Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
United States energy independence
US energy independence relates to the goal of reducing the United States imports of petroleum and other foreign sources of energy. Energy independence is espoused by those who want to leave the US unaffected by global energy supply disruptions, to restrict reliance upon politically unstable states for its energy security. Energy independence is concerned with oil, the source of the country's principal transport fuels. In total energy consumption, the US was between 86% and 91% self-sufficient in 2016. In May 2011, the country became a net exporter of refined petroleum products; as of 2014, the United States was the world's third-largest producer of crude oil, after Saudi Arabia and Russia, second-largest exporter of refined products, after Russia. As of March 2015, 85% of crude oil imports came from: Canada, Saudi Arabia, Mexico and Colombia. Nineteen percent of imported oil comes from the Middle East; the fraction of crude oil consumed in the US, imported went from 35% before the 1973 oil crisis, peaked at 60% in 2005, returned to 35% by 2013 thanks to increased domestic production from the shale oil boom.
Beginning in the 1970s, exports of crude oil were illegal without a permit. The ban was repealed in 2015. Greater energy self-sufficiency, it was claimed, would prevent major supply disruptions like the 1973 oil crisis and the 1979 energy crisis from recurring. Proponents argue that the potential for political unrest in major oil suppliers, such as Saudi Arabia and Nigeria, is abundant, causes great fluctuations in crude oil prices. Large individual US pipelines and other fuel infrastructure and extraction projects are controversial issues in US politics. In the early 20th century the United States became a major oil supplier to the world. World War II prompted a Synthetic Liquid Fuels Program but it did not go beyond research. In mid-century the country shifted from being a major exporter to a net importer. An import quota imposed in 1959 limited imports to a fraction of domestic production until 1973. After the 1973 oil crisis, the United States Department of Energy and Synthetic Fuels Corporation were created to address the problem of fuel import dependency.
The US's dependence on foreign oil rose from 26 percent to 47 percent between 1985 and 1989. According to the Washington & Jefferson College Energy Index, by 2012, American energy independence had decreased by 22% since the Presidency of Harry Truman; the US's imports of foreign oil fell to 36 percent in 2013, down from a high of 60 percent in 2006. Many proponents of energy independence look to the United States' untapped domestic oil reserves, either known or potential; those who favor increasing domestic oil production suggest removing many of the limitations on oil exploration in the Gulf of Mexico, the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the outer continental shelf. Foreign dependence is not the only factor in North American energy politics, however; some proponents of US energy independence promote wider use of alternatives such as ethanol fuel, biodiesel, plug-in hybrids and other alternative propulsion. A 2013 report published by the Fuel Freedom Foundation said that without a shift to domestic feedstocks for fuel, such as natural gas and biomass, the US would not be able to achieve energy independence.
As of 2014, the United States imposes an import tariff of 54 cents a gallon on ethanol fuel. Ethanol fuel in Brazil is produced from sugarcane, which yields much more fuel per acre than the corn used for ethanol production in the United States. In the United States, oil is consumed as fuel for cars, buses and airplanes. Two thirds of US oil consumption is due to the transportation sector. A national strategy designed to shift all transportation to a combined use of alternative fuels and plug-in hybrids is predicted to make the US independent of petroleum. Oil imports are most problematic in domestic politics and energy security when they come from countries that are hostile to US foreign policy and interests, are former or potential future rivals or have questionable human rights practices. Sometimes an alternative'North American energy independence is proposed, by which North America as a unit should be energy independent, but in which the US could still import energy from Canada and Mexico, which are less problematic allies and more economically integrated.
