SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Commerce

Commerce is the exchange of goods and services on a large scale. It includes legal, political, social and technological systems that operate in a country or in international trade. In the economic sense, "commerce" refers to the conduct of trade among economic agents. Commerce affects the well-being and welfare of citizens and residents, as it is known to directly impact the money which people have and their job opportunities as well; the term "commerce" may refer to the buying and selling of commodities globally or across borders - between governments and between business firms. Many scholars and ancient philosophers have known to mix up the terms "trade" and "commerce", but in essence these two are distinct terms carrying different meanings: Trade, on the one hand, may mean the selling and buying of commodities for money or anything of value Commerce covers a much broader field and includes trade, along with the services which facilitate such buying and selling of goods. These services may include insurance, warehousing and advertising.

One can speak of "trade in goods and services". The English-language word commerce has been derived from the Latin word commercium, from cum and merx; the word got converted to French language to give us "Commerce" which means facilitating trading or allowing for exchange of goods and services. Apart from traditional self-sufficiency, trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other. Historian Peter Watson and Ramesh Manickam date the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago. Roman commerce included routes to and from India. In historic times, the introduction of currency as a standardized money facilitated the wider exchange of goods and services. Numismatists have collections of tokens, which include coins from some Ancient-World large-scale societies, although initial usage involved unmarked lumps of precious metal; this means that if there were no notes or coins people used precious metal like Gold, Silver etc. attached a value to it and use them for exchange in return for commodities.

The circulation of a standardized currency provides a method of overcoming the major disadvantage to commerce through use of a barter system, the "double coincidence of wants", necessary for barter trades to occur. For example, if a person who makes pots for a living needs a new house, they may wish to hire someone to build it for them, but they cannot make an equivalent number of pots to equal this service done for them, because if the builder could build the house, the builder might not want many or need any pots. The barter system has a major drawback in that whatever goods a person gets as payment may not store for long amounts of time. For example: if a person receives dozens of fruits as payment, the fruit may not store for long or may rot - which means that person will have to bear a loss. Currency alleviated these problems by allowing a society as a whole to assign values and thus to collect goods and services and to store them for use, or to split them among minions. During the Middle Ages, European commerce developed through the trading of luxury goods at trade fairs.

Some wealth became converted into movable capital. Banking systems developed. Hand-to-hand markets became a feature of town life, were regulated by town authorities. Today commerce includes as a subset of itself a complex system of companies which try to maximize their profits by offering products and services to the market at the lowest production cost. A system of international trade has helped to develop the world economy. A majorly important component of Commerce is Trade, it is a smaller version of commerce in a way that it refers to the actual buying and selling of goods only. Commerce includes all the activities related to Trade such as-: Insurance: Protection of Goods against theft, fire etc. any human or natural calamity as stipulated before hand Banking: Related to financing of the transactions Warehousing: Puts focus over storage related issues such keeping goods in a safe place such as a "warehouse" till they are sold to the customers, etc. Transportation: This involves carrying goods from the place of their production to their actual place of sale

Chimú culture

The Chimú culture was centered on Chimor with the capital city of Chan Chan, a large adobe city in the Moche Valley of present-day Trujillo, Peru. The culture arose about 900 AD, succeeding the Moche culture, was conquered by the Inca emperor Topa Inca Yupanqui around 1470, fifty years before the arrival of the Spanish in the region; the Chimú resided on a strip of desert on the northern coast of Peru. The rivers in the region carved a series of fertile valley plains, which were flat and well-suited to irrigation. Agriculture and fishing were both important to the Chimú economy. Worshipping the moon, the Chimú, unlike the Inca, considered it more powerful than the sun. Offerings played an important role in religious rites. A common object for offerings, as well as one used by artisans, was the shell of the Spondylus shellfish, which resides only in the warm coastal waters off present-day Ecuador. Associated with the sea and fertility, Spondylus shells were valued and traded by the Chimú people, the exchange of the shells played a significant economic and political role in the empire.

The Chimú people are best known for their distinctive monochromatic pottery and fine metal working of copper, silver and tumbaga. The pottery is in the shape of a creature or has a human figure sitting or standing on a cuboid bottle; the shiny black finish of most Chimú pottery was achieved by firing the pottery at high temperatures in a closed kiln, which prevented oxygen from reacting with the clay. The oldest civilization present on the north coast of Peru is the Moche or Mochica civilization, identified as Early Chimú; the start of this period is not known for certain, but it ended around 700 AD. It was centered in the Chicama and Viru Valleys. "Many large pyramids are attributed to the Early Chimú period." These pyramids are built of adobe in rectangular shapes made from molds. "Early Chimú cemeteries are found without pyramid associations. Burials are in extended positions, in prepared tombs; the rectangular, adobe-lined and covered tombs have niches in their walls in which bowls were placed."

The Early pottery is characterized by realistic modeling and painted scenes. The mature Chimú culture developed in the same territory where the Mochica had existed centuries before; the Chimú was a coastal culture. It was developed in the Moche Valley north of present-day Lima, northeast of Huarmey, finishing in central present-day Trujillo, it expanded to Arequipa. The Chimú appeared in the year 900: Chimor known as the Kingdom of Chimor, had its capital "at the great site now called Chanchan, between Trujillo and the sea, we may assume that Taycanamo founded his kingdom there, his son, Guacri-caur, conquered the lower part of the valley and was succeeded by a son named Nancen-pinco who laid the foundations of the Kingdom by conquering the head of the valley of Chimor and the neighboring valleys of Sana, Chicama, Viru and Santa."The estimated founding date of the last Chimú kingdom is in the first half of the fourteenth century. Nacen-pinco was believed to have ruled around 1370 and was followed by seven rulers whose names are not yet known.

