Timeline of World War II (1943)
This is a timeline of events that occurred during World War II in 1943. 1: German 1st Panzer Division withdraws from the Terek River area in southern Russia to prevent encirclement. 2: Americans and Australians recapture Buna, New Guinea. 7: Japanese land more troops at Lae, New Guinea. 9: United States Western Task Force redesignated I Armored Corps. 10: Soviet troops launch an all-out offensive attack on Stalingrad. 14: The Casablanca Conference of Allied leaders begins. Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt discuss the eventual invasion of mainland Europe, the impending invasion of Sicily and Italy, the wisdom of the principle of "unconditional surrender". 15: The British start an offensive aimed at taking far-off Tripoli, Libya. 16: Iraq declares war on the Axis powers.: The Royal Air Force begins a two-night bombing of Berlin. 18: The Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto rise up for the first time, starting the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.: Besieged defenders of Leningrad link up with relieving forces.
19: General Georgy Zhukov is promoted to Marshal as the Stalingrad struggle grinds to a close. 20: USS Silversides attacks a Japanese convoy 286 miles from Truk, Caroline Islands en route to the Solomon Islands, sinking transport Meiu Maru and damaging Surabaya Maru. 21: Last airfield at Stalingrad is taken by Red Army forces, ensuring that the Luftwaffe will be unable to supply German troops any further. Shortly after and his forces surrender to Soviet forces, the first time a German Field Marshal is lost to surrender and thus captured by the enemy.: Red Army armies have more victories in the Caucasus. 22: Allies liberate Sanananda, New Guinea. 23: British capture Tripoli, Libya.: Japanese continue their fight in western Guadalcanal. 24: The Casablanca Conference ends. 25: United States XIV Corps arrives in Pacific Theater. 26: Soviet troops retake Voronezh. 27: 50 bombers mount the first all American air raid against Germany. Wilhelmshaven, the large naval base, is the primary target. 28: A new conscription law in Germany: men between 16 and 65 and women between 17 and 50 are open to mobilization.: George Zhukov awarded the first Order of Suvorov 1st Class.
29: The naval battle of Rennell Island, near Guadalcanal, begins. The Japanese beat the Americans and the USS Chicago is lost.: Another two-day bombing of Berlin by the RAF. 30: The last Japanese have cleared out of Guadalcanal by a brilliant evacuation plan undetected by the Americans. 31: Friedrich Paulus and his staff surrender to Soviet troops in Stalingrad. 2: In the Soviet Union, the Battle of Stalingrad comes to an end with the official surrender of the German 6th Army. The German public is informed of this disaster, marking the first time the Nazi government has acknowledged a failure in the war effort.: Rommel retreats farther into Tunisia, establishing his troops at the Mareth Line. Within two days, Allied troops move into Tunisia for the first time. 5: The Allies now have all of Libya under their control.: Essen is bombed, marking the beginning of a four-month attack on the Ruhr industrial area. 7: In the United States, it is announced that shoe rationing will go into effect in two days.
8: The Chindits under British General Orde Wingate begin an incursion into Burma.: Nuremberg is bombed.: United States' VI Corps arrives in North Africa. 9: Guadalcanal is secured. 11: U. S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower is selected to command the Allied armies in Europe. 13: Rommel launches a counter-attack against the Americans in western Tunisia. The Battle of the Kasserine Pass begins: inexperienced American troops are soon forced to retreat. 14: Rostov-on-Don is liberated by the Red Army. 16: Soviet Union reconquers Kharkov, but is driven out in the Third Battle of Kharkov.: Prime Minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval and Minister of Justice Joseph Barthélemy formally create the Service du travail obligatoire 18: In a speech at the Berlin Sportpalast German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels declares a "Total War" against the Allies. 21: Americans take the Russell Islands, part of the Solomons chain. 22: Hans and Sophie Scholl of the White Rose movement are executed. 22: Japanese POWs refuse to work at Featherston prisoner of war camp.