A related, less absolute, policy may be called North American energy security. In 2012 in an editorial to Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail Mexican president elect Enrique Peña Nieto, called North American energy security a "common goal" of Canada and Mexico; the benefits are argued to be similar to US energy independence—the reduction of North America's energy dependence on unstable regions such as the Middle East and South America and accepting supplies from the reliable North American Free Trade Area, reducing exposure to terrorism abroad. In Canada and Mexico there is the concern not to have energy policy dictated by the United States, as well as tension over US ownership of energy co
The Magdalena River is the principal river of Colombia, flowing northward about 1,528 kilometres through the western half of the country. It takes its name from the biblical figure Mary Magdalene, it is navigable through much of its lower reaches, in spite of the shifting sand bars at the mouth of its delta, as far as Honda, at the downstream base of its rapids. It flows through the Magdalena River Valley, its drainage basin covers a surface of 273,000 square kilometres, 24% of the country's area and where 66% of its population lives. The headwaters of the Magdalena River are in the south of Colombia, where the Andean subranges Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental separate, in Huila Department; the river runs east of north in a great valley between the two cordilleras. It reaches the coastal plain at about nine degrees north runs west for about 100 km north again, reaching the Caribbean Sea at the city of Barranquilla in the zone known as Bocas de Ceniza; the Magdalena River basin, which includes the Cauca River and other tributaries, is rich in fish.
As of 2008, 213 fish species were known from the basin. Since several new species have been described from the basin such as five Hemibrycon in 2013, two Ancistrus in 2013 and a Farlowella in 2014. Among the more famous species in the basin are Caquetaia umbrifera, Ctenolucius hujeta, Geophagus steindachneri, Ichthyoelephas longirostris, Panaque cochliodon, Pimelodus blochii, Potamotrygon magdalenae, Prochilodus magdalenae, Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum and Salminus affinis. About 55% of the fish species in the basin are endemic, including four endemic genera: The catfish Centrochir and Eremophilus, the characids Carlastyanax and Genycharax. In general, the fish fauna shows connections with surrounding basins, notably Atrato and Maracaibo, but to a lesser extent Amazon–Orinoco; the most productive fishing areas in Colombia are in the basin, but there has been a drastic decrease in the annual harvest with a fall of about 90% between 1975 and 2008. The primary threats are habitat loss. Additional dams are being constructed, including El Quimbo and Ituango, which has caused some controversy.
As a result of the pollution, heavy metals have been detected in some commercially important fish in the river. As of 2002, 19 fish species in the river basin were recognized as threatened; the Magdalena River and its valley crosses a wide variety of ecosystems, like páramo in its headwaters, dry forest in the upper part of its valley, rainforest in its middle course, swamps and wetlands in its lower course. The spectacled caiman, green iguana and brown pelican are abundant in these ecosystems but other animal species like the West Indian manatee, Magdalena tinamou, Todd's parakeet, American crocodile, Colombian slider, Magdalena River turtle, Dahl's toad-headed turtle and red-footed tortoise are in danger of extinction. In addition, there is a possible risk posed by invasive hippopotamus. Imported by Pablo Escobar, these hippopotami became feral following his demise, have since expanded beyond their original home on Hacienda Napoles into nearby regions of the Magdalena River. Due to its geographical position in the north of South America, the Magdalena River was since precolumbian times a route towards the interior of today Colombia and Ecuador.
Several Carib speaking peoples such as the Panche and the Yariguí ascended through the western bank of the river, while its eastern portion was inhabited by the Muisca civilization, which called the river Yuma. The Spanish conquistadores who arrived to today's Colombia early in the 16th century used the river to push to the wild and mountainous inland after Rodrigo de Bastidas discovered and named the river on April 1, 1501. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the river was the only transport link communicating Bogotá with the Caribbean Sea port Cartagena de Indias and thus with Europe. In 1825, the Congress of Colombia awarded a concession to establish steam navigation in the Magdalena River to Juan Bernardo Elbers, but his company closed shortly after. By 1845, steamboats travelled on the river until 1961, when the last steamers ceased operation. Much of the film Love in the Time of Cholera takes place in the historic, walled city of Cartagena in Colombia; some screen shots showed the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range.
