The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
The Inca plan was a proposal formulated in 1816 by Manuel Belgrano to the Congress of Tucumán, aiming to crown an Inca. After the Declaration of Independence of the United Provinces of South America, Belgrano proposed that the country be ruled by a Constitutional monarchy headed by an ethnic Inca. The proposal was supported by José de San Martín, Martín Miguel de Güemes and the northern provinces, the Congress would ultimately reject it, creating instead a Republican government. The king Ferdinand VII of Spain was overthrown by French armies during the Peninsular War, the Spanish overseas colonies, like the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, found themselves with a power vacuum. This led to riots and rebellions, and the Viceroyalty engaged in the Argentine War of Independence. However, Ferdinand VII was restored in the throne of Spain in 1816, the patriots, who were so far fighting to replace the absolutist form of government with one closer to the new ideas, became fully Independentist by this point.
Contemporary to the War of Independence, the Argentine Civil War confronted Buenos Aires with provincial caudillos, caudillos manifested the strong anti-Buenos Aires sentiment present at many provinces. The Inca Empire had been conquered by the Spanish centuries ago, the Incan heritage was still strong among the indigenous populations of the Upper Peru and Inca nobility was not extinct. After the return of Ferdinand VII to the Spanish throne, Manuel Belgrano and Bernardino Rivadavia were sent to Europe in a diplomatic mission, seeking support for the local governments. They couldnt get it, but Belgrano realized that, unlike previous years, the form of government was not highly esteemed. He pointed out that the European superpowers looked favorably to the Revolution and this led him to propose that the provinces were led by an Inca monarch. He reasoned that if the country was ruled by a monarchy, and by restoring the Inca monarchy the pro-independence movement would gather support from the northern provinces and the indigenous populations.
The proposal included as well to designate the city of Cuzco, former capital of the Inca Empire, as the capital of the country, replacing Buenos Aires as such. The idea, was not a new one, as early as 1790 Francisco de Miranda had plans for an Empire where a descendant of the Inca Emperors would reign. His proposal was a monarchy with a Legislative branch divided in a lower house. A possible candidate to be crowned after this proposal was Dionisio Inca Yupanqui, colonel in Spain and deputee at the Courts of Cadiz in 1812 and he had a high social position, and by representing Peru at Cadiz he was already politically notable. Another possible candidate was Juan Bautista Tupamaro, known as Túpac Amaru, as well as his brother Túpac Amaru II, he claimed to be a descendent of the former Inca ruler Túpac Amaru. Belgranos proposal was discussed again on July 12, being raised by Manuel Antonio de Acevedo, representative of the Catamarca Province
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics. The individual may study and apply theories and concepts from economics and write about economic policy. A generally accepted interpretation in academia is that an economist is one who has attained a Ph. D. in economics, teaches economic science, the professionalization of economics, reflected in academia, has been described as the main change in economics since around 1900. Economists debate the path they believe their profession should take, surveys among economists indicate a preference for a shift toward the latter. Most major universities have a faculty, school or department. However, many prominent economists come from a background in mathematics, political science, sociology, getting a PhD in economics takes six years, on average, with a median of 5.3 years. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, established by Sveriges Riksbank in 1968, is a prize awarded to each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics.
The prize winners are announced in October every year and they receive their awards on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobels death. In contrast to regulated professions such as engineering, law or medicine, in academia, to be called an economist requires a Ph. D. degree in Economics. A professional working inside of one of many fields of economics or having a degree in this subject is often considered to be an economist. In addition to government and academia, economists are employed in banking, accountancy, marketing, business administration, lobbying. Politicians often consult economists before enacting economic policy, many statesmen have academic degrees in economics. Economics graduates are employable in varying degrees depending on the regional economic scenario, small numbers go on to undertake postgraduate studies, either in economics, teacher training or further qualifications in specialist areas. Nearly 135 colleges and universities grant around 900 new Ph. D. s every year, incomes are highest for those in the private sector, followed by the federal government, with academia paying the lowest incomes.
