England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Trerice is an historic manor in the parish of Newlyn East, near Newquay, United Kingdom. The surviving Tudor manor house known as Trerice House is located at Kestle Mill, three miles east of Newquay; the house with its surrounding garden has been owned by the National Trust since 1953 and is open to the public. The garden features an orchard with old varieties of fruit trees; the Celtic prefix Tre- or Tref- is found in Cornish place names, denoting "hamlet, farmstead or estate", pre-dates the 7th century Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain. About 1,300 such place names survive in Cornwall west of the River Tamar, but only 3 survive in Devon, the next adjoining county beyond the Tamar. A few instances exist in Glamorgan, on the north side of the Bristol Channel from Cornwall; the prefix is the equivalent of the Anglo-Saxon suffix -tun or -ton, today rare in Cornwall but common in Devon and elsewhere. The second part of the place name -Rice is the name of the Celtic man who held the estate. Trerice House features a main south-east facing range of'E'-plan abutting a south-west range containing two earlier phases.
Phase I consisted of a tower house with low north-west block. This was extended early in the 16th century by'Jack of Tilbury', to include a 2-storey range to the south-east of the earlier tower, together now forming the bulky south wing. Sir John Arundell, High Sheriff of Cornwall and father-in-law to Sir Richard Carew, added the main range of the E-plan circa 1570–1573; the manor of Trerice was from the 14th century to 1768 the seat of the Arundell family "of Trerice", which appears to have been connected with the prominent Arundell family "of Lanherne", 6 miles to the north-east of Trerice, of Tolverne in Cornwall and of Wardour Castle in Wiltshire. Both families used the same armorials. In 1768 on the failure of the male line it passed by entail to the Wentworth family, Earls of Strafford, on the extinction of that family in 1802 passed by entail to the Acland baronets of Devon and Somerset, who sold it in 1915 to Cornwall County Council; the earliest known holder was the de Terise family, which took its surname from the manor, whose descent is recorded in the Heraldic Visitations of Cornwall as follows:.
Udy de Terise Otes de Terise, who married Rose Goviley and heiress of Goviley by his wife Maude de Lansladron and heiress of Sir Serlo de Lansladron, of Lansladron in Cornwall, summoned to parliament as a baron by King Edward I. The Arundell family quartered the arms of Lansladron: Sable, three chevronels argent. Michael de Terise, who married Alice de Flamoke, daughter of Marke, Lord Flamoke, of Flamoke, he left a daughter and sole heiress Jane de Flamoke, who during the reign of King Edward III married Ralph Arundell of Kierhaies. The origins of the Arundell family of Trerice are obscure and no reliable descent has been traced from the family of Arundell of Lanherne, Cornwall, 6 miles to the north-east of Trerice, called by Leland "The Great Arundells"; these two main Arundell families are confused as both called most of the male heirs by the Christian name "John". The earliest recorded English Arundell is the 11th century Norman magnate Roger Arundel, feudal baron of Poorstock in Dorset, recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086, whose family died out in the male line in 1165.
No such place as Arundel appears to exist in Normandy, no territorial prefix de is shown before Roger's surname in Domesday. The early armorials of the Arundells of Trerice were Gules, a lion rampant or, but the family used the same canting arms as Arundell of Lanherne: Sable, six swallows 3, 2 and 1 argent; the Arundells of Trerice are said to have had their English origins during the reign of King Henry III at the manor of "Caryhayes, Kierhaies or Kenelhelvas" in Cornwall, or at Allerford in Somerset. However the Lysons brothers stated: "We think it probable, from the frequent recurrence of the family-names of Nicholas and John, that the Arundells of Trerice were descended from a younger son of Sir Nicholas Arundell, of Hempston-Arundell, in Devonshire, the elder branch of which failed by the death of his son Sir John, in the reign of Henry III"; the family's descent is recorded in the Heraldic Visitations of Cornwall as follows:. Ralph Arundell of Kierhaies who during the reign of King Edward III married Jane de Terise, heiress of Trerice.
