Noah Webster Jr. was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer and prolific author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship and Education", his blue-backed speller books taught five generations of American children how to read. Webster's name has become synonymous with "dictionary" in the United States the modern Merriam-Webster dictionary, first published in 1828 as An American Dictionary of the English Language. Born in West Hartford, Webster graduated from Yale College in 1778, he passed the bar examination after studying law under Oliver Ellsworth and others, but was unable to find work as a lawyer. He found some financial success by opening a private school and writing a series of educational books, including the "Blue-Backed Speller." A strong supporter of the American Revolution and the ratification of the United States Constitution, Webster hoped his educational works would provide an intellectual foundation for American nationalism.
In 1793, Alexander Hamilton recruited Webster to move to New York City and become an editor for a Federalist Party newspaper. He became a prolific author, publishing newspaper articles, political essays, textbooks, he served in the Connecticut House of Representatives. Webster founded the Connecticut Society for the Abolition of Slavery in 1791 but became somewhat disillusioned with the abolitionist movement. In 1806, Webster published A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language; the following year, he started working on an expanded and comprehensive dictionary publishing it in 1828. He was influential in popularizing certain spellings in the United States, he was influential in establishing the Copyright Act of 1831, the first major statutory revision of U. S. copyright law. While working on a second volume of his dictionary, Webster died in 1843, the rights to the dictionary were acquired by George and Charles Merriam. Webster was born in the Western Division of Hartford to an established family.
His father Noah Sr. was a descendant of Connecticut Governor John Webster. His father was a farmer, though he was deacon of the local Congregational church, captain of the town's militia, a founder of a local book society. After American independence, he was appointed a justice of the peace. Webster's father never attended college. Webster's mother spent long hours teaching her children spelling and music. At age six, Webster began attending a dilapidated one-room primary school built by West Hartford's Ecclesiastical Society. Years he described the teachers as the "dregs of humanity" and complained that the instruction was in religion. Webster's experiences there motivated him to improve the educational experience of future generations. At age fourteen, his church pastor began tutoring him in Latin and Greek to prepare him for entering Yale College. Webster enrolled at Yale just before his 16th birthday, studying during his senior year with Ezra Stiles, Yale's president, his four years at Yale overlapped the American Revolutionary War and, because of food shortages and threatened British invasions, many of his classes had to be held in other towns.
Webster served in the Connecticut Militia. His father had mortgaged the farm to send Webster to Yale, but he was now on his own and had nothing more to do with his family. Webster lacked career plans after graduating from Yale in 1778 writing that a liberal arts education "disqualifies a man for business", he taught school in Glastonbury, but the working conditions were harsh and the pay low. He quit to study law. While studying law under future U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth, Webster taught full-time in Hartford—which was grueling, impossible to continue, he quit his legal studies for lapsed into a depression. As the Revolutionary War was still going on, he could not find work as a lawyer, he received a master's degree from Yale by giving an oral dissertation to the Yale graduating class. That year, he opened a small private school in western Connecticut, a success, he soon closed it and left town because of a failed romance. Turning to literary work as a way to overcome his losses and channel his ambitions, he began writing a series of well-received articles for a prominent New England newspaper justifying and praising the American Revolution and arguing that the separation from Britain was permanent.