As of January 2013, PayScale. com showed Ph. D. economists salary ranges as follows, all Ph. D. economists, $61,000 to $160,000, Ph. D. The largest single grouping of economists in the UK are the more than 1000 members of the Government Economic Service. This figure compares very favourably with the picture, with 64 percent of economics graduates in employment. Some current well-known economists include, Ben Bernanke, Chairman of the Federal Reserve from 2006 to 2014, milton Friedman, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureate in Economics
Equestrian monument to General Manuel Belgrano
The Equestrian monument to General Manuel Belgrano is a landmark of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is located at Plaza de Mayo, in front of the Casa Rosada and it depicts General Manuel Belgrano holding the Flag of Argentina, and it is made of bronze over a pedestal of granite. In 1870 generals Bartolomé Mitre, Enrique Martínez and Manuel José Guerrico appointed a commission with the task of making a monument for Manuel Belgrano. This was requested to the French sculptor Louis-Robert Carrier-Belleuse, who would make the statue of Belgrano, and Manuel de Santa Coloma, who designed the horse. It was finished in 1872 and moved to Buenos Aires, where it was dedicated on September 24,1873, more than 20,000 people were present at the ceremony, and the Argentine National Anthem was played at Teatro Colón that night. During the government of Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear it was thought that the base was too low, so it was raised. During the work the monument was rotated as well, and instead of watching towards to Buenos Aires Cabildo it was made to look to the North, so that it didnt show his back to the Casa Rosada
The Yatasto relay was the handover of the command of the Army of the North by Manuel Belgrano to José de San Martín, in January 1814, during the Argentine War of Independence. It is named after the Yatasto relay, a relay at the modern Salta Province. One of those areas was the Upper Peru, but Manuel Belgrano prevented the royalist armies from marching to Buenos Aires with his victories at Tucumán, however, he was defeated when he tried to counter-attack, at Vilcapugio and Ayohuma. José de San Martín, Carlos María de Alvear and other veterans of the Peninsular War reinforced the armies of Buenos Aires and they influenced the local politics, causing the Revolution of October 8,1812. San Martín had a victory at the Battle of San Lorenzo against a raid from Montevideo. When Belgrano was defeated, San Martín was appointed his successor as the commander of the Army of the North. Historian Bartolomé Mitre considers it the result of a plot by Alvear, historians as Norberto Galasso consider instead that, despite the dangers, heading that army was an honour, pointing that Alvear sought to do so at a point.
Juan Canter points as well that the mailings of the supreme director Gervasio Antonio de Posadas to San Martín were highly respectful, San Martín left Buenos Aires in December,1813. He had order to relieve Belgrano and send him back to the city and they knew each other before the meeting by mailing each other, with the intermediation of the Spanish José Milá de la Roca. Both of them shared their rejection to absolutism and belonged to the faction of the late Mariano Moreno and it is widely considered that they met at the Yatasto relay, to the point that the event is named after the place. Portraits and other art allusions use that name as well, historian Julio Arturo Benencia considers that the meeting could have taken place at the Algarrobos relay, two leagues to the west of Yatasto. The exact date in unclear as well, and could have been at either January 30 or January 17, Posadas insisted two months later, and Belgrano left the army. As his health was delicate, he did not return to Buenos Aires, after leaving, Belgrano wrote again to San Martín, advising him to strictly abide to the local religious customs.