Nicholas Arundell and heir, who married Elizabeth Pellor and heiress of John Pellor of Pellor Sir John Arundell and heir, who married Jane Durant and heiress of John Durant. His second son was Richard Arundell of Penbigell, Sheriff of Cornwall in 1408. Nicholas II Arundell, who married Johanna St John, daughter of Edward St John of Somerset and heiress of her brother William St John. From this marriage the Arundells inherited the manors of Selworthy and Luccombe, on the north coast of Somerset opposite Glamorgan where Fonmon Castle was the family's earliest seat, built by Sir Oliver St. John, one of the Twelve Knights of Glamorgan, followers of Robert FitzHamon, the Norman conqueror of Glamorgan; the North Somerset estate of Holnicote was in the parish of Selworthy, had been inherited on the marriage in 1745 of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, 7th Baronet to Elizabeth Dyke, heiress of Holnicote and Pixton. Th
Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences
Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London in 1728, reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century. The Cyclopaedia was one of the first general encyclopedias to be produced in English; the 1728 subtitle gives a summary of the aims of the author: Cyclopædia, or, an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Containing the Definitions of the Terms, Accounts of the Things Signify'd Thereby, in the Several Arts, both Liberal and Mechanical, the Several Sciences and Divine: the Figures, Properties, Productions and Uses, of Things Natural and Artificial. The first edition included numerous cross-references meant to connect articles scattered by the use of alphabetical order, a dedication to the King, George II, a philosophical preface at the beginning of Volume 1. Among other things, the preface gives an analysis of forty-seven divisions of knowledge, with classed lists of the articles belonging to each, intended to serve as a table of contents and as a directory indicating the order in which the articles should be read.
A second edition appeared in 1738 with 2,466 pages. This edition was retouched and amended in a thousand places, with a few added articles and some enlarged articles. Chambers was prevented from doing more because the booksellers were alarmed by a bill in Parliament containing a clause to oblige the publishers of all improved editions of books to print their improvements separately; the bill, after passing the House of Commons, was unexpectedly thrown out by the House of Lords. Five other editions were published in London from 1739 to 1751–1752. An edition was published in Dublin in 1742. An Italian translation appearing in Venice, 1748–1749, 4to, 9 vols. was the first complete Italian encyclopaedia. When Chambers was in France in 1739, he rejected favorable proposals to publish an edition there dedicated to Louis XV. Chambers' work was done, popular. However, it had omissions, as he was well aware. George Lewis Scott was employed by the booksellers to select articles for the press and to supply others, but he left before the job was finished.
The job was given to Dr. John Hill; the Supplement was published in London in 1753 in two folio volumes with 12 plates. Hill was a botanist, the botanical part, weak in the Cyclopaedia, was the best. Abraham Rees, a nonconformist minister, published a revised and enlarged edition in 1778–1788, with the supplement and improvements incorporated, it was published as a folio of 5 vols. 5010 pages, 159 plates. It was published in 418 numbers at 6d. Each. Rees claimed to have added more than 4,400 new articles. At the end, he gave an index of articles, classed under 100.heads, numbering about 57,000 and filling 80 pages. The heads, with 39 cross references, were arranged alphabetically. Among the precursors of Chambers's Cyclopaedia was John Harris's Lexicon Technicum, of 1704. By its title and content, it was "An Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Explaining not only the Terms of Art, but the Arts Themselves." While Harris's work is classified as a technical dictionary, it took material from Newton and Halley, among others.
Chambers's Cyclopaedia in turn became the inspiration for the landmark Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert, which owed its inception to a proposed French translation of Chambers' work begun in 1744 by John Mills, assisted by Gottfried Sellius Bocast, Alexander. Chambers on Definition. McLean: Berkeley Bridge Press, 2016.. Bradshaw, Lael Ely. "Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopedia." Notable Encyclopedias of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Nine Predecessors of the Encyclopédie. Ed. Frank Kafker. Oxford: The Voltaire Foundation, 1981. 123–137.. Collison, Robert. Encyclopædias: Their History Throughout the Ages. New York: Hafner, 1966. OCLC 368968 Kafker, Frank. A. Notable Encyclopedias of the Late Eighteenth Century: Eleven Successors of the Encyclopédie. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation at the Taylor Institution, 1994. Kolb, Gwin J. and James H. Sledd. “Johnson’s ‘Dictionary’ and Lexicographical Tradition.” Modern Philology 50.3: 171–194. Mack, Ruth. “The Historicity of Johnson’s Lexicographer.”