He founded a private school catering to wealthy parents in Goshen, New York and, by 1785, he had written his speller, a grammar book and a reader for elementary schools. Proceeds from continuing sales of the popular blue-backed speller enabled Webster to spend many years working on his famous dictionary. Webster was by nature a revolutionary, seeking American independence from the cultural thralldom to Britain. To replace it, he sought to create a utopian America, cleansed of luxury and ostentation and the champion of freedom. By 1781, Webster had an expansive view of the new nation. American nationalism was superior to Europe because American values were superior, he claimed. America sees the absurdities—she sees the kingdoms of Europe, disturbed by wrangling sectaries, or
Frederic Hudson was a leading 19th century American newspaper editor, working from 1838 to 1866 for New York Herald, where he served as managing editor, was influential in the development of American journalism. Hudson was born in Quincy, Massachusetts, in 1819, attended the town school in Concord, Massachusetts; when he was 17, he moved to New York City, where his brothers had opened "Hudson's News Room". In 1836, he there met James Gordon Bennett Sr. who had founded the Herald in 1835, soon went to work for him, becoming the third full-time employee of the paper. Hudson was known for his diligent pursuit of news and attention to detail, was named as managing editor by Bennett. For example, instead of waiting for ships to arrive at the dock to pick up their news, he sent out boats he meet ships to get the news faster, he pursued detailed coverage of the Civil War. During Hudson's tenure, the paper developed from a local institution to a complex and far-ranging national organization. Hudson was left in charge of the paper when Bennett would travel for extended periods, the paper's circulation grew to become largest read daily paper in the United States by the time of the Civil War.
In 1866, Hudson retired, moved with his wife, in ill-health to Concord, Massachusetts. In 1873, Hudson published a history of American newspapers, Journalism in the United States, from 1690 to 1872, which became the authoritative text on the development of American journalism. Hudson died on October 21, 1875, from injuries suffered when he fell from a horse carriage, struck by railroad cars at a crossing in Concord, his New York Herald obituary described him as "the father of American journalism, so far as enterprise and boldness in gathering news are concerned." Journalism in the United States, from 1690-1872 "Hudson, Frederic". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. "Hudson, Frederic". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1892
New York Post
The New York Post is a daily newspaper in New York City. The Post operates the celebrity gossip site PageSix.com, the entertainment site Decider.com, co-produces the television show Page Six TV. The modern version of the paper is published in tabloid format. Established in 1801 by Federalist and Founding Father Alexander Hamilton, it became a respected broadsheet in the 19th century, under the name New York Evening Post. In 1976, Rupert Murdoch bought the Post for US$30.5 million. Since 1993, the Post has been owned by News Corporation and its successor, News Corp, which had owned it from 1976 to 1988, its editorial offices are located at 1211 Avenue of the Americas. Its distribution ranked 5th in the US in 2018; the New York Post, established on November 16, 1801, as the New-York Evening Post, describes itself as the nation's oldest continuously published daily newspaper. The Providence Journal, which began daily publication on July 21, 1829 bills itself as the nation's oldest continuously published daily newspaper because the New York Post halted publication during strikes in 1958 and 1978.
The Hartford Courant, believed to be the oldest continuously published newspaper, was founded in 1764 as a semi-weekly paper. The New Hampshire Gazette, which has trademarked its claim of being The Nation's Oldest Newspaper, was founded in 1756 as a weekly. Since the 1890s it has been published only on weekends; the Post was founded by Alexander Hamilton with about US$10,000 from a group of investors in the autumn of 1801 as the New-York Evening Post, a broadsheet. Hamilton's co-investors included other New York members of the Federalist Party, such as Robert Troup and Oliver Wolcott, who were dismayed by the election of Thomas Jefferson as U. S. President and the rise in popularity of the Democratic-Republican Party; the meeting at which Hamilton first recruited investors for the new paper took place in the then-country weekend villa, now Gracie Mansion. Hamilton chose William Coleman as his first editor; the most famous 19th-century Evening Post editor was the poet and abolitionist William Cullen Bryant.
So well respected was the Evening Post under Bryant's editorship, it received praise from the English philosopher John Stuart Mill, in 1864. In the summer of 1829, Bryant invited William Leggett, the Locofoco Democrat, to write for the paper. There, in addition to literary and drama reviews, Leggett began to write political editorials. Leggett's classical liberal philosophy entailed a fierce opposition to central banking, a support for voluntary labor unions, a dedication to laissez-faire economics, he was a member of the Equal Rights Party. Leggett became a co-owner and editor at the Post in 1831 working as sole editor of the newspaper while Bryant traveled in Europe in 1834 through 1835. Another co-owner of the paper was John Bigelow. Born in Malden-on-Hudson, New York, John Bigelow, Sr. graduated in 1835 from Union College, where he was a member of the Sigma Phi Society and the Philomathean Society, was admitted to the bar in 1838. From 1849 to 1861, he was one of the co-owners of the Evening Post.
