Committee of Sixty
The Committee of Sixty or Committee of Observation was a committee of inspection formed in the City and County of New York, in 1775, by rebels to enforce the Continental Association, a boycott of British goods enacted by the First Continental Congress. It was the successor to the Committee of Fifty-one, which had called for the Congress to be held, was replaced by the Committee of One Hundred. In response to the news that the port of Boston would be closed under the Boston Port Act, an advertisement was posted at the Coffee-house on Wall-street in New York City, a noted place of resort for shipmasters and merchants, inviting merchants to meet on May 16, 1774 at the Fraunces Tavern "in order to consult on measures proper to be pursued on the present critical and important situation." At that meeting, with Isaac Low as chair, they resolved to nominated a fifty-member committee of correspondence to be submitted to the public, on May 17 they published a notice calling on the public to meet at the Coffee-house on May 19 at 1:00 pm to approve the committee and appoint others as they may see fit.
At the meeting on May 19, Francis Lewis was nominated and the entire Committee of Fifty-one was confirmed. On May 23, the committee met at the Coffee-house and appointed Isaac Low as permanent chairman and John Alsop as deputy chairman; the Committee formed a subcommittee which reported a letter in response to the letters from Boston, calling for a "Congress of Deputies from the Colonies" to be assembled, approved by the committee. On May 30, the Committee formed a subcommittee to write a letter to the supervisors of the counties of New York to extort them to form similar committees of correspondence, which letter was adopted at a meeting of the Committee on May 31. On July 4, 1774, a resolution was approved to appoint five delegates contingent upon their confirmation by the freeholders of the City and County of New York, request that the other counties send delegates. Isaac Low, John Alsop, James Duane, Philip Livingston, John Jay were appointed, the public of the City and County was invited to attend City Hall and concur in the appointments on July 7.
This caused friction with the more radical Sons of Liberty faction, who held the Meeting in the Fields on July 6. Three counties acquiesced to the five delegates, as did Ulster County but this was unrecognized by the congress, while three counties sent delegates of their own, six counties were unresponsive. Albany County had appointed delegates of its own, but the New York County delegates were authorized to act in their stead. In Westchester County, meetings were held in the towns of Bedford, Mamaronee and Westchester, on August 22 a general county meeting at White Plains authorized the New York County delegates to act for the county; the action of Duchess County is not clear. Henry Wisner and John Haring were appointed on August 16 by the General Meeting of all the Committees of the County of Orange; as told by Joseph Galloway, a delegate from Pennsylvania, the appointment for the Kings County delegate was made thusly: two persons assembled. For Suffolk County, less is known about the appointment of William Floyd.
In three meetings held in Ulster County, the New York County delegates were authorized to act for those present, if not the whole county. The First Continental Congress met from September 5 to October 26, 1774. Previous to this committee's formation, opposition to the British was organized through the informal leadership of the Sons of Liberty. From late 1774, the Committee exercised effective control of New York City, declared that Boston was "suffering in defence of the rights of America". On November 22, 1774 the Committee of Fifty-One and the Committee of Mechanics nominated a committee of inspection, approved by the freeholders and freemen of the city at City Hall, known variously as the Committee of Sixty and/or the Committee of Observation, to carry the measures of the First Continental Congress into effect, i.e. the Continental Association, pursuant to the 11th resolution of the Congress. This Committee issued a call to the counties of New York on March 15, 1775 to send delegates to a Provincial Convention in New York City on April 20, to elect delegates to the Second Continental Congress.