26: Rommel retreats northward from the Mareth Line in Tunisia. 28: Operation Gunnerside: six Norwegians led by Joachim Rønneberg attack the heavy water plant Vemork. 1: Heinz Guderian becomes the Inspector-General of the Armoured Troops for the German Army. 2: Battle of the Bismarck Sea. U. S. and Australian naval forces, over the course of three days, sink eight Japanese troop transports near New Guinea.: Wingate's Chindits continue their localised strikes in Burma. 5: German advances around Kharkov threaten earlier Red Army gains.: Continued RAF bombing of the Ruhr valley Essen. 6: Battle of Medenine, Tunisia. It is Rommel's last battle in Africa. 8: Continuing German counter-attacks around Kharkov. 9: Members of the Calcutta Light Horse carry out a covert atta
Timeline of World War II (1941)
This is a timeline of events that stretched over the period of World War II from 1941, marked by the beginning of Operation Barbarossa on the Eastern Front. 1: Accounting of the previous night's bombing of London reveals that the Old Bailey, the Guildhall, eight churches by Christopher Wren were destroyed or badly damaged.: RAF bombs aircraft factories in Bremen, Germany. 2: German bombers off course, bomb Irish Free State for the second night in a row. 2–4: Bardia is bombed by British bombers and bombarded by naval vessels off shore. 3: RAF bombers attack the Kiel Canal in Germany. The Kiel Canal Bridge collapses on Finnish ship Yrsa. 5: Operation Compass: Australian troops of XIII Corps capture Italian-held Bardia and 45,000 Italian prisoners are taken.: Tobruk, the next target, is 70 miles away. The leader of Wallonia's fascist party, Léon Degrelle, gives a speech in the German-occupied city of Liège announcing the support of the Rexist Party for German Nazism.6: The Greeks advance towards Klisura Pass.
7: British and Commonwealth offensive in North Africa nears Tobruk. 10: Lend-Lease introduced into the U. S. Congress.: German–Soviet Border and Commercial Agreement is signed.: German aircraft damage aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious, heading for Malta. German Luftwaffe, has command of air over the Mediterranean; the attack is the opening of Malta's agony over the next months.: Greek forces in Albania take the strategically important Klissoura pass. 11: In London, 57 people are killed and 69 injured when a German bomb lands outside the Bank of England, demolishing the Underground station below and leaving a 120-foot crater. 12: Operation Compass: British and Australian troops of XIII Corps prepare for the assault on Italian-held Tobruk. 13: Heavy Luftwaffe night raid on Plymouth. 14: First use of "V for Victory" by Victor de Laveleye on the BBC's Belgian service, Radio Belgique. 15: The rivalry between Chinese Nationalists and Chinese Communists becomes more evident. 16: British forces start the first attacks of their East African counter-offensive, on Italian-held Ethiopia, from Kenya.: German bombers pound Valletta, HMS Illustrious is hit again.
17: The Battle of Ko Chang ended in a decisive victory for the Vichy French naval forces during the Franco-Thai War.: Molotov meets German Ambassador Schulenburg in Moscow. The Soviets are surprised that they have not received any answer from Germany to their offer to join the Axis. Schulenburg replies that it has to be first discussed with Japan. 18: Air raids on Malta are increasing in focus and intensity. 19: The 4th and 5th Indian Divisions continue the British counter-offensive in East Africa, attacking Italian-held Eritrea from the Sudan.: Hitler and Mussolini meet at Berchtesgaden. 21: Operation Compass: British and Australian troops of XIII Corps complete capture of Italian-held Tobruk.: There are reports that Romanian Fascist are executing Jews in Bucharest. 23: HMS Illustrious damaged, leaves Malta for repairs in Alexandria.: Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U. S. Congress and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler 24: British forces in Kenya continue the East African counter-offensive, attacking Italian Somaliland.