In 1881 Henry Villard took control of the Evening Post, as well as The Nation, which became the Post's weekly edition. With this acquisition, the paper was managed by the triumvirate of Carl Schurz, Horace White, Edwin L. Godkin; when Schurz left the paper in 1883, Godkin became editor-in-chief. White became editor-in-chief in 1899, remained in that role until his retirement in 1903. In 1897, both publications passed to the management of Villard's son, Oswald Garrison Villard, a founding member of both the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the American Civil Liberties Union. Villard sold the paper in 1918, after widespread allegations of pro-German sympathies during World War I hurt its circulation; the new owner was Thomas Lamont, a senior partner in the Wall Street firm of J. P. Morgan & Co.. Unable to stem the paper's financial losses, he sold it to a consortium of 34 financial and reform political leaders, headed by Edwin Francis Gay, dean of the Harvard Business School, whose members included Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
Conservative Cyrus H. K. Curtis—publisher of the Ladies Home Journal—purchased the Evening Post in 1924 and turned it into a non-sensational tabloid in 1933. In 1934, J. David Stern purchased the paper, changed its name to the New York Post, restored its broadsheet size and liberal perspective. In 1939, Dorothy Schiff purchased the paper, her husband, George Backer, was named publisher. Her second editor Ted Thackrey became co-publisher and co-editor with Schiff in 1942. Together, they recast the newspaper into its current tabloid format. In 1948 The Bronx Home News merged with it. In 1949, James Wechsler became editor of the paper, running both the editorial pages. In 1961, he turned over the news section to Paul Sann and remained as editorial-page editor until 1980. Under Schiff's tenure the Post was devoted to liberalism, supporting trade unions and social welfare, featured some of the most-popular columnists of the time, such as Joseph Cookman, Drew Pearson, Eleanor Roosevelt, Max Lerner, Murray Kempton, Pete Hamill, Eric Sevareid, in addition to theatre critic Richard Watts, Jr. and gossip columnist Earl Wilson.
In November 1976, it was announced that Rupert Murdoch had bought the Post from Schiff with the intention she would remain as a consultant for five years. It emerged that Murdoch bought the newspaper for US$30.5 million. The Post at this point was the only surviving afternoon daily in New York City and its circulation under Schiff had grown by two-thirds after the failure of the competing World Journal Tribu
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl
Thurlow Weed was a New York newspaper publisher and Whig and Republican politician. He was the principal political advisor to the prominent New York politician William H. Seward and was instrumental in the presidential nominations of William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, John C. Frémont. Born in Cairo, New York, Weed served in the War of 1812 and apprenticed for newspapers before winning election to the New York State Assembly, he met Seward in the assembly, forming a close political alliance that would last for several decades. Weed and Seward became leaders of the New York Anti-Masonic Party, Weed established the Albany Evening Journal. Weed helped establish the Whig Party in the 1830s, he helped Seward win election as Governor of New York and supported the successful presidential candidacies of Harrison and Taylor, though both died in office. Weed led the New York Whigs for much of the 1830s and 1840s but abandoned the Whigs following the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act, he helped organize the Republican Party and supported Frémont's nomination at the 1856 Republican National Convention.
He led the effort to nominate Seward at the 1860 Republican National Convention, but the convention nominated Abraham Lincoln instead. After the Civil War and Seward allied with President Andrew Johnson and supported Johnson's approach to Reconstruction. Weed retired from public life in 1867 and died in 1882. Weed was born into a family of farmers in Cairo, Greene County, New York on November 15, 1797, he received little formal schooling, spent much of his youth working as a cabin boy on boats that traveled the Hudson River, as a blacksmith's helper, as an errand boy in a print shop. After his family moved to central New York Weed was apprenticed to a printer. Although he was quite young at the time, Weed served in the War of 1812 as quartermaster sergeant of the 40th Regiment of the New York State Militia, working under quartermaster officer George Petrie during operations in and around Sackets Harbor. After the war he ran the printing presses for the Albany Register. Weed became interested in politics while working with the newspaper, was an early supporter of DeWitt Clinton.
