Romulo Neri is a Filipino educator and public servant. He held several high-ranking government positions such as Secretary of Socio-Economic Planning and concurrently Director-General of the National Economic and Development Authority, acting Secretary of Department of Budget and Management, Chairperson of the Commission on Higher Education and President of Social Security System under former President Gloria Arroyo, he is involved in the controversial 2007-2008 ZTE scandal involving corruption in the Philippine National Broadband Network project. Neri was born on February 1, 1950 residing at #28 Palali, Sta. Mesa Heights in Quezon City, he finished his B. S. in business administration, major in marketing, from the University of the Philippines Diliman in 1970. Neri pursued his Master of Business Administration degree from the University of California, Los Angeles, majoring in finance and international management from 1977 to 1979, he attended secondary school at Ateneo de Manila High School from 1962 to 1966.
Neri is an Associate Professor, teaching corporate financial management, at the Asian Institute of Management and had held an instructor position from 1970 to 1971 at the University of the Philippines College of Business Administration, teaching basic management and marketing. The former NEDA chief joined government as a planning coordinator at the Philippine National Oil Company, he rose through the ranks and became Director of the Congressional Budget and Planning Office under the Philippine House of Representatives where he provided advice to the leadership of the House on socio-economic issues on fiscal and monetary policies, development financing, the budget of the national government. Resume of Romulo Neri at NEDA Website
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III is a Filipino politician who served as the 15th President of the Philippines from 2010 until 2016. Aquino is a fourth-generation politician and the chairman of the Liberal Party from 2010 to 2016. On September 9, 2009, shortly after the death of his mother, Aquino announced he would be a candidate in the 2010 presidential election, he was elected and on June 30, 2010 was sworn into office as the fifteenth President of the Philippines at the Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park, succeeding Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. He ended his term on June 2016, succeeded by Rodrigo Duterte. In 2013, Time named him one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World. Benigno Simeon "Noynoy" Aquino III was born at 10:28 am on February 8, 1960 at Far Eastern University Hospital in Sampaloc, Manila, he is the third of the five children of Benigno S. Aquino, Jr., the Vice Governor of Tarlac province, Corazon Cojuangco, daughter of a prominent Tarlac businessman. He has four sisters, namely: Maria Elena, Aurora Corazon, Victoria Elisa, Kristina Bernadette.
He attended Ateneo de Manila University in Quezon City for his elementary, high school, college education. Aquino finished his Bachelor of Arts from Ateneo de Manila University in 1981, He was one of the students of former professor of economics at Ateneo de Manila University, former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, he joined his family in their exile in the United States shortly thereafter. He returned to the Philippines in 1983 shortly after the assassination of his father and held several positions working in the private sector. In September 1972, Aquino's father, a senator and prominent opposition leader to President Ferdinand Marcos, was arrested for subversion. In August 1973, Aquino's father was brought before a military tribunal in Fort Bonifacio. In 1980, after a series of heart attacks, Aquino's father was allowed to seek medical treatment in the United States, where Aquino's family began a period of self-exile. In 1981, shortly after graduation, Aquino joined his family in the United States.
In 1983, after three years in exile in the United States, Aquino's family returned to the Philippines, shortly after the assassination of his father on August 21, 1983. He had a short tenure as a member of the Philippine Business for Social Progress, working as an assistant of the executive director of PBSP, he joined Mondragon Industries Philippines, Inc. as an assistant Retail Sales Supervisor and assistant promotions manager for Nike Philippines, Inc. From 1986 to 1992, during the presidency of his mother, Aquino joined the Intra-Strata Assurance Corporation, a company owned by his uncle Antolin Oreta Jr. as vice president. On August 28, 1987, eighteen months into the presidency of Aquino's mother, rebel soldiers led by Gregorio Honasan staged an unsuccessful coup attempt, attempting to lay siege to Malacañang Palace. Aquino was two blocks from the palace. Three of Aquino's four security escorts were killed, the last was wounded protecting him, he himself was hit by five bullets, one of, still embedded in his neck.
From 1993 to 1998, he worked for Central Azucarera de Tarlac, the sugar refinery in the Cojuangco-owned Hacienda Luisita. He was employed as the executive assistant for administration from 1993 to 1996 and subsequently worked as manager for field services from 1996 to 1998. In 1998, he was elected to the House of Representatives as Representative of the 2nd district of Tarlac province, he was subsequently re-elected to the House in 2001 and 2004. In 2007, having been barred from running for re-election to the House due to term limits, he was elected to the Senate in the 14th Congress of the Philippines. Aquino is a fourth-generation politician: his great-grandfather, Servillano "Mianong" Aquino, served as a delegate to the Malolos Congress. Aquino became Deputy Speaker of the House of Representatives on November 8, 2004, but relinquished the post on February 21, 2006, when Aquino joined his Liberal Party members in calling for the resignation of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo at the height of the Hello Garci scandal.
