The program included a number of firsts, including the first planetary flyby, the first planetary orbiter, and the first gravity assist maneuver. Of the ten vehicles in the Mariner series, seven were successful, other Mariner-based spacecraft, launched since Voyager, included the Magellan probe to Venus, and the Galileo probe to Jupiter. A second-generation Mariner spacecraft, called the Mariner Mark II series, eventually evolved into the Cassini–Huygens probe, the total cost of the Mariner program was approximately $554 million. Mariner 2 was based on the Ranger Lunar probe, all of the Mariners launched after Mariner 2 had four solar panels for power, except for Mariner 10, which had two. Additionally, all except Mariner 1, Mariner 2 and Mariner 5 had TV cameras, the first five Mariners were launched on Atlas-Agena rockets, while the last five used the Atlas-Centaur. All Mariner-based probes after Mariner 10 used the Titan IIIE, Titan IV unmanned rockets or the Space Shuttle with a solid-fueled Inertial Upper Stage and multiple planetary flybys.
Mariners, Mariner 1 Mariner 2 Mariner 3 Mariner 4 Mariner 5 Mariner 6 Mariner 7 Mariner 8 Mariner 9 Mariner 10 Mariner 1, a secondary objective was to make interplanetary magnetic field and/or particle measurements on the way to, and in the vicinity of, Venus. Mariner 1 was launched on July 22,1962, but was destroyed approximately 5 minutes after liftoff by the Air Force Range Safety Officer when its malfunctioning Atlas-Agena rocket went off course. Mariner 2 was launched on August 27,1962, sending it on a 3½-month flight to Venus, the mission was a success, and Mariner 2 became the first spacecraft to have flown by another planet. Mariner 2 – Defunct after successful mission, occupies a heliocentric orbit, sisterships Mariner 3 and Mariner 4 were Mars flyby missions. Mariner 3 was lost when the vehicles nose fairing failed to jettison. Mariner 4, launched on November 28,1964, was the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, Mariner 4 – Communications lost after bombardment by micrometeoroids.
The Mariner 5 spacecraft was launched to Venus on June 14,1967, Mariners 6 and 7 were identical teammates in a two-spacecraft mission to Mars. Mariner 6 was launched on February 24,1969, followed by Mariner 7 on March 21,1969 and they flew over the equator and southern hemisphere of the planet Mars. Mariner 8 and Mariner 9 were identical sister craft designed to map the Martian surface simultaneously and its identical sister craft, Mariner 9, was launched in May 1971 and became the first artificial satellite of Mars. It entered Martian orbit in November 1971 and began photographing the surface and analyzing the atmosphere with its infrared, in Areocentric orbit until at least 2022 when it is projected to fall out of orbit and into the Martian atmosphere. It was the first spacecraft to encounter two planets at close range, and for 33 years the spacecraft to photograph Mercury in closeup. Mission, charged particles, magnetic fields, radio occultation and celestial mechanics Status, Mariner Jupiter-Saturn was approved in 1972 after the cancellation of the Grand Tour program, which proposed visiting all the outer planets with multiple spacecraft
Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39
Launch Complex 39 is a rocket launch site at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, United States. The site and its collection of facilities were built for the Apollo program. As of 2017, only Launch Complex 39A is active, launching SpaceXs Falcon 9. LC-39 is being modified to support launches of the SpaceXs Dragon 2 and Falcon Heavy, as well as NASAs Space Launch System, with a new, smaller pad, C, added to support smaller launches. SpaceX leases Launch Pad 39A from NASA and has modified the pad to support Falcon Heavy launches in 2017 and beyond. NASA began modifying Launch Pad 39B in 2007 to accommodate the now defunct Project Constellation, Pad C was originally planned but never built for Apollo, and would have been a copy of pads 39A and 39B. A smaller pad, designated 39C was constructed from January to June 2015 to accommodate small-class vehicles, NASA launches from LC-39A and 39B have been supervised from the NASA Launch Control Center, located 3 miles from the launch pads.