Representations 76: 61–87. Shorr, Phillip. Science and Superstition in the Eighteenth Century: A Study of the Treatment of Science in Two Encyclopedias of 1725–1750. New York: Columbia, 1932. OCLC 3633346 Walsh, S. Patraig. "Cyclopaedia." Anglo-American General Encyclopedias: A Historical Bibliography, 1703–1967. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1968. 38–39. OCLC 577541 Yeo, Richard. "The Best Book in the Universe": Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopedia. In Encyclopædic Visions: Scientific Dictionaries and Enlightenment Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001. 120–169. Yeo, Richard R. "A Solution to the Multitude of Books: Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia as "the Best Book in the Universe."" Journal of the History of Ideas, v. 64, 2003. Pp. 61–72. Chambers' Cyclopaedia, 1728, 2 volumes
Maurice Russell, knight
Sir Maurice Russell of Kingston Russell and Dyrham, Glos. was an English nobleman and knight. He was a prominent member of the Gloucestershire gentry, he was heir of Sir Ralph Russell and his wife Alice. He was knighted between June and December 1385 and served twice as Knight of the Shire for Gloucestershire in 1402 and 1404, he held the post of Sheriff of Gloucestershire four times, was Coroner and Justice of the Peace, Tax Collector and Commissioner of Enquiry. His land holdings were extensive in Gloucestershire, Dorset and Buckinghamshire, he was descended from an ancient line which can be traced back to 1210, which ended on the death of his son Thomas, from his second marriage, as a young man without male issue. Most of his estates, despite having been entailed, passed at his death into the families of his two daughters from his first marriage. In 1626 the York Herald, William Le Neve, claimed descent for the family of Russell of Kingston Russell from a certain Norman knight, Hugo de Rosel, but this has since been shown to be fanciful, in fact the family's earliest verifiable ancestor was living about 1200.
The family was established at Kingston Russell in the parish of Long Bredy, near Swyre, in Dorset, at the start of the 13th century. About 1210 Sir John Russell held Kingston from King John as half a hide by the serjeanty of being a marshal of the King's buttery on Christmas Day and at Whitsuntide, a service which had originated in the time of William the Conqueror; the tenure was said to be that of telling out the King's chessmen and putting them away when the King had finished his game. Members of the family held nearby Allington in Dorset from an early date, by serjeanty of presenting to the King a cup of wine at Christmas, yet it appears in fact to have been part of the Domesday fief of Turstin FitzRolf, which became the barony of Newmarch. John Russell was Governor of Corfe Castle in Dorset in 1220/1 and sometime Constable of Sherborne Castle, Dorset, he married a daughter of Thomas Bardolph and Adela Corbet. On the death in 1216 of his near neighbour in Dorset, James of Newmarch, of North Cadbury in Dorset, last of that family, John Russell had purchased the wardship of his two daughters and co-heiresses and Hawise, which transaction received the approval of King Henry III in 1224.
Isabel, the elder, he married to his son Ralph Russell in 1219, whilst he sold the marriage of Hawise to John de Bottrell. On the death of Bottrell, Hawise married secondly Nicholas de Moels, to whom her moiety of the property descended, thus were the lands of the extensive Newmarch barony the Domesday Book fiefdom of Turstin FitzRolf, standard bearer to William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings the fief of Wynebald de Ballon, a soldier friend of King William II, split in two between the husbands of the two co-heirs. To Moels went North Cadbury and Upton “Moels”, whilst to Ralph Russell went Dyrham and a moiety of Aust, Upton “Russell”, Hardwick & Kimble & other estates in Wiltshire; the Testa de Nevill entry for Dyrham was: “Jame de Novo Mercato tenet in Dorham cum pertinenciis duos milites et dimidium”. Ralph Russell's and Isabel's son Sir William Russell died as a young man in 1310/11, but not without having inherited in 1298 the lands of his two elder brothers and Robert; the Russell lands at Dyrham were in 1311 one of the largest arable demesnes in Gloucestershire, lands farmed in-hand, not let out to tenants, comprising 420 acres arable and 60 acres of meadow.