Aquino was Chairman of the Board of the Central Luzon Congressional Caucus. Barred from running for re-election to the House of Representatives of the Philippines, to represent the 2nd district of Tarlac, due to term limits, Aquino was elected to the Senate of the Philippines in the 2007 Philippine midterm election on May 15, 2007, under the banner of the Genuine Opposition, a coalition comprising a number of parties, including Aquino's own Liberal Party, seeking to curb attempts by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to amend the 1986 Philippine Constitution. In Aquino's political ads, he was endorsed by his younger sister, TV host Kris Aquino, his mother, the late former President Corazon Aquino. Although a Roman Catholic, Aquino was endorsed by the pentecostal Jesus Is Lord Church, one of the largest Protestant churches in the Philippines. With more than 14.3 million votes, Aquino's tally was the sixth highest of the 37 candidates for the 12 vacant seats elected from the nation at large. Aquino assumed his new office on June 30, 2007.
During the campaign, Aquino reached out to his former enemy, Senator Gregorio Honasan, suppor
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority serves as the Philippines' Technical Vocational Education and Training authority. As a government agency, TESDA is tasked to both manage and supervise the Philippines' Technical Education and Skills Development, its goals are to develop the Filipino workforce with "world-class competence and positive work values" and to provide quality technical-educational and skills development through its direction and programs. Technical-Vocational Education was first introduced to the Philippines through the enactment of Commonwealth Act No. 3377, or the “Vocational Act of 1927.” On June 3, 1938, the National Assembly of the Philippines passed Commonwealth Act No. 313, which provided for the establishment of regional national vocational trade schools of the Philippine School of Arts and Trades type, as well as regional national vocational agricultural high schools of the Central Luzon Agricultural High School Type providing for the establishment of technical-vocational schools around the country.
On June 22, 1963, Republic Act. No. 3742, or “An Act Creating A Bureau of Vocational Education, Defining its Functions and Powers, Appropriating Funds Therefor” was passed, which provided for the creation of a Bureau of Vocational Education. The creation of the BVE led to the abolishment of the Vocational Education Division of the Bureau of Public Schools; the BVE was created with the purpose of “strengthening, promoting and expanding the programs of vocational education now being undertaken by the Bureau of Public Schools.” It was created “for the purpose of enhancing the socio-economic program of the Philippines through the development of skilled manpower in agricultural and trade-technical and other vocational courses.”The Manpower Development Council was created by virtue of Executive Order No. 53 on December 8, 1966, issued by President Ferdinand Marcos. The MDC was tasked with “developing an integrated long-term manpower plan as a component of the overall social and economic development plan.”
Targets which were to be established by the said manpower plan were to be “used by the Department of Education and the Budget Commission in programming public investments in education and out-of-school training schemes.”The MDC was replaced by the National Manpower and Youth Council, created by virtue of Republic Act. No. 5462, or the Manpower and Out-of-School Youth Development Act of the Philippines. The NMYC was placed under the Office of the President, was charged with establishing a “National Manpower Skills Center under its authority and supervision for demonstration and research in accelerated manpower and youth training.” It was tasked with establishing “regional and local training centers for gainful occupational skills,” as well as adopting “employment promotion schemes to channel unemployed youth to critical and other occupations.” Republic Act No. 5462 was repealed by Presidential Decree No. 422, otherwise known as the Labor Code, on May 1, 1974. President Marcos, on September 29, 1972, issued Presidential Decree No.
6-A, or the “Educational Development Decree of 1972,” which highlighted the government’s educational policies and priorities at the time. The decree provided for the “establishment and/or operation, upgrading or improvement of technical institutes, skills training centers, other non-formal training programs and projects for the out-of-school youth and the unemployed in collaboration with the programs of the National Manpower and Youth Council.”The 1975 reorganization of the Department of Education and Sports led to the abolishment of the Bureau of Vocational Education, along with the Bureau of Public Schools and the Bureau of Private Schools. In their place, the Bureau of Elementary Education, the Bureau of Secondary Education and the Bureau of Higher Education were established; the responsibilities of the Bureau of Vocational Education were absorbed by the newly established Bureau of Secondary Education. The Education Act of 1982 paved the way for the creation of the Bureau of Technical and Vocational Education.