LC-39 is one of launch sites that share radar and tracking services of the Eastern Test Range. During the 1920s, Peter E. Studebaker Jr. son of the automobile magnate, in 1948, the Navy transferred the former Banana River Naval Air Station located south of Cape Canaveral, to the Air Force for use in testing captured German V-2 rockets. The sites location on the East Florida coast was ideal for this purpose in that launches would be over the ocean and this site became the Joint Long Range Proving Ground in 1949, and was renamed Patrick Air Force Base in 1950. The Air Force annexed part of Cape Canaveral to the North in 1951, forming the Air Force Missile Test Center and rocketry testing and development would take place here through the 1950s. After the creation of NASA in 1958, the CCAFS launch pads were used for NASAs civilian unmanned and manned launches, including those of Project Mercury, in 1961, President Kennedy proposed to Congress the goal of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the decade.
NASA began acquisition of land in 1962, taking title to 131 square miles by outright purchase, on July 1,1962, the site was named the Launch Operations Center. At the time, the highest numbered launch pad on CCAFS was Launch Complex 37 and it was designed to handle launches of the Saturn V rocket, at the time the largest, most powerful rocket designed, required to take Apollo to the Moon. Initial plans included four pads evenly spaced 8,700 feet apart to damage in the event of an explosion on the pad. Three were scheduled for construction and two would have built at a date. The numbering of the pads at the time was from north to south, with the northernmost being 39A, Pad 39A was never built, and 39C became 39A in 1963. With todays numbering, 39C would have been north of 39B, Pad 39E would have been due north of the mid-distance between 39C and 39D, with 39E forming the top of a triangle, and equidistant from 39C and 39D
Lunar Orbiter program
The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States from 1966 through 1967. Intended to help select Apollo landing sites by mapping the Moons surface, all five missions were successful, and 99% of the Moon was mapped from photographs taken with a resolution of 60 meters or better. The first three missions were dedicated to imaging 20 potential manned lunar landing sites, selected based on Earth-based observations and these were flown at low-inclination orbits. The fourth and fifth missions were devoted to broader scientific objectives and were flown in high-altitude polar orbits. Lunar Orbiter 4 photographed the entire nearside and 9% of the far side, all Lunar Orbiter craft were launched by an Atlas-Agena D launch vehicle. The Lunar Orbiters had an ingenious imaging system, which consisted of a camera, a film processing unit, a readout scanner. Both lenses, a 610 mm narrow angle high resolution lens, the axes of the two cameras were coincident so the area imaged in the HR frames were centered within the MR frame areas.
The film was moved during exposure to compensate for the spacecraft velocity, the film was processed and the images transmitted back to Earth. During the Lunar Orbiter missions, the first pictures of Earth as a whole were taken, the first full picture of the whole Earth was taken by Lunar Orbiter 5 on 8 August 1967. A second photo of the whole Earth was taken by Lunar Orbiter 5 on 10 November 1967, the Boeing-Eastman Kodak proposal was announced by NASA on 20 December 1963. The main bus of the Lunar Orbiter had the shape of a truncated cone,1.65 m tall and 1.5 m in diameter at the base. The spacecraft was composed of three decks supported by trusses and an arch, four solar panels were mounted to extend out from this deck with a total span across of 3.72 m. Also extending out from the base of the spacecraft were a high gain antenna on a 1.32 m boom, above the equipment deck, the middle deck held the velocity control engine, propellant and pressurization tanks, Sun sensors, and micro-meteoroid detectors.
The third deck consisted of a shield to protect the spacecraft from the firing of the velocity control engine. The nozzle of the engine protruded through the center of the shield, mounted on the perimeter of the top deck were four attitude control thrusters. Power of 375 W was provided by the four solar arrays containing 10,856 n/p solar cells which would run the spacecraft. The batteries were used during periods of occultation when no solar power was available. Propulsion for major maneuvers was provided by the velocity control engine
A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control. A robotic spacecraft designed to make scientific research measurements is called a space probe. Many space missions are more suited to telerobotic rather than crewed operation, due to lower cost, in addition, some planetary destinations such as Venus or the vicinity of Jupiter are too hostile for human survival, given current technology. Outer planets such as Saturn and Neptune are too distant to reach with current crewed spaceflight technology, many artificial satellites are robotic spacecraft, as are many landers and rovers. The first robotic spacecraft was launched by the Soviet Union on 22 July 1951, four other such flights were made through the fall of 1951. The first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was put into a 215-by-939-kilometer Earth orbit by the USSR) on 4 October 1957, on 3 November 1957, the USSR orbited Sputnik 2. Weighing 113 kilograms, Sputnik 2 carried the first living animal into orbit, since the satellite was not designed to detach from its launch vehicles upper stage, the total mass in orbit was 508.3 kilograms.