Manuel Belgrano finally stayed in Luján to await the trial, all charges against him were dismissed a short time later, as nobody formulated a definite accusation. Then, he was sent to a mission to Europe. San Martín stayed only a couple of months in the Army of the North and he considered that guerrilla warfare was a better option to face the royalists, and entrusted Martín Miguel de Güemes to direct the operations in Salta, while the Army of the North stayed in Tucumán. San Martín would move to Mendoza, where he raised the Army of the Andes with Chilean expatriates, the successful crossing of the Andes allowed San Martín to avoid the harsh terrain of the Upper Peru and attack Lima by sea. Seamos libres y lo demás no importa nada, grandes protagonistas de la Historia Argentina, Manuel Belgrano
The Paraguay campaign was the attempt by a Buenos Aires-sponsored militia, commanded by Manuel Belgrano, to win the royalist Intendency of Paraguay for the cause of May Revolution. In Paraguay it is considered as their War of Independence, the first battles fought were the Battle of Campichuelo and Battle of Campo Maracana, in which Argentinians claimed victory. However, they were vanquished in the subsequent Battle of Paraguarí. The campaign ended in a failure and Paraguay broke its links with the Spanish crown just two months after Belgranos withdrawal, starting its course towards full independence. A few days his goal was more specific, he must aim for Paraguay. The junta had informed that the patriotic party was strong there. Belgrano headed north with nearly 200 men, expecting to gather more soldiers on his way to the Paraná River, soldiers from the Blandengues regiments of San Nicolás and Santa Fe did join him en route, and the junta sent reinforcements of another 200 soldiers. The army was welcomed by most of the population they encountered along the way, receiving donations, finally the small army grew to nearly 950 men, consisting of infantry and cavalry, divided into four divisions with one piece of artillery each.
This Congress will not discuss whether its the sodomite King or his weak son, none of them have anymore power upon Paraguay. This Congress must discuss the way of protecting our independence from Brasil, Buenos Aires, Paraguay is free, is independent and it is a Republic. Paraguay was an isolated region of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. The road to Paraguayan independence began at the Congress of July 24,1810, Belgrano ignored all this when he invaded Paraguay, believing that he would find a favorable political situation. There were three political tendencies in Paraguay, those who supported the Spanish Regency Council, those who supported the Junta of Buenos Aires. By the end of October Belgranos army stopped at Curuzú Cuatiá and he set the territories that would belong to Curuzu Cuatiá and Mandisoví, and organized their urban layout around the chapel and the school. By November 1810 the army reached the Paraná River near Apipé island, the junta requested that he seek authorization for such changes in the future.
From that point the army moved to Candelaria, which was used as a stronghold for the attack on Paraguay, hills and lakes would force the army to march slowly, making a possible retreat difficult. The Parana was crossed with several boats on December 19, Belgrano saw Velazcos army from the Mbaé hill, and despite being greatly outnumbered he ordered the attack anyway, trusting in the moral strength of his soldiers. Even with casualties of ten dead and 120 taken prisoner, Belgrano wanted to keep on fighting, the army left for Tacuarí, being closely watched by the combined armies of Fulgencio Yegros and Manuel Atanasio Cabañas
The Primera Junta or First Assembly is the most common name given to the first independent government of Argentina. It was created on 25 May 1810, as a result of the events of the May Revolution, the Junta initially had representatives from only Buenos Aires. When it was expanded, as expected, with the addition of the representatives from the cities of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. The Junta operated at El Fuerte, which had used since 1776 as a residence by the Viceroys. Its claims had been rejected by Spanish Americans, and its authority was superseded by a Supreme Central Junta of Spain. When the Supreme Central Junta abolished itself in 1810, the politically active inhabitants of Buenos Aires saw no better moment than this to establish a local government, historically Buenos Aires province had partially mitigated this problem through contraband. The people were to assume the government until the King returned, the Viceroy and his supporters countered that the colonies belonged to Spain and did not have a political relationship with only the King.
