A squadron in air force, army aviation, or naval aviation is a unit comprising a number of military aircraft and their aircrews of the same type with 12 to 24 aircraft, sometimes divided into three or four flights, depending on aircraft type and air force. Land based squadrons equipped with heavier type aircraft such as long-range bombers, cargo aircraft, or air refueling tankers have around 12 aircraft as a typical authorization, while most land-based fighter equipped units have an authorized number of 18 to 24 aircraft. In naval aviation, sea-based and land-based squadrons will have smaller numbers of aircraft, ranging from as low as four for early warning to as high as 12 for fighter/attack. In most armed forces, two or more squadrons will form a wing; some air forces use the term "squadron" for non-flying ground units. In the United States Air Force, the squadron is the principal organizational unit. An aggregation of two or more USAF squadrons will be designated as a group and two or more groups will be designated as a wing.
USAF squadrons may be flying units composed of pilots and flight crews, with designations such as fighter squadron, bomb squadron, or airlift squadron. Fighter squadrons may support between 18 and 24 aircraft, while larger aircraft flying squadrons may support fewer aircraft. However, non-flying units exist at the squadron level, such as missile squadrons, aircraft maintenance squadrons, intelligence squadrons, aerospace medicine squadrons, security forces squadrons, civil engineering squadrons and force support squadrons, as well as numerous other examples. USAF flying squadrons are commanded by an aeronautically rated officer in the rank of lieutenant colonel, although some large squadrons, such as the 414th Combat Training Squadron that manages RED FLAG training at Nellis AFB, Nevada will be commanded by an aeronautically rated officer in the rank of full colonel. Non-flying squadrons are usually commanded by an officer in the rank of lieutenant colonel, but some may be commanded by officers in the rank of major.
In contrast to the organizational structure of United States Air Force units, where flying squadrons are separate from non-flying squadrons tasked with administrative, aircraft maintenance, or other support functions, flying squadrons in naval aviation in the United States contain both embedded administrative support functions and organizational level aircraft maintenance functions, plus all their associated personnel, as part of the total squadron manning. With few exceptions, oversight of the majority of these non-flying functions is assigned to the squadron's naval aviators and naval flight officers as their "ground job" in addition to their regular flying duties. With few exceptions, most U. S. Navy flying squadrons are commanded by aeronautically designated officers in the rank of commander. Exceptions are the Fleet Replacement Squadrons, which are though not always, commanded by aeronautically designated captains. Commanding officers of U. S. Navy flying squadrons other than FRS units will be assisted by an Executive Officer of the same rank who functions as a second-in-command and who will "fleet up" and relieve the CO as the next CO.
In United States Marine Corps Aviation, in addition to flying units that are patterned in similar fashion to their U. S. Navy counterparts, the nomenclature "squadron" in the Marine Corps is used to designate all battalion-equivalent, aviation support organizations; these squadrons include: wing headquarters, tactical air command, air control, air support, aviation logistics, wing support, wing communications squadrons. In contrast to their USN counterparts, USMC flying squadrons and aviation support squadrons, while having a commanding officer at the lieutenant colonel level, may not have an equivalent rank executive officer, but are moving more toward the USN model. USMC aviation squadron XOs are aeronautically designated officers in the rank of Major. In contrast to USAF flying squadrons, most tactical sea-based and land-based U. S. Naval Aviation squadrons, vice training squadrons and test and evaluation squadrons do not have more than 12 aircraft authorized/assigned at any one time. Exceptions are USN helicopter mine countermeasures squadrons, USMC "composite" medium tilt-rotor squadrons assigned afloat as the Aviation Combat Element of a Marine Expeditionary Unit.
Other squadrons with a large number of Primary Aircraft Assigned include Marine heavy helicopter squadrons, Marine light/attack helicopter squadrons, Marine attack squadrons. Although part of U. S. naval aviation, United States Coast Guard aviation units are centered on an air station or air facility versus a squadron or group/wing organizational structure. The one exception to this is the Coast Guard's Helicopter Interdiction Squadron, engaged in counter-narcotics interdiction operations. In the United States Army Aviation Branch, flying units may be organized in battalions or squadrons reporting to an aviation brigade. Aircraft maintenance activities are a
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard; the President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States. From the time of its inception, the U. S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force, it played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States.