In a close race with the Soviets, the United States launched its first artificial satellite, Explorer 1, into a 193-by-1, 373-nautical-mile orbit on 31 January 1958. Explorer I was a 80. 75-inch long by 6. 00-inch diameter cyllynder weighing 30.8 pounds, compared to Sputnik 1, a 58-centimeter sphere which weighed 83.6 kilograms. Explorer 1 carried sensors which confirmed the existence of the Van Allen belts, on 17 March 1958, the US orbited its second satellite, Vanguard 1, which was about the size of a grapefruit, and remains in a 360-by-2, 080-nautical-mile orbit as of 2016. Nine other countries have successfully launched satellites using their own vehicles, Australia and China, the United Kingdom, Israel, Iran. In spacecraft design, the United States Air Force considers a vehicle to consist of the mission payload, the bus provides physical structure, thermal control, electrical power, attitude control and telemetry and commanding. JPL divides the system of a spacecraft into subsystems. These include, This is the backbone structure.
It, provides overall mechanical integrity of the spacecraft ensures spacecraft components are supported and can withstand launch loads This is sometimes referred to as the command, components in the telecommunications subsystem include radio antennas and receivers. These may be used to communicate with stations on Earth. The supply of power on spacecraft generally come from photovoltaic cells or from a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. Other components of the subsystem include batteries for storing power and distribution circuitry that connects components to the power sources, spacecraft are often protected from temperature fluctuations with insulation
John J. Hamre is the son of Melvin Sanders and Ruth Lucile Hamre. He attended primary and secondary school in Clark, South Dakota and he earned a B. A. in political science and economics from Augustana College in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The following year he was a Rockefeller Fellow at Harvard Divinity School and he earned an M. A. and Ph. D. with distinction from the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University. Hamre served in the Congressional Budget Office, where he became its deputy assistant director for national security, in that position, he oversaw analysis and other support for committees in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. In the 1980s, he worked for ten years at the Senate Armed Services Committee, Hamre was DoD Comptroller and Deputy Secretary of Defense, both under President Bill Clinton. The Senate appointed Hamre to the Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Industry, Hamre worked on the Obama transition team. He is chairman of the Defense Policy Board, John J. U. S. airlift forces, enhancement alternatives for NATO and non-NATO contingencies.
Hamre, John J. Strategic command and communications, Hamre, John J. Lindsey, George. Toronto, Canadian Institute of International Affairs and security in the twenty-first century, U. S. military export control reform, a report of the CSIS Military Export Control Project. Hamre, John J. Gordon R. Sullivan, iraqs post-conflict reconstruction a field review and recommendations, Iraq reconstruction assessment mission, June 27-July 7,2003. Center for Strategic and International Studies
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics was a U. S. federal agency founded on March 3,1915, to undertake and institutionalize aeronautical research. On October 1,1958, the agency was dissolved, and its assets and personnel transferred to the newly created National Aeronautics, NACA was pronounced as discrete letters, rather than as a whole word. NACA was key in developing the area rule that is used on all modern supersonic aircraft and it was modeled on similar national agencies found in Europe. The most influential agency upon which the NACA was based was the British Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, in December 1912, President William Howard Taft had appointed a National Aerodynamical Laboratory Commission chaired by Robert S. Woodward, president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Legislation was introduced in both houses of Congress early in January 1913 to approve the commission, but when it came to a vote, assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt wrote that he heartily the principle on which the legislation was based.
Walcott suggested the tactic of adding the resolution to the Naval Appropriations Bill, according to one source, The enabling legislation for the NACA slipped through almost unnoticed as a rider attached to the Naval Appropriation Bill, on 3 March 1915. The committee of 12 people, all unpaid, were allocated a budget of $5,000 per year. President Woodrow Wilson signed it into law the day, thus formally creating the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. On January 29,1920, President Wilson appointed pioneering flier, by the early 1920s, it had adopted a new and more ambitious mission, to promote military and civilian aviation through applied research that looked beyond current needs. NACA researchers pursued this mission through the impressive collection of in-house wind tunnels, engine test stands. Commercial and military clients were permitted to use NACA facilities on a contract basis, facilities Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory Ames Aeronautical Laboratory Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory Muroc Flight Test Unit In 1922, NACA had 100 employees.