On April 23, news of the battle of Lexington and Concord arrived. On April 26, Isaac Low called for the dismissal of the Committee of Sixty and the convening of a Provincial Congress, as well as a Committee of One Hundred to perform the function of the Provincial Congress until it was convened. On April 29, 1775 a mass meeting of residents signed a "General Association" whereby they agreed to obey the Continental Congress, the Committee of Sixty, New York's Provincial Convention; the Committee of Sixty was replaced by a more representative Committee of One Hundred on May 1, 1775. By May 4, the city had four companies of volunteers. On May 15, the Continental Congress ordered the construction of a fort at Kings Bridge, the construction of batteries in the Highlands, the arming and training of a militia; the Committee of One Hundred still considered itself loyal to the British Crown, but was instead opposed to the laws of the Parliament of Great Britain w
Committee of Five
The Committee of Five of the Second Continental Congress was a group of five members who drafted and presented to the full Congress what would become America's Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776. This Declaration committee operated from June 11, 1776, until July 5, 1776, the day on which the Declaration was published; the members of this group were: John Adams, representative of Massachusetts, who became the second U. S. President Thomas Jefferson, representative of Virginia, who became the third U. S. President Benjamin Franklin, representative of Pennsylvania, known as one of the most famous of the Founding Fathers and the first U. S. Minister to France Roger Sherman, representative of Connecticut, the only person to sign all four of the U. S. state papers: the Continental Association, the Declaration, the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution Robert Livingston, representative of New York, who negotiated the Louisiana Purchase as the Minister to France The delegates of the United Colonies in Congress resolved to postpone until Monday, July 1, the final consideration of whether or not to declare the several sovereign independencies of the United Colonies, proposed by the North Carolina resolutions of April 12 and the Virginia resolutions of May 15.
The proposal, known as the Lee Resolution, was moved in Congress on June 7 by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia. During these allotted three weeks Congress agreed to appoint a committee to draft a broadside statement to proclaim to the world the reasons for taking America out of the British Empire, if the Congress were to declare the said sovereign independencies; the actual declaration of "American Independence" is the text comprising the final paragraph of the published broadside of July 4. The broadside's final paragraph repeated the text of the Lee Resolution as adopted by the declaratory resolve voted on July 2. On June 11, the Committee of Five was appointed: John Adams of Massachusetts, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, Robert Livingston of New York, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia; because the committee left no minutes, there is some uncertainty about how the drafting process proceeded—accounts written many years by Jefferson and Adams, although cited, are contradictory and not reliable.
The committee, after discussing the general outline that the document should follow, decided that Jefferson would write the first draft. With Congress's busy schedule, Jefferson had limited time to write the draft over the ensuing 17 days, he consulted with the others on the committee, who reviewed the draft and made extensive changes. Jefferson produced another copy incorporating these alterations. Among the changes was the simplification of the phrase Life and the pursuit of Happiness, which Jefferson had phrased "preservation of life, & liberty, & the pursuit of happiness"; this was a return to wording closer to John Locke's original description of private property as a natural right, in the phrase "life and estate". On June 28, 1776, the committee presented this copy to the "Committee of the Whole" Congress, commemorated by one of the most famous paintings in US history; the title of the document was "A Declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled".
Although not noted, the estimated time was 18:26 LMT for the recording of this historic vote. The Congress heard the report of the Committee of the Whole and declared the sovereign status of the United Colonies the following day, during the afternoon of July 2; the Committee of the Whole turned to the Declaration, it was given a second reading before adjournment. On Wednesday, July 3, the Committee of the Whole gave the Declaration a third reading and commenced scrutiny of the precise wording of the proposed text. Two passages in the Committee of Five's draft were rejected by the Committee of the Whole. One was a critical reference to the English people and the other was a denunciation of the slave trade and of slavery itself; the text of the Declaration was otherwise accepted without any other major changes. Jefferson wrote in his autobiography, of the two deleted passages: The pusillanimous idea that we had friends in England worth keeping terms with still haunted the minds of many. For this reason, those passages which conveyed censures on the people of England were struck out, lest they should give them offense.