The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U. S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense. The U. S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel, it draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1973, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U. S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service. On February 22, 2019, however, a federal judge ruled that registering only males for Selective Service is unconstitutional.
As of 2017, the U. S. spends about US$610 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the U. S. constitutes 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U. S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States; the U. S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U. S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force; the history of the U. S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States; the Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784; the United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors; the 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The President is the U. S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief; the United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947. S. Signal Corps, formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952. On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. If approved, this would become the sixth military service branch to be created. Command over the U. S. Armed Forces is established in the Constitution; the sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief. The Constitution presumes the existence of "executive Departments" headed by "principal officers", whose appointment mechanism is provided for in the Appointments Clause; this allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a civilian and member of the Cabinet.
The Defense Secretary is second in the U. S. Armed Forces chain of command, with the exception of the Coast Guard, under the Secretary of Homeland Security, is just below the President and serves as the
Scrambled egg (uniform)
Scrambled eggs or scrambled egg is a slang term for the leaf-shaped embellishments found on the visors of peaked caps worn by military officers and for the senior officers who wear them. The phrase is derived from the resemblance that the emblems have to scrambled eggs when the embellishments are gold in color. Today the "scrambled eggs" emblem, in one form or another, has been adopted by the majority of the world's navies. Exceptions include the French Navy and Italian armed forces, which use embroideries or different varieties of chin straps on the officers' cap bands to indicate seniority. Although the use of the term is principally military, some civilians have similar embellishments on the peaks or visors of their hats. In the British Armed Forces, in the armed forces of several other Commonwealth countries, scrambled egg is a nickname for the gold braid on the peak of senior officers' peaked caps, by extension a nickname for an officer. Flag officers, general officers, air officers have two rows of golden oak leaves, while commodores and commanders, brigadiers and colonels, group captains have one row.
Amongst the one-star ranks. As Navy commodores are not classified as flag officers and Army brigadiers are not general officers, they only have one row of golden oak leaves. However, the equivalent Air Force rank of air commodore is classified as an air officer and hence has two rows of golden oak leaves. Disparities exist at the OF-4 rank level with Navy commanders having one row of golden oak leaves whereas their Army and RAF counterparts do not have any embellishments on their peaks. In the United States armed forces, "scrambled eggs" is the nickname for the golden oak leaf embellishments on the bills of dress hats worn by field grade and general officers in the rank and grade of major or higher in the Army and Marine Corps, senior and flag officers in the rank and grade of commander or higher in the Navy and Coast Guard; the embellishments are on the service caps of chief warrant officer 3 to chief warrant officer 5. Thus, Army CW-3 to CW-5 officers have the embellished visors while Army O-1 to O-3 officers, who hold a higher rank, do not.
Major and higher ranks in the Air Force wear silver clouds and lightning bolts in lieu of oak leaves, sometimes referred to as "farts and darts". The difference in grades when an officer assumes the wearing of embellishments is peculiar to the individual customs and traditions of each service, i.e. the Navy and Coast Guard consider the grade of O-4 to be a junior officer rank versus a senior officer, while the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps consider it to be a field grade officer rank. At the flag or general officer level, O-7 and higher, additional embellishments are added to distinguish them from the USN/USCG senior officer and United States/USAF/USMC field grade officer ranks. "Scrambled eggs" is used to nickname the leaf-shaped visor decorations on the peaked caps of merchant ships' captains and airline pilots. By convention this is reserved to Captains or Deputy-Captains, in contrast to the Anglo-American naval traditions, where officers of Commander rank and above are entitled to it. Moreover, in the case of airline pilots, such "leaves", may be oak-leaf or laurel-leaf, may be gold or silver in colour, depending on individual airline uniform.