29: Death of the Greek dictator, Ioannis Metaxas. 30: British forces in North Africa take Derna. 31: Indian 4th Division flanks and captures Agordat, Italian East Africa. 1,000 Italian troops and 43 field guns are captured. 1: Admiral Husband Kimmel is appointed the Commander of the US Navy in the Pacific. 3: Lieutenant-General Erwin Rommel is appointed head of "German Army troops in Africa." This unit is to be designated as the "Afrika Korps.": Germany forcibly restores Pierre Laval to office in Vichy. 7: Operation Compass: After several days of desperate fighting, a flying column of XIII Corps called Combe Force cuts off the retreating Italian 10th Army during the Battle of Beda Fomm. The Italians are unable to break through the small blocking force and the British accept the surrender of 130,000 Italians in and to the south of Benghazi. 8: US House of Representatives passes the Lend-Lease bill. 9: Mussolini is informed that German reinforcements are on the way to North Africa.: British forces reach El Agheila, Cyrenaica.: British battleships shell Genoa and British aircraft attack Livorno.: Churchill again pleads with the US: "give us the tools."
10: Malta's critical period: now through March, it is under heavy daily attack. 11: Elements of the Afrika Korps start to arrive in Tripoli, Tripolitania.: British forces enter Italian Somaliland. 14: Rommel arrives in Tripoli.: Afrika Korps starts to move eastward towards the advance British positions at El Agheila. The British in North Africa have been weakened by the transfer of some troops to Greece. 15: Deportation of Austrian Jews to ghettos in Poland begins. 19: The start of the "three nights Blitz" of Swansea, South Wales. Over these three nights of intensive bombing, Swansea town centre is completely obliterated. 20: German and British troops confront each other for the first time in North Africa—at El Agheila in western Libya. 21: German forces move through Bulgaria toward the Greek front. 24: German U-boat offensive in the Atlantic is now successful.: Admiral Darlan is appointed the head of the Vichy government in France. 25: The British submarine Upright sinks the Italian cruiser Armando Diaz in one of the numerous sea battles in the North African campaign.: Mogadishu, the capital of Italian Soma
Declarations of war during World War II
This is a timeline of formal declarations of War during World War II. A declaration of war is a formal act; the declaration is an act of delivering a performative speech or the presentation of a signed document by an authorized party of a national government in order to create a state of war between two or more sovereign states. The official international protocol for declaring war was defined in The Hague Peace Conference of 1907. For the diplomatic maneuvering behind these events, which led to hostilities between nations during World War II, see the article entitled Diplomatic history of World War II. Below is a table showing the outbreak of wars between nations which occurred during World War II. Indicated are the dates; the table shows both the "Initiator Nation" and the nation at which the aggression was aimed, or "Targeted Nation". Events listed include those in which there were simple diplomatic breaking of relations that did not involve any physical attack, as well as those involving overt declarations or acts of aggression.
In rare cases, war between two nations occurred twice, with an intermittent period of peace. The list here does not include peace periods of any armistice. Table Legend: Concerning Declaration of War: A = Attack without prior, formal declaration of war. Harman, Nicholas. Dunkirk: the Necessary Myth. Jove. ISBN 978-0340517857. German White Book. All World Wars. Hitler, Adolph; the Great Tragedy: Germany's Declaration of War against the United States of America. ISBN 978-1300127703. Torrie, Julia S.. "For Their Own Good": Civilian Evacuations in Germany and France, 1939–1945. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1845457259
Timeline of World War II (1939)
This is a timeline of events that stretched over the period of World War II. For events preceding September 1, 1939, see the timeline of events preceding World War II. 1: The Republic of China and the Empire of Japan are involved in the early stages of the third year of armed conflict between them during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The war is in what will be known as the "Second Period", which starts in October 1938 and ends in December 1941; this conflict will be swept up into World War II when Japan joins the Axis and China joins the Allies. 1: The Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany starts at 4:45 a.m. with the Luftwaffe attacking several targets in Poland. The Luftwaffe launches air attacks against Kraków, Łódź, Warsaw. Within five minutes of the Luftwaffe attacks, Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine orders the old Battleship Schleswig-Holstein to open fire on the Polish military transit depot at Westerplatte in the Free City of Danzig on the Baltic Sea, but the attack is repulsed. By 8:00 a.m. troops of the German Army, still without a formal declaration of war issued, launch an attack near the Polish town of Mokra.