The clause, reprobating the enslaving the inhabitants of Africa was struck out in complaisance to South Carolina and Georgia, who had never attempted to restrain the importation of slaves, who, on the contrary, still wished to continue it. Our Northern brethren I believe, felt a little tender under these censures, for though their people had few slaves themselves, yet they had been pretty considerable carriers of them to others; as John Adams recalled many years this work of editing the proposed text was completed by the time of adjournment on July 3. However, the text's formal adoption was deferred until the following morning, when the Congress voted its agreement during the late morning of July 4; the draft document as adopted was referred back to the Committee of Five in order to prepare a "fair copy", this being the redrafted-as-corrected document prepared for delivery to the broadside printer, John Dunlap. And so the Committee of Five convened in the early evening of July 4 to complete its task.
Historians have had no documentary means by which to determine the identity of the authenticating party. It is unclear whether the Declaration was authenticated by the Committee of Five's signature, or the Committee submitted the fair copy to President Hancock for his authenticating signature, or the authe
Committee of Nine
The Committee of Nine was a group of conservative political leaders in Virginia led by Alexander H. H. Stuart following the American Civil War when Virginia was required to adopt a new Constitution acknowledging the abolition of slavery before its readmission into the Union, they engineered the federal and state political machinery so that separate votes would be taken on the constitution and provisions restricting voting and office-holding rights of former Confederates. Following the American Civil War and testimony before Congress that President Andrew Johnson's self-reconstruction was not allowing newly freed slaves many civil rights, Congress passed four Reconstruction Acts which set forth requirements for civilians to take control over the state governments in Confederate states, instead of the military; because Virginia's 1850 Constitution supported slavery, which became illegal during the American Civil War, the delegates drafting the 1864 Constitution under provisional Governor Francis Harrison Pierpont did not represent the entire state, Virginia needed to draft and adopt a new Constitution to end military rule.
Many high-ranking former Confederates were not permitted and others chose not to vote for members of the Constitutional Convention of 1867-68, which included African American delegates and abolitionist federal judge John Curtiss Underwood dominated. The Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1868 began its work in December 1867. Virginia newspapers and Conservatives, including Alexander H. H. Stuart began criticizing the Convention its African-American members, during that month. Nonetheless, the Convention continued, did include former Confederates as members. Major areas of debate concerned state administration, voting regulations, restrictions on officeholding by former Confederates, social policies. During acrimonious sessions in early 1868, many Conservative members either left or were dismissed by the Convention before it approved a draft in April, which needed to be approved by voters; the "Underwood Constitution" included "free schools for both races, equal rights provisions, reforms of local government."
It included controversial and strict clauses concerning ex-Confederates, which were unpopular, so Virginia's military ruler during Congressional Reconstruction, General John Schofield and President-elect Ulysses S. Grant delayed the ratification vote for what turned out to be more than a year. Meanwhile, by the autumn of 1868, Virginia's Republican party split because of the anti-Confederate provisions. Governor Henry H. Wells argued that Unionists would be at risk in Virginia if the disabling clauses were removed from the proposed Virginia Constitution. Stuart had appointed former Confederate general John Echols as part of a committee of three, along with F. G. Ruffin and James D. Johnston, to recommend eight other men to serve in the Committee of Nine. Echols would never formally become a member of the Committee of Nine, although he worked with Stuart to publish the "Senex" letter described below and set up the compromise. By the end of 1868, Republicans, displeased with the final constitution approved by the convention joined forces with what formally became the Committee of Nine.
These Republicans, such as Edgar Allan and Franklin Stearns, worked with the committee in Washington in the fight for a separate vote on the anti-Confederate provisions. They joined in meeting important Congressmen since the Republicans dominated the Congress at the time, their work proved influential. Nonetheless, when the Congress reassembled in December 1868, the Virginia Republican executive committee requested a vote on the Underwood constitution. On December 9, the House Committee of Reconstruction passed a bill to provide money for the referendum, the Christmas holiday recess arrived before the Senate received the bill. Alexander H. H. Stuart wanted to get rid of the disenfranchisement clauses before the referendum was held. Stuart wrote a letter to publicize his objections concerning the clauses, he argued for universal amnesty and for the creation of another constitution with the disenfranchisement clauses to present to the Congress. His letter was published in the Richmond papers under the pseudonym, "Senex."