Law enforcement and public safety Many American police chiefs and command staff law enforcement officers such as assistant chiefs and majors may wear scrambled eggs on their ball caps or dress covers' visors. Additionally, fire chiefs, rescue squad chiefs, assistant chiefs, senior fire marshals and other senior ranking personnel such as battalion chiefs may wear scrambled eggs on the visors of their ball cap and dress cover visors In 1969, the Seattle Pilots of MLB's American League wore caps with gold scrambled eggs on the visor; the team failed financially and moved to Milwaukee to become the Milwaukee Brewers. This was the only time in the history of major league baseball. RAF slang
An officer of one-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-6. The term is used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. One-star officers hold the rank of commodore, flotilla admiral, brigadier general, brigadier, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air commodore. Officers of one-star rank are either the most junior of the flag and air officer ranks, or are not considered to hold the distinction at all. In many navies, one-star officers are not considered to be flag officers, although this is not always the case; the army and air force rank of brigadier general is, by definition, a general officer rank. However, the equivalent rank of brigadier is not designated as a general officer; the air force rank of air commodore is always considered to be an air-officer rank. In the Australian Defence Force the following ranks of commissioned officers are awarded one-star ranks: Commodore Brigadier Air commodore Commodore Brigadier-general/brigadier-général The maple leaf appears with St. Edward's crown and crossed sabre and baton.
Before unification in 1968, the rank of air commodore was the one-star rank equivalent for the Royal Canadian Air Force, brigadier for the Canadian Army. Army and Air Force: Brigadegeneral Generalarzt Generalapotheker Navy: Flottillenadmiral Admiralarzt Admiralapotheker Air commodore Brigadier Commodore Deputy inspector-general Brigadir Jendral - Indonesian Army, Indonesian Marine Corps and Indonesian National Police one-star rank Laksamana Pertama - Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Maritime Security Agency one-star rank Marsekal Pertama - Indonesian Air Force one-star rank Air commodore Brigadier Commodore Deputy Inspector General of Police Deputy Inspector General of Prisons Brigadier General Brigadier General Commodore Commodore Police Chief Superintendent Fire Chief Superintendent Jail Chief Superintendent Commodore Brigadier Air commodore Rear admiral Brigadier general In the modern naval services of Belgium, Denmark and Sweden, the one-star rank is flotilla admiral. Ranks and insignia of NATO Two-star rank
New York City Police Department
The City of New York Police Department, more known as the New York Police Department and its initials NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the City of New York, New York in the United States. Established on May 23, 1845, the NYPD is one of the oldest police departments in the United States, is the largest police force in the United States; the NYPD headquarters is at 1 Police Plaza, located on Park Row in Lower Manhattan across the street from City Hall. The department's mission is to "enforce the laws, preserve the peace, reduce fear, provide for a safe environment." The NYPD's regulations are compiled in title 38 of the New York City Rules. The New York City Transit Police and New York City Housing Authority Police Department were integrated into the NYPD in 1995 by New York City Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani. In June 2004, there were about 45,000 sworn officers plus several thousand civilian employees; as of December 2011, that figure increased to over 36,600, helped by the graduation of a class of 1,500 from the New York City Police Academy.
As of Fiscal Year 2018, the NYPD's current authorized uniformed strength is 38,422. There are approximately 4,500 Auxiliary Police Officers, 5,000 School Safety Agents, 2,300 Traffic Enforcement Agents, 370 Traffic Enforcement Supervisors employed by the department; the Police Benevolent Association of the City of New York, the largest municipal police union in the United States, represents over 50,000 active and retired NYC police officers. The NYPD has a broad array of specialized services, including the Emergency Service Unit, K9, harbor patrol, air support, bomb squad, counter-terrorism, criminal intelligence, anti-gang, anti-organized crime, public transportation, public housing; the NYPD Intelligence Division & Counter-Terrorism Bureau has officers stationed in 11 cities internationally. In the 1990s the department developed a CompStat system of management which has since been established in other cities; the NYPD has extensive crime scene investigation and laboratory resources, as well as units which assist with computer crime investigations.
The NYPD runs a "Real Time Crime Center" a large search engine and data warehouse operated by detectives to assist officers in the field with their investigations. A Domain Awareness System, a joint project of Microsoft and the NYPD, links 6,000 closed-circuit television cameras, license plate readers, other surveillance devices into an integrated system. Due to its high-profile location in the largest city and media center in the United States, fictionalized versions of the NYPD and its officers have been portrayed in novels, television, motion pictures, video games; the Municipal Police were established in 1845. Mayor William Havemeyer shepherded the NYPD together, originating the phrase "New York Finest." In 1857, it was tumultuously replaced by a Metropolitan force. Twentieth-century trends struggles against corruption. Officers begin service with the rank of "probationary police officer," referred to as "recruit officer". After successful completion of five and a half to six months, sometimes longer of Police Academy training in various academic and tactical training, officers graduate from the Police Academy.