Therefore, they should follow any governmental body established in Spain as the authority, namely the Supreme Central Junta of Spain and its successor. The meeting of a Buenos Aires cabildo abierto during 22 May 1810, came under pressure from the militias. The crowd favored the stance of the politicians, and the cabildo ended up creating the Primera Junta. Spain would never recover its dominion over that territory, the Audience refused at first to swear allegiance to the Junta, and when they finally did, prosecutor Caspe did so with clear gestures of contempt. Caspe would be ambushed near his home, in retaliation for this, the Cabildo imposed a time limit on the Junta, if the General Congress was not formed in six months, the Cabildo would reassume government. The Junta answered the day, rejecting such requirements. The Audience requested that the Junta submitted to the Regency Counsel, but the Junta refused, on the grounds that Cisneros did not so submit, the Audience itself swore allegiance to the Counsel shortly after, and they were all banished in response.
From the early days of the Primera Junta there was a rivalry between Saavedra and Moreno. Matheu would point in his memories that the Morenists were upset because they perceived that Saavedra enjoyed receiving honors, the Junta was received with mixed reactions from the other cities of the viceroyalty. Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, Misiones and Mendoza supported the change, Upper Peru, which greatly benefited from the system of mita to exploit the mines in Potosi, supported the absolutist system for a long time. Javier De Elío in Montevideo denied recognition to the Junta, Paraguay was torn between supporters of either side, but royalists prevailed
Battle of Salta
The Battle of Salta took place on February 20,1813 on the plains of Castañares, north of the present-day Argentina city of Salta, during the Argentine War of Independence. The unconditional surrender of the royalist troops ensured Argentine control over most of the territories of the former Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. Belgrano had taken advantage of the victory at Tucumán to reinforce his army, in four months he improved the discipline of his troops, improved training and recruited sufficient men so as to duplicate their numbers. The artillery abandoned by Tristán in the battle helped Belgrano to fill his lack of equipment. At the beginning of January, he started a march towards Salta. Under cover of rain the rebel army made a march through the rough terrain, hindered by the difficulty off moving equipment. On the 19th thanks to the intelligence from Saravia, the army marched on the morning with the intention of attacking the troops the next morning at dawn. On the morning of February 20 he ordered a march in formation, with the infantry on the center, one column of cavalry on each flank and a strong reserve led by Martín Dorrego.
The first encounter went for the defenders, as the cavalry had difficulties reaching the enemy shooters due to the highly steeped terrain. Before noon Belgrano ordered an attack by the reserves on those positions, Dorrego, at the head of the cavalry led an advance towards the fence that surrounded the city. The retreat was hindered by the fence they had erected as part of their fortifications. Finally they congregated on the square, where Tristán decided to surrender. An envoy negotiated with General Belgrano that the day the royalists would abandon the city on formation, with war honors. Belgrano guaranteed their integrity and freedom in exchange for swearing not to raise arms against the rebels, Tristán on would change sides and fight for the independentists in Bolivia. The prisoners captured before the surrender were freed in exchange for the men that Goyeneche had captured in Upper Peru. The 2,786 men remaining with Tristán surrendered the day, giving up more than 2,000 muskets, pistols, carbines,10 cannons.
Belgrano declined, asking that the money be used instead to build schools in Tucumán, Jujuy, governor Feliciano Chiclana placed a wooden cross on the common grave where the 480 royalist and 13 independentist troops were buried with the inscription A los vencedores y vencidos. Today the place is marked by the February 20th monument, designed by Torcuato Tasso, the reliefs on the sides were designed by the famous sculptor and local salteña Lola Mora
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system, Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The earliest recorded presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century, Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century, Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and it is the country with the second highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of very high. Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, the description of the country by the word Argentina has to be found on a Venice map in 1536. In English the name Argentina probably comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, Argentina means in Italian of silver, silver coloured, probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine of silver > silver coloured already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the form of argentin and derives of argent silver with the suffix -in.
The Italian naming Argentina for the country implies Argentina Terra land of silver or Argentina costa coast of silver, in Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said lArgentina. The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venitian and Genoese navigators, in Spanish and Portuguese, the words for silver are respectively plata and prata and of silver is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region, the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name Argentine Republic in legal documents. The name Argentine Confederation was used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the name as Argentine Republic