In addition to assignments, staff were encouraged to pursue unauthorized bootleg research. The result was a string of fundamental breakthroughs, including thin airfoil theory, NACA engine cowl, the NACA airfoil series. The full-size 30-by-60-foot Langley wind tunnel operated at no more than 100 miles per hour and these were speeds Lockheed engineers considered useless for their purposes. Arnold took up the matter and overruled NACA objections to higher air speeds, NACA built a handful of new high-speed wind tunnels, and Mach 0.75 (570 mph was reached at Moffetts 16-foot wind tunnel late in 1942. In the years immediately preceding World War II, NACA was involved in the development of designs that served key roles in the war effort. This enabled the B-17 to be used as a key aircraft in the war effort, the designs and information gained from NACA research on the B-17 were used in nearly every major U. S. military powerplant of the Second World War. Nearly every aircraft used some form of forced induction that relied on information developed by NACA, because of this, U. S.
-produced aircraft had a significant power advantage above 15,000 feet, which was never fully countered by Axis forces
Christopher C. Kraft Jr. Mission Control Center
The center is named after Christopher C. Kraft, Jr. a retired NASA engineer and manager who was instrumental in establishing the agencys Mission Control operation, prime contractor for systems integration at Houston was Philco Corp. selected by NASA in January 1963. The MCC currently houses one operational control room, from flight controllers command, monitor. This room has many computer and data-processing resources to monitor, the ISS control room operates continuously. All Mercury–Redstone, Mercury-Atlas, the unmanned Gemini 1 and Gemini 2 and this facility was in the Engineering Support Building at the east end of Mission Control Road, about 0.5 mile east of Phillips Parkway. Mercury and Gemini launches were conducted from separate blockhouses at the Cape, located in Building 30 at the Johnson Space Center, the Houston MCC was first used in June 1965 for Gemini 4. It housed two rooms known as Mission Operation Control Rooms. These two rooms controlled all Gemini, Apollo and Space Shuttle flights up to 1998, each MOCR tier was specialized, staffed by various controllers responsible for a specific spacecraft system.
MOCR1, housed on the floor of Building 30, was used for Apollo 7, the Skylab. MOCR2 was used for all other Gemini and Apollo flights and was located on the third floor, as the flight control room for Apollo 11, the first manned moon landing, MOCR2 was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985. It was last used in 1992 as the control room for STS-53 and was subsequently converted back almost entirely to its Apollo-era configuration. Together with several wings, it is now listed in the National Register of Historic Places as the Apollo Mission Control Center. When the Space Shuttle program began, the MOCRs were re-designated flight control rooms, FCR2 was used mostly for classified Department of Defense shuttle flights, was remodeled to its Apollo-era configuration. From the moment a space shuttle cleared its launch tower in Florida until it landed on Earth, when a shuttle mission was underway, its control room was staffed around the clock, usually in three shifts. In 1992, JSC began building an extension to Building 30, the new five-story section went operational in 1998 and houses two flight control rooms, designated White, and Blue.
The White FCR was used in tandem with FCR2 for seven missions, STS-70 through STS-76. When not in use for the program, the White FCR was reconfigured as a backup for the ISS FCR from time to time as needed. The newer section of Building 30 houses the International Space Station Flight Control Room, the first ISS control room, originally named the Special Vehicles Operations Room, the Blue FCR, was operational around the clock to support the ISS until the fall of 2006
NASA spinoff technologies
In 1979, notable science fiction author Robert A. For more than 50 years, the NASA Technology Transfer Program has connected NASA resources to private industry, contrary to common belief, NASA did not invent Tang, Velcro or Teflon. In 2008, NASA announced an interactive Web feature, NASA @ Home, Spinoff is a NASA publication featuring technology made available to the public. Since 1976, NASA has featured an average of 50 technologies each year in the annual publication, when products first spun off from space research, NASA presented a black and white report in 1973, titled the Technology Utilization Program Report. Because of interest in the reports, NASA decided to create the annual publications in color, Spinoff was first published in 1976, and since then, NASA has distributed free copies to universities, the media and the general public. Spinoff describes how NASA works with industries and small businesses to bring new technology to the public. As of 2016, there were over 1,920 Spinoff products in the database dating back to 1976, the following is a list of technologies sometimes mistakenly attributed directly to NASA.