The BTVE was tasked to “conduct studies, formulate and evaluate post-secondary vocational-technical programs and recommend educational standards for these programs,” as well as to “develop curricular designs and prepare instructional materials and evaluate programs to upgrade the quality of teaching and non-teaching staff, formulate guidelines to improve the physical plant and equipment of post-secondary vocational-technical schools.” The Philippine Congress enacted Joint Resolution No. 2 in 1990 creating the Congressional Commission for Education or EDCOM. The commission was tasked to review and assess the education and manpower training system of the country. Among the recommendations of the commission was the establishment of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority, a government agency tasked with developing and overseeing the country’s vocational and technical education programs and policies; the commission further recommended that the new agency be created as a fusion of the following offices: the National Manpower and Youth Council of the Department of Labor and Employment, the Bureau of Technical and Vocational Education of the Department of Education and Sports, the Apprenticeship Program of the Bureau of Local Employment of DOLE.
Subsequently, the enactment of Republic Act No. 7796, or the “Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994,” authored by Senator Francisco Tatad led to the establishment of the present-day TESDA. RA 7796
Quezon City is the most populous and a urbanized city in the Philippines. It was founded by and named after Manuel L. Quezon, the 2nd President of the Philippines, to replace Manila as the national capital; the city was proclaimed as such in 1948. However, since all government buildings are still in Manila, many functions of national government remained there. Quezon City held the status as the official capital until 1976 when a presidential decree was issued to designate Manila as the capital and Metro Manila as the seat of government, it is the largest city in terms of population and land area in Metro Manila, the National Capital Region of the Philippines. Quezon City is not located in and should not be confused with Quezon Province, named after the president. Quezon City now hosts a number of government offices, the most important of which are the Batasang Pambansa Complex, the Quezon City Reception House. Quezon City serves as home to the University of the Philippines Diliman—the national university—and Ateneo de Manila University.
The Quezon Memorial Circle is a national shrine located in Quezon City. The park is an ellipse bounded by the Elliptical Road, its main feature is a mausoleum containing the remains of President Quezon and his wife, First Lady Aurora Quezon. Before Quezon City was created, its land was settled by the small individual towns of San Francisco del Monte and Balintawak. On August 23, 1896, the Katipunan, led by its Supremo Andrés Bonifacio, launched the Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire at the house of Melchora Aquino in Pugad Lawin. In the early 20th century, President Manuel L. Quezon dreamt of a city that would become the future capital of the country to replace Manila, it is believed that his earlier trip in Mexico influenced his vision. In 1938, President Quezon created the People's Homesite Corporation and purchased 15.29 km2 from the vast Diliman Estate of the Tuason family. The National Assembly of the Philippines passed Commonwealth Act 502, known as the Charter of Quezon City proposed as "Balintawak City.
President Quezon allowed the bill to lapse into law without his signature on October 12, 1939, thus establishing Quezon City. When Quezon City was created in 1939, the following barrios or sitios: Balingasa, Galas, Kangkong, La Loma, Masambong, San Isidro, San Jose and Tatalon from Caloocan. Instead of opposing them, the six towns willingly gave land to Quezon City in the belief that it would benefit the country's new capital. However, in 1941, the area within Wack Wack Golf and Country Club was reverted to Mandaluyong, Barangka and Jesus de la Peña to Marikina. In addition, the land of Camp Crame was part of San Juan. On 1 January 1942, President Quezon issued an executive order from the tunnel of Corregidor designating Jorge Vargas Mayor of Greater Manila, a new political entity comprising, aside from Manila proper, Quezon City, Pasay, San Juan, Mandaluyong and Parañaque. Greater Manila would be expanded to include Las Piñas, Navotas. Imperial Japanese forces occupied Quezon City in 1942 during World War II.
In October of that year, the Japanese authorities divided the City of Greater Manila into twelve districts, two of which were formed from Quezon City: Balintawak which consisted of San Francisco del Monte, La Loma. In 1945, combined Filipino and American troops under the United States Army, Philippine Commonwealth Army, Philippine Constabulary, with help from recognized guerrilla units and recaptured Quezon City in a few months, expelling Imperial Japanese forces. Heavy fighting occurred near Novaliches, which at that time was in Rizal Province, New Manila, a strongpoint. Toward the end of the Battle of Manila, Pres. Sergio Osmeña dissolved the Greater Manila Complex, which included the Japanese-created districts of Balintawak and Diliman, formed from the prewar Quezon City. After the war, Republic Act No. 333, which redefined the Caloocan–Quezon City boundary, was signed by President Elpidio Quirino on July 17, 1948, declaring Quezon City to be the national capital, specifying the city's area to be 156.60 km2.
