in East Pakistan, he became an assistant adjutant general. After serving as a staff officer for eight years, Osmani joined the Pakistan Army infantry. With a rank of major and after induction training, he joined the 5/14 Punjab, he was posted as 2IC and company commander of the 5th Punjab Battalion of the 14th Punjab Regiment, part of a brigade commanded by Ayub Khan, in 1950. Osmani became commander of the 105th Brigade Training Team in January 1951 and commander of the 5/14 Punjab in May, followed by a four-month tour of duty in Kashmir and Waziristan.
Osmani disagreed with Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army Gen. Ayub Khan over the treatment of Ishfakul Majid, the senior Bengali army officer in, falsely accused in the Rawalpindi conspiracy and forced to resign. In August 1951 Osmany left 5/14 Punjab and was posted as third CO of the 1st East Bengal Regiment, the first Bengali to hold the post, in October. Osmani became the CO of the 1st East Bengal Regiment, stationed in Jessore as part of the 107th Brigade, on 8 November 1951, he chose Bengali songs for regimental marching and its band, the Bratachari became the regimental dance. Osmani ordered his NCOs to submit the daily situation report in Bangla; the display of Bengali culture was frowned on by his Punjabi superiors, who disliked the adoption of what they saw as Hindu culture. Osmani was commandant of the East Bengal Regimental Center in Chittagong from February 1953 to January 1955, he commanded the 107th Brigade in Jessore from April to October 1953, rejoining 1 EBR as CO until February 1954.
After Osmani completed the GHQ law course and left the EBRC, he became an additional commandant of the East Pakistan Rifles under the provincial governmen
William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim
Field Marshal William Joseph Slim, 1st Viscount Slim known as Bill Slim, was a British military commander and the 13th Governor-General of Australia. Slim saw active service in both the First and Second World Wars and was wounded in action three times. During the Second World War he led the 14th Army, the so-called "forgotten army" in the Burma campaign. After the war he became the first British officer who had served in the Indian Army to be appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff. From 1953 to 1959 he was Governor-General of Australia and is regarded by many Australians as an authentic war hero who had fought with the Anzacs at Gallipoli. In the early 1930s, Slim wrote novels, short stories, other publications under the pen name Anthony Mills. William Slim was born at 72 Belmont Road, St Andrews, the son of John Slim by his marriage to Charlotte Tucker, was baptised there at St Bonaventure's Roman Catholic church, Bishopston, he was brought up first in Bristol, attending St Bonaventure's Primary School St Brendan's College, before moving to Birmingham in his teens.
In Birmingham, he attended St Philip's Grammar School and King Edward's School. After leaving school, his father's failure in business as a wholesale ironmonger meant that the family could afford to send only one son, Slim's older brother, to the University of Birmingham, so between 1910 and 1914 Slim taught in a primary school and worked as a clerk in Stewarts & Lloyds, a metal-tube maker. Despite having no other connection to the university, in 1912 Slim joined the Birmingham University Officers' Training Corps, he was thus able to be commissioned as a temporary second lieutenant into the Royal Warwickshire Regiment on 22 August 1914, on the outbreak of the First World War, he was badly wounded at Gallipoli. On return to England, he was granted a regular commission as a second lieutenant in the West India Regiment. In October 1916, he rejoined the Royal Warwickshire Regiment in Mesopotamia. On 4 March 1917, he was promoted to lieutenant, he was wounded a second time in 1917. Having been given the temporary rank of captain, he was awarded the Military Cross on 7 February 1918 for actions in Mesopotamia.
Evacuated to India, he was given the temporary rank of major in the 6th Gurkha Rifles on 2 November 1918. He was formally promoted to captain and transferred to the Indian Army on 22 May 1919. Slim became battalion adjutant with the 6th Gurkha Rifles in 1921. On 1 January 1926, he married Aileen Robertson, daughter of Rev John Anderson Robertson minister of Cramond near Edinburgh, they had one daughter. That year Slim was sent to the Staff College, Quetta. On 5 June 1929, he was appointed Second Grade. On 1 January 1930, he was given the brevet rank of major, with formal promotion to this rank made on 19 May 1933, his performance at Staff College resulted in his appointment first to Army Headquarters India in Delhi and to Staff College, Camberley in England, where he taught from 1934 to 1937. During this period, he wrote novels, short stories, other publications under the pen name of Anthony Mills, in order to further his literary interests, as well as to supplement his modest army salary. Attending the Imperial Defence College in 1937, the following year he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and given command of the 2nd Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles.
In 1939 he was given the temporary rank of brigadier as commander of his battalion. On 8 June 1939, he was promoted to colonel and appointed head of the Senior Officers' School, Belgaum in India. On the outbreak of the Second World War, Slim was given command of the 10th Indian Infantry Brigade of the 5th Indian Infantry Division and was sent to Sudan, he took part in the East African Campaign to liberate Ethiopia from the Italians. Slim was wounded again during the fighting in Eritrea. On 21 January 1941, Slim was hit. Recovering from his wounds but still unfit for active service, Slim was temporarily employed on the General Staff at GHQ in Delhi, he was involved in the planning for potential operations in Iraq. By early May 1941 Slim had been appointed Brigadier General Staff to Edward Quinan the commander designate for operations in Iraq, arriving in Basra on 7 May. Not long afterwards, Major-General Fraser, commanding Indian 10th Infantry Division, fell ill and was relieved of his command, Slim was promoted to take his place on the 15 May 1941 in the acting rank of major-general.
He led the Indian 10th Infantry Division as part of Iraqforce during the Anglo-Iraqi War, the Syria-Lebanon Campaign, the invasion of Persia. He was twice mentioned in despatches during 1941. In March 1942, Slim was given command of Burma Corps known as BurCorps, consisting of the 17th Indian Infantry Division and 1st Burma Division. Slim was made acting lieutenant general on 8 May 1942; the corps was under attack in Burma by the Japanese and outclassed by the more mobile and flexible Japanese, was soon forced to withdraw to India. On 28 October 1942, Slim was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire. Slim took over XV Corps under the command of the Eastern Army, his command covered the coastal approaches from Burma to India, east of Chittagong. He had a series of disputes with Noel Irwin, commander of Eastern Army an