In 1824, he was a strong supporter of the presidential bid of John Quincy Adams, used his influence for Adams's victory in New York. Weed was elected that year to the New York State Assembly. While serving in the Assembly, he met and befriended William H. Seward, whose legal and political careers were just beginning. Weed became a leader of the Anti-Masonic Party, which he helped become the main opposition at the state level to the Albany Regency organization of Martin Van Buren, to Andrew Jackson at the national level. In 1825, he was forced out in 1828 by Masonic interests, he subsequently founded the Enquirer, which became the voice of the Anti-Masonic movement in New York. That year, Weed again supported John Quincy Adams and worked to align the strong Anti-Masonic movement in New York with the national Adams organization. In 1829, Weed was again elected to the Assembly from this time as an Anti-Mason, he started the Albany Evening Journal. The Evening Journal was the largest Anti-Masonic newspaper.
In 1832, Weed supported Adams's ally Henry Clay, who ran for President as a "National Republican". He was a strong advocate of Clay's "American System" for economic development, including a national bank, "internal improvements" such as roads and railroads, a protective tariff. By 1834, the Adams-Clay organization was forming into the Whig Party. Most Anti-Masons joined the Whigs, regarding the new party as the best alternative to Jackson and Van Buren, enabling Weed to assume a leadership role in a larger and more orthodox political organization, his Evening Journal became the main Whig newspaper, by the 1840s it had the largest circulation of any political newspaper in the United States. Weed and other Whigs worked to blame Van Buren and the Democratic Party for the Panic of 1837. In 1838, he was one of William H. Seward's main supporters in Seward's successful campaign for governor, was credited with Seward's victory. Weed was a main supporter of William Henry Harrison's successful presidential bid in 1840, in which Harrison defeated Van Buren to become the first Whig president.
Weed was seen as the "boss" of New York's Whig Party, using the same tactics as the Regency—patronage and political favors—to attract supporters and keep order in the ranks, efforts he was able to reinforce through the Evening Journal. Under Weed's leadership, the Whigs became the dominant force in state politics for several years, Weed was arguably the most powerful politician in New York; as a practical politician, Weed was a pragmatist, rather than an idealist, always taking care to avoid controversial issues and positions that would decrease Whig support on election day. One exception was the issue of slavery, a subject on which Weed made public statements in opposition while trying to avoid the most radical language of those seen as uncompromising abolitionists. Harrison died only a month after taking office, was succeeded by John Tyler, a former Democrat, who disappointed Weed by abandoning Whig policies. Weed's frustration continued with Clay's narrow defeat in the 1844 presidential election.
Following the Mexican–American War, Zachary Taylor emerged as a Whig candidate for president, Weed supported his successful effort. But Taylor, like Harrison, died in office. Weed played a leading role in the passage of New York's Consolidation Act, whic
William Cullen Bryant
William Cullen Bryant was an American romantic poet and long-time editor of the New York Evening Post. Bryant was born on November 1794, in a log cabin near Cummington, Massachusetts, he was the second son of Peter Bryant, a doctor and a state legislator, Sarah Snell. The genealogy of his mother traces back to passengers on the Mayflower: John Alden, his wife Priscilla Mullins and her parents William and Alice Mullins; the story of the romance between John and Priscilla is the subject of a famous narrative poem by Longfellow "The Courtship of Miles Standish". He was a nephew of Charity Bryant, a Vermont seamstress, the subject of Rachel Hope Cleves's 2014 book Charity and Sylvia: A Same-Sex Marriage in Early America. William Cullen Bryant described their relationship: "If I were permitted to draw the veil of private life, I would give you the singular, to me interesting, story of two maiden ladies who dwell in this valley. I would tell you how, in their youthful days, they took each other as companions for life, how this union, no less sacred to them than the tie of marriage, has subsisted, in uninterrupted harmony, for more than forty years."