William produced Theobald, by his wife Jane Peverell. Thus, the infant Theobald, having lost father and grandfather, was granted by King Edward II in wardship to Ralph de Gorges, 1st Baron Gorges of Wraxall & Bradpole, Tothill. In 1316, Theobald Russell, as a minor, was recorded as holding 8 manors. 1 in Wilts. 1 in Som. & 4 elsewhere. Gorges had a son, Ralph, 2nd Baron Gorges, 3 daughters, Elizabeth and Joan, he appears to have married his second daughter Eleanor to the young Theobald Russell. Before the death of the 2nd Baron without issue shortly after his father keen to see his family name and armorials continue, he formed the plan of bequeathing the Gorges estates to the younger son of his sister Eleanor Russell, on condition that he should adopt the name and arms of Gorges; this is what occurred when Theobald Russell II, 3rd son of Theobald and Eleanor, his 2nd elder brother William having died, adopted the name Gorges, founded a revived Gorges line, which flourished, based at Wraxall, Somerset..
When, Theobald “Gorges” tried to adopt the Gorges arms, taken from the Morville heiress who had brought them Wraxall, he was challenged by the Warburton knight of Cheshire who happened to be serving with him at the Siege of Calais in 1346, who noticed they both bore the same arms on their shields, "Lozengy or and azure". The case was brought before the Earl Marshal, who adjudged on 19 July 1347 in favour of Warburton and forced Theobald Russell "Gorges" to add a "chevron gules" to the Morville arms as a difference, thus the new Gorges arms became "Lozengy or and azure, a chevron gules", one of the more celebrated and historic cases heard in the Earl Marshal's court was re
An indenture is a legal contract that reflects or covers a debt or purchase obligation. It refers to two types of practices: in historical usage, an indentured servant status, in modern usage, it is an instrument used for commercial debt or real estate transaction. An indenture is a legal contract between two parties for indentured labour or a term of apprenticeship but for certain land transactions; the term comes from the medieval English "indenture of retainer" — a legal contract written in duplicate on the same sheet, with the copies separated by cutting along a jagged line so that the teeth of the two parts could be refitted to confirm authenticity. Each party to the deed would retain a part; when the agreement was made before a court of law a tripartite indenture was made, with the third piece kept at the court. The term is used for any kind of deed executed by more than one party, in contrast to a deed poll, made by one individual. In the case of bonds, the indenture shows the pledge, promises and covenants of the issuing party.
Although other evidence indicates that the method has been in use from around the year 1000, the earliest surviving examples in England are from the thirteenth century. These are agreements for military service, proving that a paid contract army was in existence. Exchequer records of Henry V's French campaign of 1415, including the indentures of all the captains of the army agreeing to provide specified numbers of men and at what cost, may still be read. An indenture was used as a form of sealed contract or agreement for land and buildings. An example of such a use can be found in the National Archives, where an indenture, from about 1401, recording the transfer of the manor of Pinley, Warwickshire, is held. In the early history of the United States, many European immigrants served a period of indentured labour in order to pay the cost of their transportation; this practice was common during the 17th and 18th centuries, where over half of immigrants worked off an average of three years' servitude.
Bond indenture is a legal document issued to lenders and describes key terms such as the interest rate, maturity date, pledge, representations and other terms of the bond offering. When the offering memorandum is prepared in advance of marketing a bond, the indenture will be summarised in the "description of notes" section. In the United States, public debt offerings in excess of $10 million require the use of an indenture of trust under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939; the rationale for this is that it is necessary to establish a collective action mechanism under which creditors can collect in a fair, orderly manner if default takes place. No trust relationship exists between the issuing corporation; these two are in arm's length, non-fiduciary, non-equity relationship. Rather, the trustee in a "trust indenture" is a third party a specialist company, appointed by the issuer to handle and safeguard the interests of the numerous public bondholders, in events ranging from the usual distribution of coupons and principal payments to dealing with the issuer's default, if any occurs.