1: Norway and Switzerland declare their neutrality. 1: The British government declares general mobilization of the British Armed Forces and starts evacuation plans in preparation of German air attacks. 2: The United Kingdom and France issue a joint ultimatum to Germany, requiring German troops to evacuate Polish territory. 2: The National Service Act 1939 is enacted and enforces full conscription on all males between 18 and 41 resident in the UK. 2: The Free City of Danzig is annexed by Germany. Resistors entrenched in the city's Polish Post Office are overwhelmed. 3: At 11:15 a.m. British Standard Time, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announces on BBC Radio that the deadline of the final British ultimatum for the withdrawal of German troops from Poland expired at 11:00am and that "consequently this nation is at war with Germany". Australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany within hours of Britain's declaration. 3: At 12:30pm BST the French Government delivers a similar final ultimatum.
112 passengers and crew members are killed. The "Battle of the Atlantic" starts. 3: Bromberg massacre: many ethnic German civilians are killed in the Polish city of Bromberg. 4: At 8:00 a.m. Newfoundland Standard Time, Dominion of Newfoundland declares war on Germany. 4: In the first British offensive action of the war, the Royal Air Force launch a raid on the German fleet in the Heligoland Bight. They target the German pocket-battleship Admiral Scheer anchored off Wilhelmshaven at the western end of the Kiel Canal. Several aircraft are lost in the attack and, although the German vessel is hit three times, all of the bombs fail to explode. 4: Japan announces its neutrality in the European situation. The British Admiralty announces the beginning of a naval blockade on Germany, one of a range of measures by which the British will wage economic warfare on the Axis powers. 4: The United States launches the Neutrality Patrol. 5: South African Prime Minister Barry Hertzog fails to gain support for a declaration of South African neutrality and is deposed by a party caucus for Deputy Prime Minister Jan Smuts.
5: The United States publicly declares neutrality. 6: South Africa, now under Prime Minister Jan Smuts, declares war on Germany. 6: Battle of Barking Creek, a friendly fire incident, results in the first RAF fighter pilot fatality of the war. 6: The German army occupies Kraków in the south of Poland. 7: France begins a token offensive, moving into German territory near Saarbrücken. 7: The National Registration Act 1939 is passed in Britain introducing identity cards and allowing the government to control labour. 8: The British Government announces the re-introduction of the convoy system for merchant ships and a full-scale blockade on German shipping. 9: The French Saar Offensive stalls at the mined Warndt Forest having advanced 8 miles into defended German territory. 10: After passing both Houses of the Canadian parliament by unanimous consent and receiving Royal Assent by the Governor General of Canada, Lord Tweedsmuir, Canada declares war on Germany on September 10th. 11: Viceroy of India Lord Linlithgow announces to the two houses of the Indian Legislature that due to India's participation in the war, the plans for the Federation of India under the Government of India Act 1935 will be indefinitely postponed.
12: General Gamelin orders a halt to the French advance into Germany. 14: Destroyers escorting the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal sank the U-39 with depth charges. All crew members were taken prisoner, it was the first sinking of a German U-boat in WWII. 15: The Polish Army is ordered to hold out at the Romanian border until the Allies arrive. 16: The German Army complete the encirclement of Warsaw. 16: The French complete their retreat from Germany, ending the Saar Offensive. 17: The Soviet Union invades Poland from the east, occupying the territory east of the Curzon line as well as Białystok and Eastern Galicia. 17: Aircraft carrier HMS Courageous is torpedoed and sunk by U-29 on patrol off the coast of Ireland. 17: The Imperial Japanese Army launches attacks on the Chinese city of Changsha, when their forces in northern Jiangxi attacked westward toward Henan. 18: Po
Timeline of the Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first atomic bombs during World War II. It was led by the United States with the support of Canada. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the US Army Corps of Engineers; the Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District. Along the way, the project absorbed Tube Alloys; the Manhattan Project began modestly in 1939, but grew to employ more than 130,000 people and cost nearly US$2 billion. Over 90% of the cost was for building factories and producing the fissionable materials, with less than 10% for development and production of the weapons. Two types of atomic bombs were developed during the war. A simple gun-type fission weapon was made using uranium-235, an isotope that makes up only 0.7 percent of natural uranium. Since it is chemically identical to the most common isotope, uranium-238, has the same mass, it proved difficult to separate. Three methods were employed for uranium enrichment: electromagnetic and thermal.
