Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette and the flagship campus of the Purdue University system. The university was founded in 1869 after Lafayette businessman John Purdue donated land and money to establish a college of science and agriculture in his name; the first classes were held on September 1874, with six instructors and 39 students. The main campus in West Lafayette offers more than 200 majors for undergraduates, over 69 masters and doctoral programs, professional degrees in pharmacy and veterinary medicine. In addition, Purdue has more than 900 student organizations. Purdue is a member of the Big Ten Conference and enrolls the second largest student body of any university in Indiana, as well as the fourth largest foreign student population of any university in the United States. In 1865, the Indiana General Assembly voted to take advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862, began plans to establish an institution with a focus on agriculture and engineering.
Communities throughout the state offered their facilities and money to bid for the location of the new college. Popular proposals included the addition of an agriculture department at Indiana State University or at what is now Butler University. By 1869, Tippecanoe County’s offer included $150,000 from Lafayette business leader and philanthropist John Purdue, $50,000 from the county, 100 acres of land from local residents. On May 6, 1869, the General Assembly established the institution in Tippecanoe County as Purdue University, in the name of the principal benefactor. Classes began at Purdue on September 1874, with six instructors and 39 students. Professor John S. Hougham was Purdue’s first faculty member and served as acting president between the administrations of presidents Shortridge and White. A campus of five buildings was completed by the end of 1874. Purdue issued its first degree, a Bachelor of Science in chemistry, in 1875 and admitted its first female students that fall. Emerson E. White, the university’s president from 1876 to 1883, followed a strict interpretation of the Morrill Act.
Rather than emulate the classical universities, White believed Purdue should be an "industrial college" and devote its resources toward providing a liberal education with an emphasis on science and agriculture. He intended not only to prepare students for industrial work, but to prepare them to be good citizens and family members. Part of White's plan to distinguish Purdue from classical universities included a controversial attempt to ban fraternities; this ban was overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court and led to White's resignation. The next president, James H. Smart, is remembered for his call in 1894 to rebuild the original Heavilon Hall "one brick higher" after it had been destroyed by a fire. By the end of the nineteenth century, the university was organized into schools of agriculture and pharmacy, former U. S. President Benjamin Harrison was serving on the board of trustees. Purdue's engineering laboratories included testing facilities for a locomotive and a Corliss steam engine, one of the most efficient engines of the time.
The School of Agriculture was sharing its research with farmers throughout the state with its cooperative extension services and would undergo a period of growth over the following two decades. Programs in education and home economics were soon established, as well as a short-lived school of medicine. By 1925 Purdue had the largest undergraduate engineering enrollment in the country, a status it would keep for half a century. President Edward C. Elliott oversaw a campus building program between the world wars. Inventor and trustee David E. Ross coordinated several fundraisers, donated lands to the university, was instrumental in establishing the Purdue Research Foundation. Ross's gifts and fundraisers supported such projects as Ross–Ade Stadium, the Memorial Union, a civil engineering surveying camp, Purdue University Airport. Purdue Airport was the country's first university-owned airport and the site of the country's first college-credit flight training courses. Amelia Earhart joined the Purdue faculty in 1935 as a consultant for these flight courses and as a counselor on women's careers.
In 1937, the Purdue Research Foundation provided the funds for the Lockheed Electra 10-E Earhart flew on her attempted round-the-world flight. Every school and department at the university was involved in some type of military research or training during World War II. During a project on radar receivers, Purdue physicists discovered properties of germanium that led to the making of the first transistor; the Army and the Navy conducted training programs at Purdue and more than 17,500 students and alumni served in the armed forces. Purdue set up about a hundred centers throughout Indiana to train skilled workers for defense industries; as veterans returned to the university under the G. I. Bill, first-year classes were taught at some of these sites to alleviate the demand for campus space. Four of these sites are now degree-granting regional campuses of the Purdue University system. Purdue's on-campus housing became racially desegregated in 1947, following pressure from Purdue President Frederick L. Hovde and Indiana Governor Ralph F. Gates.
After the war, Hovde worked to expand the academic opportunities at the university. A decade-long construction program emphasized research. In the late 1950s and early 1960s the university established programs in veterinary medicine, industrial management, nursing, as well as the first computer science department in the United States. Undergraduate humanities courses were strengthened
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association. It publishes original research and editorials covering all aspects of the biomedical sciences; the journal was established in 1883 with Nathan Smith Davis as the founding editor. The journal's current editor-in-chief is Howard Bauchner of Boston University, who succeeded Catherine DeAngelis on July 1, 2011; the journal was established in 1883 by the American Medical Association and was superseded the Transactions of the American Medical Association. Councilor's Bulletin was renamed the Bulletin of the American Medical Association, absorbed by the Journal of the American Medical Association. In 1960, the journal obtained its current title, JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association; the journal is referred to as, JAMA. Continuing Education Opportunities for Physicians was a semiannual journal section providing lists for regional or national levels of continuing medical education.
JAMA has provided this information since 1937. Prior to 1955, the list was produced either quarterly or semiannually. Between 1955 and 1981, the list was available annually, as the number of CME offerings increased from 1,000 to 8,500; the JAMA website states that webinars are available for CME. On 11 July 2016, JAMA published an article by Barack Obama entitled, United States Health Care Reform: Progress to Date and Next Steps, the first academic paper published by a sitting U. S. president. The article was not subject to blind peer-review, it argued for specific policies that future presidents could pursue in order to improve national health care reform implementation. After the controversial 1999 firing of an editor-in-chief, George D. Lundberg, a process was put in place to ensure editorial freedom. A seven-member journal oversight committee was created to evaluate the editor-in-chief and to help ensure editorial independence. Since its inception, the committee has met at least once a year. Presently, JAMA policy states that article content should be attributed to authors, not to the publisher.