Coolitude Corporate finance Debt security Debt bondage Debenture Indentured servant Indian indenture system Irish slaves myth Prospectus Securities law Slavery English property indenture from 1804 Wisconsin Health and Educational Facilities Authorities Revenue bonds First international Festival of indenture: http://www.potomitan.info/ki_nov/coolitude_2018.php
Newport Castle is a ruined castle in Newport, Wales. It was built in the 14th century by Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester or his son-in-law, Earl of Stafford, with the purpose of managing the crossing of the River Usk; the castle was used as administrative offices for the collection of rent and dues from local tenants, was a residence and a garrison. In 1402 it was sacked by Owain Glyndŵr, it was in disrepair by 1522, was taken by Oliver Cromwell's forces during the Civil War. Its use declined further in centuries, it has been a Grade II* Listed building since 1951. The castle is in the city of Newport between the Newport Bridge and the neighbouring railway bridge, on the west bank of the River Usk, it is adjacent to the B4591, at the Old Green interchange. The castle was built of local grey limestone, it was surrounded by a moat, within a "rectangular walled court". Trett said that "in its heyday it would have dominated the town and the river crossing." It had three tall towers, a large rectangular central tower and two two-storey polygonal end towers, which connected by straight walls.
Its form is based upon the line of the river bank. A vaulted audience chamber sat above a watergate — "a fortified gate... for use of people and supplies arriving by boat". Above the watergate were turrets. Within the castle were a great hall, kitchen, a gallery, chambers and, after the 15th century works by Humphrey Stafford, "a series of luxurious" apartments, those used by the lord being in the south tower. Architectural historian John Newman states that the most remarkable feature is the T-shaped room in the central tower above the watergate, which "must have provided a remarkable ceremonial setting."Images of the castle are found in a town map of 1750. A plan of the castle itself was published in Archaeologia Cambrensis in 1885. Newman has a detailed description of the architecture, a plan; the castle site included land between the river. Construction projects, including a railway, railway bridge and a inner ring road, resulted in modifications to the site, including destruction of "most of the inner bailey" and the removal of the moat.
The courtyard no longer remains, at its height, the castle was a "river oriented" castle with no special fortification on the roadside portion of the walled court. Now, only the east side of the castle remains; the first castle at "Castell Newyd ar Uysc" — so named to distinguish it from the old Roman port upstream at Caerleon — was a Norman motte built by William Rufus around 1075. Its exact location is uncertain, but a common theory is that it was built at Stow Hill close to St Woolos Church, about 0.5 miles southwest of the castle. In 1910, James Matthews, author of Historic Newport, wrote that the first mention of a castle in Newport was in 1126. William, Earl of Gloucester had a garrison established at the castle in 1171, but the following year the castle was destroyed by Iorwerth. According to Trett, "It is recorded in the Welsh Brut y Tywysogion that in about 1172 King Henry II visited Castell Newyd ar Uysc. In 1185 the king’s accounts show that six pounds fourteen shillings and sixpence were spent on repairs to the castle of Novi Burgi and its buildings and bridge."
The castle was restored in 1249 by Henry III, it was held in 1265 by the Earl of Leicester. That same year, Prince Edward occupied the castle, in 1295, when he was the king, he ordered improvements and repairs, it was ceded to Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester in 1320 and two years Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March attacked the castle, took its furnishings and set it on fire. Three hundred trees were needed for reconstruction; the scanty remains of the Norman castle were buried by spoil from a railway tunnel dug in 1846. The second castle at Newport known as Newport Castle, was built in the 14th century by Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester, after de Audley took control of Despenser's lands in 1326, or, more by his son-in-law and successor Ralph, Earl of Stafford. Historians, such as Jeremy Knight, believe it was built between 1327 and 1386. A coin made during Edward III's reign was found during an 1845 excavation of the site, it controlled the river crossing and trade upstream. At that time Newport became the centre of the lordship of Wentlooge.
The castle was first documented in 1405, when it was repaired after being sacked in 1402 in the rebellion by Owain Glyndŵr. Around 1435 further work was undertaken by Lord of Newport. Owen Tudor was held prisoner within the castle in 1460, it was the lordship's administrative centre, an adjunct to their main estate for collecting local tenants' dues and rent. It was used as the lord's residence, it was occupied in the early 16th century by Jasper Tudor. Seized by Henry VIII in 1521, the castle was held by the king until 1547 when it was possessed by Edward VI, it had suffered from lack of upkeep from 1522, at which date it was reported to be in disrepair. William Herbert of St. Julian leased the castle starting in 1548. In 1645, during the Civil War, Colonel Henry Herbert established a garrison of 50 troops at the castle, taken by Oliver Cromwell's forces in 1648; the Herbert and Morgan families held it over a 300-year period that began in 1548. It was in a state of ruin by 1743. In the 19th century, the buildings within the ruin were used as a tannery and as a brewery.