Most of this work was performed at Tennessee. In parallel with the work on uranium was an effort to produce plutonium. Reactors were constructed at Oak Ridge and Hanford, Washington, in which uranium was irradiated and transmuted into plutonium; the plutonium was chemically separated from the uranium. The gun-type design proved impractical to use with plutonium so a more complex implosion-type nuclear weapon was developed in a concerted design and construction effort at the project's principal research and design laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico; the following is a timeline of the Manhattan Project. It includes a number of events prior to the official formation of the Manhattan Project, a number of events after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, until the Manhattan Project was formally replaced by the Atomic Energy Commission in 1947. August 2: Albert Einstein signs the letter, authored by physicist Leó Szilárd and addressed to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, advising him to fund research into the possibility of using nuclear fission as a weapon as Nazi Germany may be conducting such research.
September 3: Great Britain and France declare war on Nazi Germany in response to its invasion of Poland, beginning World War II. October 11: Economist Alexander Sachs meets with President Roosevelt and delivers the Einstein–Szilárd letter. Roosevelt authorizes the creation of the Advisory Committee on Uranium. October 21: First meeting of the Advisory Committee on Uranium, headed by Lyman Briggs of the National Bureau of Standards. $6,000 is budgeted for neutron experiments. March 2: John R. Dunning's team at Columbia University verifies Niels Bohr's hypothesis that uranium 235 is responsible for fission by slow neutrons. March: University of Birmingham-based scientists Otto Frisch and Rudolf Peierls author the Frisch–Peierls memorandum, calculate that an atomic bomb might need as little as 1 pound of enriched uranium to work; the memorandum is given to Mark Oliphant. April 10: MAUD Committee established by Tizard to investigate feasibility of an atomic bomb. May 21: George Kistiakowsky suggests using gaseous diffusion as a means of isotope separation.
June 12: Roosevelt creates the National Defense Research Committee under Vannevar Bush, which absorbs the Uranium Committee. September 6: Bush tells Briggs that NDRC will provide $40,000 for the uranium project. February 25: Conclusive discovery of plutonium by Glenn Seaborg and Arthur Wahl. May 17: A report by Arthur Compton and the National Academy of Sciences is issued which finds favorable the prospects of developing nuclear power production for military use. June 28: Roosevelt creates the Office of Scientific Research and Development under Vannevar Bush with the signing of Executive Order 8807. OSRD absorbs the Uranium Committee. James B. Conant succeeds Bush as the head of NDRC. July 2: The MAUD Committee chooses James Chadwick to write the second draft of its report on the design and costs of developing a bomb. July 15: The MAUD Committee issues final detailed technical report on design and costs to develop a bomb. Advance copy sent to Vannevar Bush who decides to wait for official version before taking any action.
August: Mark Oliphant travels to USA to urge development of a bomb rather than power production. September 3: British Chiefs of Staff Committee approve nuclear weapons project. October 3: Official copy of MAUD Report reaches Bush. October 9: Bush takes MAUD Report to Roosevelt, who approves Project to confirm MAUD's findings. Roosevelt asks Bush to draft a letter so that the British government could be approached "at the top." December 6: Bush holds a meeting to organize an accelerated research project, still managed by Arthur Compton. Harold Urey is assigned to develop research into gaseous diffusion as a uranium enrichment method, while Ernest O. Lawrence is assigned to investigate electromagnetic separation methods. Compton puts the case for plutonium before Conant. December 7: The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor; the United States and Great Britain issue a formal declaration of war against Japan the next day. December 11: The same day after Germany and Italy declares war on the United States, the United States declares war on Germany and Italy.