Charity and Sylvia Drake are buried together at Weybridge Hill Cemetery, Vermont. Bryant and his family moved to a new home; the William Cullen Bryant Homestead, his boyhood home, is now a museum. After just one year at Williams College, he hoped to transfer to Yale, but a talk with his father led to the realization that family finances would not support it, his father counseled a legal career as his best available choice, the disappointed poet began to study law in Worthington and Bridgewater in Massachusetts. He was admitted to the bar in 1815 and began practicing law in nearby Plainfield, walking the seven miles from Cummington every day. On one of these walks, in December 1815, he noticed a single bird flying on the horizon. Bryant developed an interest in poetry early in life. Under his father's tutelage, he emulated other Neo-Classic British poets. "The Embargo", a savage attack on President Thomas Jefferson published in 1808, reflected Dr. Bryant's Federalist political views; the first edition sold out — because of publicity attached to the poet's young age.
A second, expanded edition included Bryant's translation of classical verse. During his collegiate studies and his reading for the law, he wrote little poetry, but encounters with the Graveyard Poets and Wordsworth regenerated his passion for "the witchery of song." "Thanatopsis" is Bryant's most famous poem, which Bryant may have been working on as early as 1811. In 1817 his father took some pages of verse from his son's desk, at the invitation of Willard Phillips, an editor of the North American Review, tutored in the classics by Dr. Bryant, he submitted them along with his own work; the editor of the Review, Edward Tyrrel Channing, read the poem to his assistant, Richard Henry Dana, who exclaimed, "That was never written on this side of the water!" Someone at the North American joined two of the son's discrete fragments, gave the result the Greek-derived title Thanatopsis, mistakenly attributed it to the father, published it. After clarification of the authorship, the son's poems began appearing with some regularity in the Review.
"To a Waterfowl", published in 1821, was the most popular. On January 11, 1821, still striving to build a legal career, married Frances Fairchild. Soon after, having received an invitation to address the Harvard University Phi Beta Kappa Society at the school's August commencement, Bryant spent months working on "The Ages", a panorama in verse of the history of civilization, culminating in the establishment of the United States; as it would in all collections he subsequently issued, "The Ages" led the volume entitled Poems, which he arranged to publish on the same trip to Cambridge. For that book, he added sets of lines at the beginning and end of "Thanatopsis" that changed the poem, his career as a poet was now established, though recognition as America's leading poet waited until 1832, when an expanded Poems was published in the U. S. and, with the assistance of Washington Irving, in Britain. His poetry has been described as being "of a thoughtful, meditative character, makes but slight appeal to the mass of readers."
From 1816 to 1825, Bryant depended on his law practice in Great Barrington, Massachusetts to sustain his family financially, but the strain of dealing with unsophisticated neighbors and juridical pettifoggery pushed him to trade his unrewarding profession for New York City and the promise of a literary career. With the encouragement of a distinguished and well-connected literary family, the Sedgwicks, he gained a foothold in New York City's vibrant cultural life, his first employment, in 1825, was as editor of the New-York Review, which within the next year merged with the United States Review and Literary Gazette. But in the throes of the failing struggle to raise subscriptions, he accepted part-time duties with the New-York Evening Post under William Coleman. From assistant editor he rose to editor-in-chief and co-owner of the newspaper, founded by Alexander Hamilton. Over the next half century, the Post would become the most respected paper in the city and, from the election of Andrew Jackson
The Sun (New York City)
The Sun was a New York newspaper published from 1833 until 1950. It was considered a serious paper, like the city's two more successful broadsheets, The New York Times and the New York Herald Tribune; the Sun was the most politically conservative of the three. In New York, The Sun began publication September 3, 1833, as a morning newspaper edited by Benjamin Day, with the slogan "It Shines for All", it only cost one penny, was easy to carry, its illustrations and crime reporting were popular with working-class readers. It inspired a new genre across the nation in various cities which followed known as the penny press making the news more available to lower-income readers at a cheaper price when most papers cost five cents to purchase; the Sun was the first newspaper to report crimes and personal events such as suicides and divorces. Day printed the first newspaper account of a suicide; this story was significant. It changed journalism forever, making the newspaper an integral part of the community and the lives of the readers.