Minchancaman followed these rulers, was ruling around the time of the Inca conquest. This great expansion is believed to have occurred during the late period of Chimú civilization, called: Late Chimú, but the development of the Chimú territory spanned a number of phases and more than a single generation. Nacen-pinco, "may have pushed the imperial frontiers to Jequetepeque and to Santa, but conquest of the entire region was an agglutinative process initiated by earlier rulers." The Chimú expanded to include many different ethnic groups. At its peak, the Chimú advanced to the limits of the desert coast to the valley of the Jequetepeque River in the north. Pampa Grande in the Lambayeque Valley was ruled by the Chimú. To the south, they expanded as far as Carabayllo, their expansion southward was stopped by the military power of the great valley of Lima. Historians and archeologists contest; the Chimú society was a four-level hierarchical system, with a powerful elite rule over administrative centers.

The hierarchy was centered at the walled cities, called ciudadelas, at Chan Chan. The political power at Chan Chan is demonstrated by the organization of labor to construct the Chimú's canals and irrigated fields. Chan Chan was the top of the Chimu hierarchy, with Farfán in the Jequetepeque Valley as a subordinate; this organization, established during the conquest of the Jequetepeque Valley, suggests the Chimú established the hierarchy during the early stages of their expansion. The existing elite at peripheral locations, such as the Jequetepeque Valley and other centers of power, were incorporated into the Chimú government on lower levels of the hierarchy; these lower-order centers managed land and labor, while the higher-order centers either moved the resources to Chan Chan or carried out other administrative decisions. Rural sites were used as engineering headquarters; the numerous broken bowls found at Quebrada del Oso support this theory, as the bowls were used to feed the large workforce that built and maintained that section of canal.

The workers were fed and housed at state expense. The state governed such social classes until the empire of the Sican culture conquered the kingdom of Lambayeque, Peru; the legends of war were said to have been told by the leaders Naylamp in the Sican language and Tacayanamo in Chimú. The people paid tribute to the rulers w

Ramón Barros Luco

Ramón Barros Luco was President of Chile between 1910 and 1915. Barros Luco was born in 1835 in Santiago, Barros Luco was son of Ramón Luis Barros Fernández and Dolores Luco Fernández de Leiva, he graduated from Law School in 1858. He died in Santiago in 1919, he was elected representative for the city of Casablanca in 1861, from on occupied a seat in the Lower House, being elected representative for Caldera, Curicó, Valparaíso, as well as for Santiago, during four separate terms, between 1876-1894. He was elected senator for Linares. In his position as President of the House of Deputies in 1891, he endorsed the move to dismiss the President of the Republic, José Manuel Balmaceda, a move drawn up by the Congress. In addition, he lent his support to the uprising of the National Army, whose movements he oversaw, until they took their place in the government in Iquique; the revolution having succeeded, he resumed his functions as a parliamentarian, performing as a minister on several occasions, whenever the situation called for, "someone who posed no threat to anybody".

In 1910, given the existing tensions between liberals and nationals in the debate over a common candidate, he was chosen as the representative for both parties. His career to date assured both parties that, if he were to be elected, their interests would remain unharmed; the philosophy of Barros Luco's government can be summarised with the following phrase, well known in Chile, "99% of problems solve themselves, the remaining 1% have no solution". He applied this maxim to his administration, which would be consumed by the machinations of the parliament at large, the propensity of, to delay or hinder the government under any pretense, including the most trivial claim of a minor deputy. However, Barros Luco cannot be accused of mere acceptance and reluctance to act, as he possessed a plan to counter the aforementioned political strategy of accusations and delays, subsequent frequent change of ministers, known as the "rotativa", his policy was as follows: anytime a deputy placed an accusation against a minister leading to said minister's downfall, the accusing deputy would be called upon to head the new cabinet.

His hopes were dashed however, as this "rotary" system arrived at a total of 15 ministers, the first of whom lasted only 18 days in office, the last of whom failed to appear before Congress, the previous minister having resigned only days before the handover of government. Some deputies, led by the liberal Manuel Rivas Vicuña, tried to correct the parliamentary vices, with the support of Pres. Barros Luco. In 1912 he approved a modification to the system of parliamentary debate, however if a large enough group opposed a motion or accused a minister, parliament could still be delayed. Meanwhile, the corruption amongst the political parties had reached alarming levels, in answer to which laws against fraud were approved in 1914 and 1915, in addition to a reform of the municipal system, which managed to eliminate the falsification of results, allowing for greater transparency; however this reform brought with it an unexpected negative side effect: an increase in electoral bribery. Barros Luco focused his efforts on public works.

The national School of Engineering, Museum of History, National Archives, School of Aviation and the Arica-La Paz railway were built during his tenure as President. However, the large majority of works during his time represented the completion of projects begun by Pedro Montt Montt, fulfilling a promise of Montt's, "like the tale of a child with an egg. Another started the work, no one will know in the end to whom the credit is due, they will end up by paying graditude to the one who has had the least to do with the project". On the international scene, on 25 May 1915, he signed the ABC Pact; this pact, signed between the so-called "ABC Powers", was a means to combat the influence of the United States in the region, as well as to establish an equilibrium and channels of communication between the three signatories. The official name of the pact was the Non-Aggression and Arbitration pact. During his government the First World War broke out, with Chile adopting a neutral position. While this position would bring initial economic benefits, in the long term the consequences were dire.

This would spell the beginning of the end of the salitre industry in Chile. Barros Luco used to eat a particular sandwich which became known as a Barros Luco; the sandwich is made with a slab of steak or multiple slices of beef with melted cheese, prepared on the grill and served hot. It is available today in most restaurants throughout Chile. Short biography