December 18: First meeting of the OSRD sponsored S-1 Section, dedicated to developing nuclear weapons. January 19: Roosevelt formally authorizes the atomic bomb project. January 24: Compton decides to centralize plutonium work at the University of Chic
Hirohito was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989. He was succeeded by Akihito. In Japan, reigning emperors are known as "the Emperor" and he is now referred to by his posthumous name, Emperor Shōwa; the word Shōwa is the name of the era coinciding with the Emperor's reign, after which he is known according to a tradition dating to 1912. The name Hirohito means "abundant benevolence". At the start of his reign, Japan was one of the great powers—the ninth-largest economy in the world, the third-largest naval power, one of the four permanent members of the council of the League of Nations, he was the head of state under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan during Japan's imperial expansion and involvement in World War II. After Japan's surrender, he was not prosecuted for war crimes as many other leading government figures were, his degree of involvement in wartime decisions remains controversial.
During the post-war period, he became the symbol of the new state under the post-war constitution and Japan's recovery, by the end of his reign, Japan had emerged as the world's second largest economy. Born in Tokyo's Aoyama Palace on 29 April 1901, Hirohito was the first son of 21-year old Crown Prince Yoshihito and 17-year old Crown Princess Sadako, he was the grandson of Yanagihara Naruko. His childhood title was Prince Michi. On the 70th day after his birth, Hirohito was removed from the court and placed in the care of the family of Count Kawamura Sumiyoshi, a former vice-admiral, to rear him as if he were his own grandchild. At the age of 3, Hirohito and his brother Chichibu were returned to court when Kawamura died – first to the imperial mansion in Numazu, Shizuoka back to the Aoyama Palace. In 1908, he began elementary studies at the Gakushūin; when his grandfather, Emperor Meiji, died on 30 July 1912, Hirohito's father, assumed the throne and Hirohito became the heir apparent. At the same time, he was formally commissioned in both the army and navy as a second lieutenant and ensign and was decorated with the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum.
In 1914, he was promoted to the ranks of lieutenant in the army and sub-lieutenant in the navy to captain and lieutenant in 1916. He was formally proclaimed Crown Prince and heir apparent on 2 November 1916. Hirohito attended Gakushūin Peers' School from 1908 to 1914 and a special institute for the crown prince from 1914 to 1921. In 1920, Hirohito was promoted to the rank of Major in the army and Lieutenant Commander in the navy. In 1921, Hirohito took a six-month tour of Western Europe, including the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium. After his return to Japan, Hirohito became Regent of Japan on 29 November 1921, in place of his ailing father, affected by a mental illness. In 1923, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the army and Commander in the navy, to army Colonel and Navy Captain in 1925. During Hirohito's regency, a number of important events occurred: In the Four-Power Treaty on Insular Possessions signed on 13 December 1921, the United States and France agreed to recognize the status quo in the Pacific, Japan and Britain agreed to terminate formally the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.
The Washington Naval Treaty was signed on 6 February 1922. Japan withdrew troops from the Siberian Intervention on 28 August 1922; the Great Kantō earthquake devastated Tokyo on 1 September 1923. On 27 December 1923, Daisuke Namba attempted to assassinate Hirohito in the Toranomon Incident but his attempt failed. During interrogation, he claimed to be a communist and was executed but some have suggested that he was in contact with the Nagacho faction in the Army. Prince Hirohito married his distant cousin Princess Nagako Kuni, the eldest daughter of Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni, on 26 January 1924, they had five daughters. The daughters who lived to adulthood left the imperial family as a result of the American reforms of the Japanese imperial household in October 1947 or under the terms of the Imperial Household Law at the moment of their subsequent marriages. On 25 December 1926, Hirohito assumed the throne upon Yoshihito's, death; the Crown Prince was said to have received the succession. The Taishō era's end and the Shōwa era's beginning were proclaimed.
The deceased Emperor was posthumously renamed Emperor Taishō within days. Following Japanese custom, the new Emperor was never referred to by his given name, but rather was referred to as "His Majesty the Emperor", which may be shortened to "His Majesty". In writing, the Emperor was referred to formally as "The Reigning Emperor". In November 1928, the Emperor's ascension was confirmed in ceremonies which are conventionally identified as "enthronement" and "coronation"; the first part of Hirohito's reign took plac
Diplomatic history of World War II
The diplomatic history of World War II includes the major foreign policies and interactions inside the opposing coalitions, the Allies of World War II and the Axis powers. The military history of the war is covered at World War II; the prewar diplomacy is covered in Causes of World War International relations. Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union and China were the "Big Four" Allied powers, who called themselves "The United Nations", they were joined by numerous other countries, such as Canada, other Commonwealth countries, as well as governments in exile, such as the Free France and the Netherlands. The Cairo Conference held in Cairo, outlined the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia; the meeting was attended by President of the United States Franklin Roosevelt, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin did not attend the conference because his meeting with Chiang could have caused friction between the Soviet Union and Japan.