The barrios of Baesa, Banlat, Novaliches Proper, Pasong Putik, Pasong Tamo, Pugad Lawin, San Bartolome and Talipapa, which belonged to Novaliches and had a combined area of about 8,100 hectares, were taken from Caloocan and ceded to Quezon City. This caused the territorial division of Caloocan into two non-contiguous parts, the South section being the more urbanized part, the North half being sub-rural. On June 16, 1950, the Quezon City Charter was revised by Republic Act No. 537, changing the city's boundaries to an area of 153.59 km2. Six years after on Ju
Department of Education (Philippines)
The Department of Education is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, improving the quality of basic education. It is the main agency tasked to govern the Philippine system of basic education, it is the chief formulator of Philippine education policy and responsible for the Philippine primary and secondary school systems. It has its headquarters at the DepEd Complex in Pasig City; the department is led by the Secretary of Education, nominated by the President of the Philippines and confirmed by the Commission on Appointments. The Secretary is a member of the Cabinet; the current Secretary of Education is Leonor Briones. Presently, its mission is to provide quality basic education, equitably accessible to all and lay the foundation for lifelong learning and service for the common good, it has changed its vision statement, removing a phrase that some groups deem to be "too sectarian" for a government institution. During the early Spanish period, education in the Philippines was religion-oriented and was for the elite in the first years of Spanish colonization.
Access to education by Filipinos was liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863, which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government, the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary instruction was secularized and free, the teaching of Spanish was compulsory, it was through this decree that the'Superior Commission of Primary Instruction' was established, the seminal agency of the Department of Education. The defeat of Spain by United States forces in 1898 paved the way for Aguinaldo's Republic under a Revolutionary Government; the schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed temporarily but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of the Interior. A system of free and compulsory elementary education was established by the Malolos Constitution, under Article 23. However, this first sovereign education system was interrupted in 1899 with the start of the Philippine–American War, was dismantled.
A secularized and free public school system during the first decade of American rule was established upon the recommendation of the Schurman Commission in 1900. Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship was enforced by the Taft Commission as per instructions of US President William McKinley. Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction. A centralized public school system was instituted in January 1901 by the Taft Commission, by virtue of Act No. 74. This act established the Department of Public Instruction, headed by a General Superintendent; the implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers so the Philippine Commission authorized the Superintendent of Public Instruction to brin 500 teachers from the United States to the Philippines. They would be popularly known as the Thomasites. In 1908, the Philippine Legislature approved Act No. 1870, creating the University of the Philippines.
The Organic Act of 1916 reorganized the Department of Public Instruction, mandating that it be headed by a Secretary. This act mandated the Filpinization of department secretaries, except that of the Secretary of Public Instruction. During World War II, the department was reorganized once again through the Japanese's Military Order No. 2 in February 1942, splitting the department into the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health and Public Instruction. Under the Japanese, the teaching of Tagalog, Philippine history, character education was given priority. Love for work and the dignity of labor were emphasized. In October 1944, months after Pres. Manuel L. Quezon's death, the department was renamed as the Department of Public Instruction and Information, with Carlos P. Romulo at the helm. Upon the return and resumption of the Commonwealth Government in February 1945, its name was changed to the Department of Instruction. In 1947, by virtue of Executive Order No. 94 by Pres. Manuel Roxas, the department was reorganized to the Department of Education.
During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools. Upon the start of Martial Law in September 1972, it became the Department of Education and Culture and subsequently reorganized into the Ministry of Education and Culture in June 1978 by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1397, due to the shift to a parliamentary system of government. Thirteen regional offices were created and major organizational changes were implemented in the educational system; the Education Act of 1982 created the Ministry of Education and Sports, which became the Department of Education and Sports in 1987 via Executive Order No. 117 by President Corazon C. Aquino; the structure of DECS as embodied in EO 117 has remained unchanged until 1994, when the Commission on Higher Education was established, in August 25, 1994, when the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority was established to supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational programs, respectively.
The trifocal education system refocused the department's mandate to basic education which covers elementary and non-formal education, including culture and sports. CHED is responsible for tertiary education, while TESDA now administers the post-secondary, middle-level manpower training and development. In August 2001, the Gov