In his work, "A narrative of the leading incidents of the organization of the first popular movement in Virginia in 1865 to re-establish peaceful relations between the northern and southern states, the subsequent efforts of the "Committee of Nine," in 1869, to secure the restoration of Virginia to the Union", Alexander H. H. Stuart describes his motives behind writing and publishing the letter as following:"I have no doubt that hundreds—nay, thousands—of my fellow-citizens thought and felt as I did as to the necessity of taking action on the subject, but no one seemed to be willing to assume the responsibility of taking the lead! Under these circumstances, as the necessity for moving in the matter was urgent, the time within which action to lead to a successful result was limited to two weeks, I determined to sound a note of alarm by calling the attention of the people of Virginia to the frightful dangers which threatened them, urging those who thought as I did to unite in an organized attempt to avert them.
With this object in view, I wrote “a communication,” over the signature “Senex,” intended for publication in the Richmond Dispatch. This paper was written on my own responsibility, without conference or consultation with anyone. My purpose was to try and arouse the pe
Committee of Fifty (1906)
This Committee of Fifty, sometimes referred to as Committee of Safety, Citizens' Committee of Fifty or Relief and Restoration Committee of Law and Order, was called into existence by Mayor Eugene Schmitz during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The Mayor invited civic leaders, newspaper men and politicians—but none of the members of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors—to participate in this committee in whose hands the civil administration of San Francisco would rest. Schmitz thought it necessary to form this body to manage the crisis during the disaster, although there was no legal basis for it, it first assembled in the basement of the ruined Hall of Justice on the afternoon of the earthquake, April 18, at 3 p.m. By 5 p.m. the location became dangerous and the Committee crossed Portsmouth Square to meet at the Plaza Hotel, which in turn had to be abandoned two hours later. At 8 p.m. the Committee assembled at the Fairmont Hotel's ballroom, sitting along the edge of the stage and on packing cases.
At this point, the 19 sub-committees were set up. Shortly after 11 p.m. they dispersed. Overnight the Fairmont Hotel burned down. On Thursday, April 19, at 6 a.m. the Committee met at the North End police station. At 11 a.m. they had to abandon the police station because of the scorching heat, reconvened at 2 p.m. at Franklin Hall, on Fillmore Street, where they stayed for the remainder of the crisis, which became known as Temporary City Hall. At 4.30 p.m. Abe Ruef appeared there, he had not been called to be a member, but invited himself, Mayor Schmitz accepted his offer, he became chairman of an additional sub-committee, trying unsuccessfully to relocate the Chinese. There were more than hundred members, but they never met all together, since during the chaos members came and went as they could or would. On April 19, 1906, The New York Times published the first list of the members of the Committee with 49 names - it did not include that of the Mayor - which originated the name Committee of Fifty.
More and more people went to the meetings and here are the names of people who were mentioned by different sources as members: Eugene Schmitz, Chairman of the Committee of Fifty Rufus P. Jennings, Secretary of the Committee of Fifty, executive officer of the California Promotion Committee Frank P. Anderson Hugo K. Asher, afterwards Delegate to the 1920 Democratic National Convention from California William Babcock, Vice-President of the Pacific-Union Club 1897, William J. Bartnett, chief counsel of the Western Pacific Railroad Clement Pelham Bennett, court reporter Maurice Block Henry Ulysses Brandenstein, lawyer J. Dalzell Brown S. G. Buckbee H. M. Burke Michael Casey Albert E. Castle Myrtle E. Cerf, California's first woman CPA I. Choynski, Press Agent of the Committee Oscar Cooper R. H. Countryman Paul Cowles Harry T. Creswell, some time City and County Attorney and Police Commissioner, afterwards Delegate to the 1912 Democratic National Convention from California Henry J. Crocker, businessman R. A. Crothers, publisher of the San Francisco Evening Bulletin O. K. Cushing, lawyer Horace Davis, ex-United States Representative George Dillman Jeremiah Dinan, Chief of Police Edgar J. De Pue, President of The Pacific-Union Club 1906-1908 Michael H. de Young, owner of the San Francisco Chronicle A. B. C.