From 1964 to 2013, the JAMA journal used images of artwork on its cover and it published essays commenting on the artwork. According to former editor George Lundberg, this practice was designed to link the humanities and medicine. In 2013, a format redesign moved the art feature to an inside page, replacing an image of the artwork on the cover with a table of contents; the purpose of the redesign was to standardize the appearance of all journals in the JAMA Network. The following persons have been editor-in-chief of JAMA: The JAMA journal is abstracted and indexed in: According to the Journal Citation Reports, the JAMA journal has a 2017 impact factor of 47.661, ranking it third out of 154 journals in the category "Medicine, General & Internal". List of American Medical Association journals Official website American Medical Association Archives Free copies of volumes 1-80, from the Internet Archive and HathiTrust
Pharmacognosy is the study of plants or other natural sources as a possible source of drugs. The American Society of Pharmacognosy defines pharmacognosy as "the study of the physical, chemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources"; the word "pharmacognosy" is derived from two Greek words: φάρμακον pharmakon, γνῶσις gnosis. The term "pharmacognosy" was used for the first time by the Austrian physician Schmidt in 1811 and 1815 by Crr. Anotheus Seydler in work titled Analecta Pharmacognostica. Originally—during the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century—"pharmacognosy" was used to define the branch of medicine or commodity sciences which deals with drugs in their crude, or unprepared, form. Crude drugs are the dried, unprepared material of plant, animal or mineral origin, used for medicine; the study of these materials under the name pharmakognosie was first developed in German-speaking areas of Europe, while other language areas used the older term materia medica taken from the works of Galen and Dioscorides.
In German the term drogenkunde is used synonymously. As late as the beginning of the 20th century, the subject had developed on the botanical side, being concerned with the description and identification of drugs both in their whole state and in powder form; such branches of pharmacognosy are still of fundamental importance for pharmacopoeial identification and quality control purposes, but rapid development in other areas has enormously expanded the subject. The advent of the 21st century brought a renaissance of pharmacognosy and its conventional botanical approach has been broadened up to molecular and metabolomic level. In addition to the mentioned definition, the American Society of Pharmacognosy defines pharmacognosy as "the study of natural product molecules that are useful for their medicinal, gustatory, or other functional properties." Other definitions are more encompassing, drawing on a broad spectrum of biological subjects, including botany, marine biology, herbal medicine, biotechnology, pharmacology, clinical pharmacy and pharmacy practice.
Medical ethnobotany: the study of the traditional use of plants for medicinal purposes. Zoopharmacognosy, the process by which animals self-medicate, by selecting and using plants and insects to treat and prevent disease. Marine pharmacognosy, the study of chemicals derived from marine organisms. All plants produce chemical compounds as part of their normal metabolic activities; these phytochemicals are divided into primary metabolites such as sugars and fats, which are found in all plants. For example, some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predation and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination, it is these secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs—examples are inulin from the roots of dahlias, quinine from the cinchona, THC and CBD from the flowers of cannabis and codeine from the poppy, digoxin from the foxglove. Plants synthesize a variety of phytochemicals, but most are derivatives: Alkaloids are a class of chemical compounds containing a nitrogen ring.
Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi and animals, are part of the group of natural products. Many alkaloids can be purified from crude extracts by acid-base extraction. Many alkaloids are toxic to other organisms. Polyphenols are compounds; the anthocyanins that give grapes their purple color, the isoflavones, the phytoestrogens from soy and the tannins that give tea its astringency are phenolics. Glycosides are molecules in which a sugar is bound to a non-carbohydrate moiety a small organic molecule. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store chemicals in the form of inactive glycosides; these can be activated by enzyme hydrolysis, which causes the sugar part to be broken off, making the chemical available for use. Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants conifers, which are strong smelling and thus may have had a protective function, they are the major components of resin, of turpentine produced from resin.
When terpenes are modified chemically, such as by oxidation or rearrangement of the carbon skeleton, the resulting compounds are referred to as terpenoids. Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers. Essential oils are used as natural flavor additives for food, as fragrances in perfumery, in traditional and alternative medicines such as aromatherapy. Synthetic variations and derivatives of natural terpenes and terpenoids greatly expand the variety of aromas used in perfumery and flavors used in food additives; the fragrance of rose and lavender is due to monoterpenes. The carotenoids produce the reds and oranges of pumpkin and tomatoes. A typical protocol
A foreword is a piece of writing sometimes placed at the beginning of a book or other piece of literature. Written by someone other than the primary author of the work, it tells of some interaction between the writer of the foreword and the book's primary author or the story the book tells. Editions of a book sometimes have a new foreword prepended, which might explain in what respects that edition differs from previous ones; when written by the author, the foreword may cover the story of how the book came into being or how the idea for the book was developed, may include thanks and acknowledgments to people who were helpful to the author during the time of writing. Unlike a preface, a foreword is always signed. Information essential to the main text is placed in a set of explanatory notes, or in an introduction, rather than in the foreword or preface; the pages containing the foreword and preface are not numbered as part of the main work, which uses Arabic numerals. If the front matter is paginated, it uses lowercase Roman numerals.
If there is both a foreword and a preface, the foreword appears first. The word foreword was first used around the mid-17th century as a term in philology, it was a calque of German Vorwort, itself a calque of Latin praefatio. Afterword Epigraph Introduction Preface Prologue The difference between a preface and introduction – PatMcNees.com