Prior to this, all stories in newspapers were about reviews of books or the theater. Day was the first to hire reporters to collect stories. Prior to this, newspapers relied on readers sending in items, on reprinting making unauthorized copies of stories from other newspapers in the days before the organization of syndicates like the Associated Press and United Press International, his focus on crime is the beginning of "the craft of reporting and storytelling". If not the inventor, The Sun was nonetheless the newspaper which demonstrated conclusively that a newspaper could be supported by advertisements and not subscription fees, could be sold on the street instead of delivered to each subscriber. In addition, The Sun was aimed not at the common masses of working people. Day and The Sun recognized that the masses were fast becoming literate, demonstrated that a profit could be made selling to the larger numbers of them. Prior to The Sun, printers produced the newspapers at a loss, making their living selling printing services.
An evening edition was introduced in 1887 known as The Evening Sun. The newspaper magnate Frank Munsey bought both editions in 1916 and merged the Evening Sun with his New York Press; the morning edition of The Sun was merged for a time with Munsey's New York Herald as The Sun and New York Herald, but in 1920, Munsey separated them again, killed The Evening Sun, switchedThe Sun to an evening publishing format. The Sun moved its offices to the historic A. T. Stewart Company Building at 280 Broadway between Chambers and Reade Streets in 1917, site of America's first department store, renaming it "The Sun Building" with a landmark clock featuring its name and slogan on the Broadway facade, it continued until January 4, 1950, when it merged with the New York World-Telegram to form a new paper called the New York World-Telegram and Sun for 16 years. The Sun first gained notice for its central role in the Great Moon Hoax of 1835, a fabricated story of life and civilization on the Moon which the paper falsely attributed to British astronomer John Herschel and never retracted.
On April 13, 1844, The Sun published as factual a story by Edgar Allan Poe now known as "The Balloon-Hoax", retracted two days after publication. The story told of an imagined Atlantic crossing by hot-air balloon. Today, the paper is best known for the 1897 editorial "Is There a Santa Claus?", written by Francis Pharcellus Church. John B. Bogart, city editor of The Sun between 1873 and 1890, made what is the most quoted definition of the journalistic endeavor: "When a dog bites a man, not news, because it happens so often, but if a man bites a dog, news." In 1926, The Sun published a review by John Grierson of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, in which Grierson said the film had "documentary value." This is considered the origin of the term "documentary film"In 1947–48, The Sun featured a groundbreaking series of articles by Malcolm Johnson, "Crime on the Waterfront," that won the Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting in 1949. The series served as the basis for the 1954 movie On the Waterfront; the Sun's first female reporter was Emily Verdery Bettey, hired in 1868.
Eleanor Hoyt Brainerd was hired as a fashion editor in the 1880s. The film Deadline – U. S. A. is a story about the death of a New York newspaper called The Day, loosely based upon the old New York Sun, which closed in 1950. The original Sun newspaper was edited by Benjamin Day, making the film's newspaper name a play on words; the masthead of the original Sun is visible in a montage of newspaper clippings in a scene of the 1972 film The Godfather. The newspaper's offices were a converted department store at 280 Broadway, between Chambers and Reade streets in lower Manhattan, now known as "The Sun Building" and famous for the clocks that bear the newspaper's masthead and motto, they were recognized as a New York City landmark in 1986. In 2002, a new broadsheet was launched, styled The New York Sun, bearing the old