While retaining the title of "probationary police officer,"" graduates are referred to as a "police officer," or informally as a "rookie", until they have completed an additional 18 month probationary period. There are three career "tracks" in the NYPD: supervisory and specialist; the supervisory track consists of nine sworn titles, referred to as ranks. Promotion to the ranks of sergeant and captain are made via competitive civil service examinations. After reaching the civil service rank of captain, promotion to the ranks of deputy inspector, deputy chief, assistant chief and chief of department is made at the discretion of the police commissioner. Promotion from the rank of police officer to detective is discretionary by the police commissioner or required by law when the officer has performed eighteen months or more of investigative duty; the entry level appointment to detective is third specialist. The commissioner may grant discretionary grades of second and first; these grades offer compensation equivalent to that of supervisors.
A second grade detective's pay corresponds to a sergeant's and a first grade detective's pay corresponds to a lieutenant's. Detectives are police officers who perform investigatory duties but have no official supervisory authority. A "detective first grade" still falls above. Just like detectives and lieutenants can receive pay grade increases within their respective ranks. ^ †: Uniform rank that has no police powers There are two basic types of detective in the NYPD: "detective-investigators" and "detective-specialists". Detective-investigators are the type most people associate with the term "detective" and are the ones most portrayed on television and in the movies. Most police officers gain their detective title by working in the Narcotics Division of the Detective Bureau. Detectives assigned to squads are co-located within each precinct and are responsible for investigating murders, robberies and other crimes within that precinct's boundaries. Other detective-investigators are assigned to specialized units at either the major command or citywide level, investigating terrorist groups, organized crime, narcotics dealing, ext
An officer of two-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-7. The term is used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Two-star officers hold the rank of rear admiral, counter admiral, major general, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air vice-marshal. In the Australian Defence Force the following ranks of commissioned officers are awarded two-star ranks: Rear admiral Major general Air vice-marshal General de Brigada Contra Almirante Brigadeiro The two-star rank in Brazil is the first rank in a general career; the officers in this position are brigade commanders. Rear-admiral Major general Rather than stars, the Canadian Forces insignia use maple leaves; the maple leaves crossed sabre and baton. Before unification, air vice marshal was the two-star rank for the RCAF; the equivalent modern German two-star ranks of the Bundeswehr are as follows: Generalmajor and Konteradmiral Generalstabsarzt and AdmiralstabsarztNot to be confused with Generalmajor and Vizeadmiral of the Wehrmacht until 1945 and of the National People's Army of East Germany until German reunification in 1990.
Air vice-marshal Major-general Rear admiral Inspector-general Major Jendral - Indonesian Army and Indonesian Marine Corps two-star rank Laksamana Muda - Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Maritime Security Agency two-star rank Marsekal Muda - Indonesian Air Force two-star rank Inspektur Jenderal - Indonesian National Police two-star rank Major-general Air vice-marshal Rear admiral Additional inspector general of police Inspector General of Prisons, Additional inspector general of police Air vice-marshal Major-general Rear admiral Major General Major General Rear Admiral Rear Admiral Police Director Fire Director Jail Director Rear admiral Major general Air vice marshal Rear admiral Major general In the Russian and Soviet armies, the rank wearing two stars is lieutenant-general, however the general in charge of a unit equivalent to the one led by a NATO two-star general is major-general. This applies to the air force, MVD, police, FSB and some others, is caused by a Russian brigades being commanded by colonel, with the smallest unit commanded by a general being a division.