In many cases, NASA popularized technology or aided its development, barcodes - The barcode was invented in 1948. However, NASA developed a type of barcode that could endure space environments, cordless power tools - The first cordless power tool was unveiled by Black & Decker in 1961. It was used by NASA and a number of spinoff products came out of those works, magnetic Resonance Imaging, best known as a device for body scanning. NASA contractor JPL developed digital signal processing, which has applications in medical imaging, microchip - The first microchip, known as an integrated circuit, was developed in 1958 that was years before the first space mission. Quartz clocks - The first quartz clock was invented in 1927, however, in the late 1960s, NASA partnered with a company to make a highly accurate quartz clock. Smoke detectors - NASAs connection to the smoke detector is that it made one with adjustable sensitivity as part of the Skylab project. Space Pen - A common urban legend states that NASA spent an amount of money to develop a pen that would write in space, while the Soviets used pencils.
)Tang juice powder - Tang was developed by General Foods in 1957. It was used in the multiple space missions, which gave brand awareness to it. Teflon - Telflon was invented by a DuPont scientist in 1941 and used on frying pans from the 1950s, however it has been applied by NASA to heat shields, space suits, Velcro - Velcro is a Swiss invention from the 1940s. Velcro was used during the Apollo missions to anchor equipment for astronauts, Diatek Corporation and NASA developed an aural thermometer that measures the thermal radiation emitted by the eardrum, similar to the way the temperature of stars and planets is measured. This method avoids contact with mucous membranes and permits rapid temperature measurement of newborn or incapacitated patients, NASA supported the Diatek Corporation through the Technology Affiliates Program
President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation
Rogers Commission Report
The Rogers Commission Report was created by a Presidential Commission charged with investigating the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster during its 10th mission, STS-51-L. The failure of the O-rings was attributed to a design flaw, more broadly, the report determined the contributing causes of the accident. Most salient was the failure of both NASA and its contractor, Morton Thiokol, to respond adequately to the design flaw, the Commission found that as early as 1977, NASA managers had not only known about the flawed O-ring, but that it had the potential for catastrophe. This led the Rogers Commission to conclude that the Challenger disaster was an accident rooted in history, the report strongly criticized the decision making process that led to the launch of Challenger, saying that it was seriously flawed. There was a meeting the night before the launch to discuss any major pressing issues that might delay the launch further, several of the Morton Thiokol engineers stated their concerns about the O-rings and urged the council to delay the launch.
However, because there were no members of the safety council and it is certain that even though higher-ranking members of the council did know about the issues, there were plenty of members that could have stopped the launch but decided not to. This was done in part because of the management structure at NASA. One of the commissions members was theoretical physicist Richard Feynman. His style of investigating with his own direct methods rather than following the schedule put him at odds with Rogers. Feynmans own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASAs engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected and his interviews of NASAs high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts. One such concept was the determination of a safety factor, in one example, early tests resulted in some of the booster rockets O-rings burning a third of the way through. These O-rings provided the gas-tight seal needed between the vertically stacked cylindrical sections that made up the fuel booster. NASA managers recorded this result as demonstrating that the O-rings had a safety factor of 3.
If a 1,000 pound truck drove across the bridge and it cracked at all, even just a third of the way through a beam, the safety factor is now zero, Feynman was disturbed by two aspects of this practice. First, NASA management assigned a probability of failure to each individual bolt, sometimes claiming a probability of 1 in 108, Feynman pointed out that it is impossible to calculate such a remote possibility with any scientific rigor. Secondly, Feynman was bothered not just by this sloppy science, Feynman suspected that the 1/100,000 figure was wildly fantastical, and made a rough estimate that the true likelihood of shuttle disaster was closer to 1 in 100. He decided to poll the engineers themselves, asking them to write down an estimate of the odds of shuttle explosion. Feynman found that the bulk of the engineers estimates fell between 1 in 50 and 1 in 200, not only did this confirm that NASA management had clearly failed to communicate with their own engineers, but the disparity engaged Feynmans emotions
Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility
The facility preserves most of the 382 kilograms of lunar material returned over the course of Apollo program and other extraterrestrial samples, along with associated data records. It contains laboratories for processing and studying the samples without contamination, planning for handling returned lunar samples began early in the Apollo program. A committee of the Space Science Board reviewed the idea of a lunar sample receiving laboratory, one was the fear that creating a facility with too great a capacity to analyze the samples would discourage distribution of samples to outside researchers and effectively exclude them. In addition, space biologists and the United States Public Health Service expressed concern about contamination of Earth by extraterrestrial microorganisms brought back via returning spacecraft. To address these issues, the committee in 1965 recommended a laboratory with limited analytical capacity, the 8, 000-square-meter LRL was completed in 1967 at a cost of $7.8 million.