The General in His Labyrinth, by Gabriel García Márquez, is a fictionalized account of the final voyage of Simón Bolívar down the Magdalena River, where he revisits many cities and villages along the river
Mexico–United States relations
Mexico–United States relations refers to the foreign relations between the United Mexican States and the United States of America. The two countries share a land border in North America. Several treaties have been concluded between the two nations bilaterally, such as the Gadsden Purchase, multilaterally, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement. Both are members of various international organizations, including the Organization of American States and the United Nations. Since the late nineteenth century during the regime of President Porfirio Díaz, the two countries have had close diplomatic and economic ties. During Díaz's long presidency, Mexico was opened to foreign investment and U. S. entrepreneurs invested in ranching and agricultural enterprises and mining. The U. S. played an important role in the course of the Mexican Revolution with direct actions of the U. S. government in supporting or repudiating support of revolutionary factions. The long border between the two countries means that peace and security in that region is important to the U.
S.'s international trade. The U. S. is Mexico's biggest trading partner and Mexico is the U. S.'s third largest trading partners. In 2010, Mexico's exports totaled US$309.6 billion, three quarters of those purchases were made by the United States. They are closely connected demographically, with over one million U. S. citizens living in Mexico and Mexico being the largest source of immigrants to the United States. Illegal immigration and illegal trade in drugs and in fire arms have been causes of differences between the two governments, but of cooperation. While condemning the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and providing considerable relief aid to the U. S. after Hurricane Katrina, the Mexican government, pursuing neutrality in international affairs, opted not to join the controversial War on Terror and the more controversial Iraq War, instead being the first nation in history to formally and voluntarily leave the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance in 2002, though Mexico joined the U. S. in supporting military intervention in the Libyan Civil War.
According to a 2010 Gallup poll, 4.4% of surveyed Mexicans 6.2 million people, say that they would move permanently to the United States if given the chance, according to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 37% of Mexicans approve of U. S. leadership, with 27% disapproving and 36% uncertain. As of 2013, Mexican students form the 9th largest group of international students studying in the United States, representing 1.7% of all foreigners pursuing higher education in the U. S; the election of Donald Trump, who had provoked the ire of the Mexican government through threats against companies who invest in Mexico instead of the U. S, his claims that he would construct a border wall and force Mexico to fund its construction, has raised questions over the future of the relationship between the United States and Mexico. A 2017 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center showed 65% of Mexicans had a negative view of the US, with only 30% having a positive view; the same study showed only 5% of Mexicans had confidence in the current US leader, President Donald Trump, with 93% having no confidence in the current US president.
The United States of America shares a unique and complex relationship with the United Mexican States. With shared history stemming back to the Texas Revolution and the Mexican–American War, several treaties have been concluded between the two nations, most notably the Gadsden Purchase, multilaterally with Canada, the North American Free Trade Agreement. Mexico and the United States are members of various international organizations, such as the Organization of American States and the United Nations. Boundary disputes and allocation of boundary waters have been administered since 1889 by the International Boundary and Water Commission, which maintains international dams and wastewater sanitation facilities. Once viewed as a model of international cooperation, in recent decades the IBWC has been criticized as an institutional anachronism, by-passed by modern social and political issues. Illegal immigration, arms sales, drug smuggling continue to be contending issues in 21st-century U. S.-Mexico relations.
U. S.–Mexico relations grew out of the earlier relations between the fledgling nation of the United States and the Spanish Empire and its viceroyalty of New Spain. Modern Mexico formed the core area of the Viceroyalty of New Spain at the time the United States gained independence from Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War. Spain had served as an ally to the American colonists in that war; the aspect of Spanish-American relations that would bear most prominently on relations between the U. S. and Mexico was the ownership of Texas. In the early 19th century the United States claimed that Texas was part of the territory of Louisiana, therefore had been rightfully acquired by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803; the Spanish, claimed it was not, as the western boundaries of Louisiana were not defined. In 1819 the dispute was resolved with the signing of the Adams–Onís Treaty, in which the United States relinquished its claims to Texas and instead purchased Spanish Florida.