The hall's traceried windows were destroyed in that century, the brewery was destroyed by a fire in 1883. In 1891
Hundred (county division)
A hundred is an administrative division, geographically part of a larger region. It was used in England, some parts of the United States, Southern Schleswig, Finland and Norway, it is still used in other places, including South Australia, The Northern Territory. Other terms for the hundred in English and other languages include wapentake, herad, hérað, härad or hundare, Satakunta or kihlakunta and cantref. In Ireland, a similar subdivision of counties is referred to as a barony, a hundred is a subdivision of a large townland; the use of "hundred" for a division of a county has what the OED describes as an "exceedingly obscure" etymology. It may once have referred to an area of 100 hides, though a "hide" is not a specific area: instead it was conceptually the amount of land required to support a family. Alternatively it may have been based on the area liable to provide 100 men under arms, or because it was an area settled by 100 men at arms. There was an equivalent traditional Germanic system, in Old High German a huntari, a division of a gau, but the OED believes that the link between the two is not established.
In England a hundred was the division of a shire for military and judicial purposes under the common law, which could have varying extent of common feudal ownership, from complete suzerainty to minor royal or ecclesiastical prerogatives and rights of ownership. Until the introduction of districts by the Local Government Act 1894, hundreds were the only used assessment unit intermediate in size between the parish, with its various administrative functions, the county, with its formal, ceremonial functions; the term "hundred" is first recorded in the laws of Edmund I as a measure of land and the area served by a hundred court. In the Midlands, they covered an area of about 100 hides, but this did not apply in the south; the Hundred Ordinance, which dates to the middle of the century, provided that the court was to meet monthly, thieves were to be pursued by all the leading men of the district. The name of the hundred was that of its meeting-place. During Norman times, the hundred would pay geld based on the number of hides.
To assess how much everyone had to pay, a clerk and a knight were sent by the king to each county. There would be two knights from each hundred. After it was determined what geld had to be paid, the bailiff and knights of the hundred were responsible for getting the money to the sheriff, the sheriff for getting it to the Exchequer. Above the hundred was the shire, under the control of a sheriff. Hundred boundaries were independent of both parish and county boundaries, although aligned, meaning that a hundred could be split between counties, or a parish could be split between hundreds. Exceptionally, in the counties of Kent and Sussex, there was a sub-division intermediate in size between the hundred and the shire: several hundreds were grouped together to form lathes in Kent and rapes in Sussex. At the time of the Norman conquest of England, Kent was divided into seven lathes and Sussex into four rapes; the system of hundreds was not as stable as the system of counties being established at the time, lists differ on how many hundreds a county had.
In many parts of the country, the Domesday Book contained a radically different set of hundreds from that which became established. The numbers of hundreds in each county varied widely. Leicestershire had six, whereas Devon, nearly three times the size, had 32. Over time, the principal functions of the hundred became the administration of law and the keeping of the peace. By the 12th century, the hundred court was held twelve times a year; this was increased to fortnightly, although an ordinance of 1234 reduced the frequency to once every three weeks. In some hundreds, courts were held at a fixed place; the main duty of the hundred court was the maintenance of the frankpledge system. The court was formed of freemen. According to a 13th-century statute, freeholders did not have to attend their lord's manorial courts, thus any suits involving them would be heard in a hundred court. For serious crimes, the hundred was under the jurisdiction of the Crown. However, many hundreds came into private hands, with the lordship of the hundred being attached to the principal manor of the area and becoming hereditary.
Helen Cam estimated that before the Conquest, over 130 hundreds were in private hands. Where a hundred was under a lord, a steward, acting as a judge and the chief official of the lord of the manor, was appointed in place of a sheriff; the importance of the hundred courts declined from the 17th century, most of their powers were extinguished with the establishment of county courts in 1867. The remaining duty of the inhabitants of a hundred to make good damages caused by riot was ended by the Riot Act 1886, when the cost was transferred to the county police rate