In the navy, the equivalent rank is kontr-admiral. Ranks and insignia of NATO Three-star rank One-star rank
San Francisco Police Department
The San Francisco Police Department is the city police department of the City and County of San Francisco, California. The department's motto is the same as that of the city and county: Oro en paz, fierro en guerra, Spanish for Gold in peace, iron in war; the SFPD should not be confused with the San Francisco Sheriff's Department, another county law enforcement agency within San Francisco. The SFPD serves an estimated population of 1.2 million, including the daytime-commuter population and the thousands of other tourists and visitors, in the second most densely populated large city in North America. It is the 11th largest police department in the United States; the SFPD began operations on August 13, 1849, during the Gold Rush under the command of Captain Malachi Fallon. At the time, Chief Fallon had a force of three sergeants and 30 officers. In 1851, Albert Bernard de Russailh wrote about the nascent San Francisco police force: As for the police, I have only one thing to say; the police force is made up of ex-bandits, the members are interested above all in saving their old friends from punishment.
Policemen here are quite as much to be feared as the robbers. You pay them well to watch over your house, they set it on fire. In short, I think that all the people concerned with justice or the police are in league with the criminals; the city is in a hopeless chaos, many years must pass before order can be established. In a country where so many races are mingled, a severe and inflexible justice is desirable, which would govern with an iron hand. On October 28, 1853, the Board of Aldermen passed Ordinance No. 466, which provided for the reorganization of the police department. Sections one and two provided as follows: The People of the City of San Francisco do ordain as follows: Sec. 1. The Police Department of the City of San Francisco, shall be composed of a day and night police, consisting of 56 men, each to be recommended by at least ten tax-paying citizens. Sec. 2. There shall be one Captain and one assistant Captain of Police, who shall be elected in joint convention of the Board of Aldermen and assistant Aldermen.
The remainder of the force, viz. 54 men, shall be appointed as follows: By the Mayor, 2. In July 1856, the "Consolidation Act" went into effect; this act abolished the office of City Marshal and created in its stead the office of Chief of Police. The first Chief of Police elected in 1856 was James F. Curtis a former member of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance; the SFPD is known for being one of the pioneering forces for modern law enforcement, beginning in the early 1900s. In early August 1975, the SFPD went on strike over a pay dispute, violating a California law prohibiting police from striking; the city obtained a court order declaring the strike illegal and enjoining the SFPD back to work. The court messenger delivering the order was met with violence and the SFPD continued to strike. Only managers and African-American officers remained on duty, with 45 officers and three fire trucks responsible for a city population of 700,000. Supervisor Dianne Feinstein pleaded Mayor Joseph Alioto to ask Governor Jerry Brown to call out the National Guard to patrol the streets but Alioto refused.
When enraged civilians confronted SFPD officers at the picket lines, the officers arrested them. Heavy drinking on the picket line became common and after striking SFPD officers started shooting out streetlights, the ACLU obtained a court order prohibiting strikers from carrying their service revolvers. Again, the SFPD ignored the court order. On August 20 a bomb detonated at the Mayor's Presidio Terrace home with a sign reading "Don't Threaten Us" left on his lawn. On August 21 Mayor Alioto advised the San Francisco Board of Supervisors that they should concede to the strikers' demands; the Supervisors unanimously refused. Mayor Alioto then declared a state of emergency, assumed legislative powers, granted the strikers' demands. City Supervisors and taxpayers sued but the court found that a contract obtained through an illegal strike is still enforceable. In 1997, the San Francisco International Airport Police merged with SFPD, becoming the SFPD Airport Bureau. Prior to officers carrying the SIG Sauer pistols the Beretta Model 96GT, the.40 caliber version of the well known Beretta 92 was carried by officers starting in the early to mid 1990's replacing.38 Special 6 shot revolvers.
Which made SFPD one of the last large agencies in California to adopt semi-automatic pistols. As of September 8, 2011, ground was broken for San Francisco's new Public Safety Building in Mission Bay. A replacement facility for the San Francisco Police Department Headquarters and Southern District Police Station, the PSB contains a fire station to serve the burgeoning neighborhood. In 2014, the San Francisco Police Academy graduated its first publicly reported transgender police officer, Mikayla Connell. A new study conducted by the California Policy Lab and researchers at the University of California, found that after the San Francisco Police Department doubled its foot patrols last year, it resulted in a reduction by about 16% in larceny theft and 19% in assaults across the city and 10 police station districts; the San Francisco Police Department is led by a Chief of Police, appointed by the Mayor of San Francisco. The chief works with two assistant chiefs and five deputy chiefs dir