In 1821 New Spain gained its independence from Spain and established the First Mexican Empire under the rule of Agustín de Iturbide, who had fought in the royal army against the insurgents in the independence from Spain. Independent Mexico was soon recognized by the United States; the two countries established diplomatic relations, with Joel Poinsett as the first envoy. In 1828 Mexico and the Unite
Canada–United States relations
Canada–United States relations refers to the bilateral relations between Canada and the United States of America. Relations between Canada and the United States of America have been extensive, given a shared border and ever-increasing close cultural, economical ties and similarities; the shared historical and cultural heritage has resulted in one of the most stable and mutually beneficial international relationships in the world. For both countries, the level of trade with the other is at the top of the annual combined import-export total. Tourism and migration between the two nations have increased rapport, but border security was heightened after the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001; the U. S. is 9.25 times larger in population and has the dominant cultural and economic influence. Starting with the American Revolution, when anti-American Loyalists fled to Canada, a vocal element in Canada has warned against US dominance or annexation; the War of 1812 saw invasions across the border.
In 1815, the war ended with the border demilitarized, as were the Great Lakes. The British ceased aiding First Nation attacks on American territory, the United States never again attempted to invade Canada. Apart from minor raids, it has remained peaceful; as Britain decided to disengage, fears of an American takeover played a role in the formation of the Dominion of Canada, Canada's rejection of free trade. Military collaboration was close during World War II and continued throughout the Cold War, bilaterally through NORAD and multilaterally through NATO. A high volume of trade and migration continues between the two nations, as well as a heavy overlapping of popular and elite culture, a dynamic which has generated closer ties after the signing of the Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement in 1988. Canada and the United States are the world's largest trading partners; the two nations have the world's longest shared border, have significant interoperability within the defense sphere. Recent difficulties have included repeated trade disputes, environmental concerns, Canadian concern for the future of oil exports, issues of illegal immigration and the threat of terrorism.
Trade has continued to expand following the 1988 FTA and North American Free Trade Agreement in 1994 which has further merged the two economies. Co-operation on many fronts, such as the ease of the flow of goods and people across borders are to be more extended, as well as the establishment of joint border inspection agencies, relocation of U. S. food inspectors agents to Canadian plants and vice versa, greater sharing of intelligence, harmonizing regulations on everything from food to manufactured goods, thus further increasing the American-Canadian assemblage. The foreign policies of the neighbours have been aligned since the Cold War. Canada has disagreed with American policies regarding the Vietnam War, the status of Cuba, the Iraq War, Missile Defense, the War on Terror. A diplomatic debate has been underway in recent years on whether the Northwest Passage is in international waters or under Canadian sovereignty. Today there are close cultural ties, many similar and identical traits and according to Gallup's annual public opinion polls, Canada has been Americans' favorite nation, with 96% of Americans viewing Canada favorably in 2012.
As of spring 2013, 64% of Canadians had a favorable view of the U. S. and 81% expressed confidence in then-US President Obama to do the right thing in international matters. According to the same poll, 30% viewed the U. S. negatively. According to a 2014 BBC World Service Poll, 86% of Americans view Canada's influence positively, with only 5% expressing a negative view. However, according to the same poll, 43% of Canadians view U. S. influence positively, with 52% expressing a negative view. In addition, according to Spring 2017 Global Attitudes Survey, 43% of Canadians view U. S. positively, while 51% hold a negative view. More however, a poll in January 2018 showed Canadians' approval of U. S. leadership dropped by over 40 percentage points under President Donald Trump, in line with the view of residents of many other U. S. neutral countries. Leaders of Canada and the United States from 1950 Before the British conquest of French Canada in 1760, there had been a series of wars between the British and the French which were fought out in the colonies as well as in Europe and the high seas.
In general, the British relied on American colonial militia units, while the French relied on their First Nation allies. The Iroquois Nation were important allies of the British. Much of the fighting involved ambushes and small-scale warfare in the villages along the border between New England and Quebec; the New England colonies had a much larger population than Quebec, so major invasions came from south to north. The First Nation allies, only loosely controlled by the French raided New England villages to kidnap women and children, torture and kill the men; those who survived were brought up as Francophone Catholics. The tension along the border was exacerbated by religion, the French Catholics and English Protestants had a deep mutual distrust. There was a naval dimension as well, involving privateers attacking enemy merchant ships. England seized Quebec from 1629 to 1632, Acadia in 1613 and again from 1654 to 1670; the major wars were, King William's War. In Canada, as in Europe, this era is known as the Seven Years' War.
New England soldiers and sailo