Britain, the USSR and the US, were in frequent contact through ambassadors, top generals, foreign ministers and special emissaries such as the American Harry Hopkins. There were numerous high-level conferences. Most visible were the three summit conferences that brought together the three top leaders; the first meeting of the Big Three, Stalin and Churchill, came at the Tehran Conference in Iran from 28 November to 1 December 1943. It agreed on an invasion of France in 1944 and dealt with Turkey, Iran and the war against Japan as well as the post-war settlement; the Yalta Conference met in the Crimea 4-11 February 1945. It focused on postwar plans for European boundaries; the Soviets controlled Poland. The new boundaries of Poland were important, with Stalin seeking control of western Belorussia and western Ukraine. Poland was to gain parts of Germany. Stalin promised free elections in Poland under the auspices of a government he controlled. At Roosevelt's strong urging, Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan three months after the defeat of Germany.
It was agreed the USSR would be a member of the United Nations Security Council, with a veto, Ukraine and Belorussia would be UN members, but not the other 12 Soviet republics. Germany was to be divided into three zones of occupation, France was to get a zone. In a decision that became controversial, all civilians would be repatriated; the Potsdam Conference was held from 17 July to 2 August 1945, at Potsdam, near Berlin. Stalin met with the new U. S. President Harry S. Truman and two British prime ministers in succession—Winston Churchill and Clement Attlee, it demanded "unconditional surrender" from Japan, finalized arrangements for Germany to be occupied and controlled by the Allied Control Commission. The status of other occupied countries was discussed in line with the basic agreements made earlier at Yalta; the Dumbarton Oaks Conference or, more formally, the Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization was an international conference at which the United Nations was formulated and negotiated among international leaders.
The conference was held at Dumbarton Oaks from 21 August 1944 to 7 October 1944. At the conference, delegations from the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Republic of China deliberated over proposals for the establishment of an organization to maintain peace and security in the world. San Francisco Conference was a convention of delegates from 50 Allied nations that took place from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, United States. At this convention, the delegates rewrote the Dumbarton Oaks agreements; the convention resulted in the creation of the United Nations Charter, opened for signature on 26 June. The heads of the delegations of the four sponsoring countries took turns as chairman of the plenary meetings. Though most Americans favoured Britain in the war, there was widespread opposition to American military intervention in European affairs. President Roosevelt's policy of cash-and-carry still allowed Britain and France to purchase munitions from the United States and carry them home.
Churchill, who had long warned against Germany and demanded rearmament, became prime minister after Chamberlain's policy of appeasement had collapsed and Britain was unable to reverse the German invasion of Norway in April 1940. After the fall of France Roosevelt gave Britain all aid short of war; the Destroyers for Bases Agreement of September 1940, gave the United States a ninety-nine-year lease on strategically located bases in the Atlantic in exchange for the Royal Navy receiving fifty old destroyers to use in anti-submarine warfare. Roosevelt sold munitions that were carried away in British ships, including over half a million rifles, 85,000 machine guns, 25,000 automatic rifles, hundreds of field guns, with supplies of the necessary ammunition; the British needed these munitions to reequip the soldiers who lost all their arms when Dunkirk was evacuated in June 1940. Beginning in March 1941, the United States enacted Lend-Lease sending tanks, munitions, ammunition and medical supplies.
Britain received $31.4 billion out of a total of $50.1 billion of supplies sent to the Allies. In sharp contrast to the First World War, these were not loans and no repayment was involved. Millions of American servicemen were based in Britain during the war, which led to a certain amount of friction with British men and intermarriage with British women; this animosity was expl