To address some of these concerns, NASA dropped the requirement after Apollo 12 that samples be processed in vacuum, an additional vault and, subsequently, a new laboratory – the Sample Storage and Processing Laboratory – were built in Building 31 of the Johnson Space Center. Fourteen percent of the sample collection was moved to this bunker in 1976. This smaller collection of materials remained at Brooks until 2002, when the base was transitioned from military control as part of the Base Realignment and Closure process. The second-site lunar materials were moved to the White Sands Test Facility. Of the 382 kilograms of samples returned by the Apollo program,52 kilograms are currently stored at White Sands. With a selection of the lunar samples secured offsite, construction began on the LSLF, with facilities for handling the samples. The LSLF was constructed in a new annex of Building 31 beginning in 1977, built for a cost of $2.5 million, the building was dedicated on July 20,1979, the tenth anniversary of the first manned moon landing.
The facilitys storage vaults are elevated above anticipated storm-surge sea level heights to protect the samples from threats posed by hurricanes and tornadoes, during hurricane threats, a water-tight door is bolted into the frame of the door to the pristine sample vault in order to protect the samples. The facility takes extensive measures to prevent contamination of the lunar samples, the particulate concentration of the air in the various areas is monitored regularly. People entering laboratories and vaults are required to don cleanroom suits, most samples are not handled directly. Researchers prepare samples in stainless steel cabinets through multi-layered gloves, the atmosphere in these cabinets is purged by high-purity nitrogen that is continuously monitored for oxygen and moisture contents. When research requires that a sample be exposed to contamination, the sample is kept separate from pristine samples after its return, when cabinets become dusty from extensive processing or are needed for processing samples from a different mission, they are cleaned using ultra-pure water.
The facility has room to store many more lunar samples, NASA anticipates that more samples from the moon will be brought back and processed and curated in the lab
The Viking program consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2. Each spacecraft was composed of two parts, an orbiter designed to photograph the surface of Mars from orbit. The orbiters served as communication relays for the landers once they touched down, the Viking program grew from NASAs earlier, even more ambitious, Voyager Mars program, which was not related to the successful Voyager deep space probes of the late 1970s. Viking 1 was launched on August 20,1975, and the craft, Viking 2, was launched on September 9,1975. Viking 1 entered Mars orbit on June 19,1976, with Viking 2 following suit on August 7, the Viking 1 lander touched down on the surface of Mars on July 20,1976, and was joined by the Viking 2 lander on September 3. The orbiters continued imaging and performing other operations from orbit while the landers deployed instruments on the surface. The project cost roughly 1 billion USD in 1970s dollars, equivalent to about 11 billion USD in 2016 dollars and it was highly successful and formed most of the body of knowledge about Mars through the late 1990s and early 2000s.
Each orbiter, based on the earlier Mariner 9 spacecraft, was an octagon approximately 2.5 m across, the fully fueled orbiter-lander pair had a mass of 3527 kg. After separation and landing, the lander had a mass of about 600 kg, the total launch mass was 2328 kg, of which 1445 kg were propellant and attitude control gas. The eight faces of the structure were 0.4572 m high and were alternately 1.397 and 0.508 m wide. The overall height was 3.29 m from the attachment points on the bottom to the launch vehicle attachment points on top. There were 16 modular compartments,3 on each of the 4 long faces, four solar panel wings extended from the axis of the orbiter, the distance from tip to tip of two oppositely extended solar panels was 9.75 m. The main propulsion unit was mounted above the orbiter bus, propulsion was furnished by a bipropellant liquid-fueled rocket engine which could be gimballed up to 9 degrees. The engine was capable of 1,323 N thrust, translating to a change in velocity of 1480 m/s, attitude control was achieved by 12 small compressed-nitrogen jets.
An acquisition Sun sensor, a cruise Sun sensor, a Canopus star tracker, two accelerometers were on board. Communications were accomplished through a 20 W S-band transmitter and two 20 W TWTAs, an X band downlink was added specifically for radio science and to conduct communications experiments. A two-axis steerable parabolic dish antenna with a diameter of approximately 1.5 m was attached at one edge of the base. Two tape recorders were each capable of storing 1280 megabits, a 381-MHz relay radio was available