Dohrman Frank G. Drum, Treasurer of The Pacific-Union Club 1911-1914 John Sylvester Drum, afterwards President of The Mercantile Trust Company, Director of the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, President of the American Bankers Association George F. Duffy F. J. Dwyer Garrett W. Enerney C. W. Fay, postmaster Tirey L. Ford, attorney for United Railroads, ex-California Attorney General Charles S. Fee Katharine Felton, Director of the Family Service Agency of San Francisco John W. Ferris Dr. Thomas Filben, Methodist minister James L. Flood T. C. Friedlander Dr. Garceau Thomas Garrett Mark L. Gerstle Louis T. Glass, director of telephone companies, inventor of the Jukebox Wellington Gregg, Jr. R. B. Hale, owner of Hale Brothers department store Dr. Harris, physician Ralph Harrison Richard C. Harrison, partner in the law firm of Harrison & Harrison William Greer Harrison, agent for Thames and Mersey Marine Insurance Co, Liverpool John Downey Harvey, major shareholder of Ocean Shore Railroad Isaias W. Hellman, banker Francis J. Heney, special federal prosecutor the same year prosecuted Schmitz and Ruef for bribery George A. Hensley William F. Herrin, Chief Counsel of Southern Pacific Railroad Dr. Marcus Herstein, physician Howard Carlton Holmes, Chief Engineer of the San Francisco Dry Dock Company J. R. Howell, Chairman of the San Francisco Real Estate Board A. M. Hunt Judge John Hunt, of the San Francisco Superior Court D. V. Kelly Homer King George A.
Knight F. H. Lamb Franklin Knight Lane, afterwards US Secretary of the Interior Hartland Law, manufacturer of patent medicines Herbert E. Law, brother of Hartland Law W. H. Leahy John J. Lermen, attorney Charles Loesch H. D. Loveland C. G. Lyman C. H. Maddox Frank Maestretti Thomas Magee John J. Mahony Rabbi A. W. Mann John Martin Dr. McGill John McLauren Gavin McNab John McNaught S. B. McNear John F. Merrill William H. Metson Archbishop George Thomas Montgomery, coadjutor of San Francisco Edward F. Moran, former President of the San Francisco Civil Service Commission US Circuit Judge William W. Morrow, president of the San Francisco Red Cross Irving F. Moulton Thornwell Mullally, assistant to Patrick Calhoun, of United Railroads of San Francisco S. G. Murphy George A. Newhall, Secretary of The Pacific-Union Club 1896-1897, 1908 William Ford Nichols, Episcopal Bishop of California Hermann Oelrichs, of Norddeutsche Lloyd shipping line, son-in-law of James Graham Fair Father Phillip O'Ryan Robert Park A. H. Payson James D. Phelan, ex-Mayor of San Francisco
Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania. It is composed of the Zanzibar Archipelago in the Indian Ocean, 25–50 kilometres off the coast of the mainland, consists of many small islands and two large ones: Unguja and Pemba Island; the capital is Zanzibar City, located on the island of Unguja. Its historic centre is Stone Town, a World Heritage Site. Zanzibar's main industries are spices and tourism. In particular, the islands produce cloves, nutmeg and black pepper. For this reason, the Zanzibar Archipelago, together with Tanzania's Mafia Island, are sometimes referred to locally as the "Spice Islands". Zanzibar is the home of the endemic Zanzibar red colobus, the Zanzibar servaline genet, the Zanzibar leopard; the word Zanzibar came from Arabic zanjibār, in turn from Persian zangbâr, a compound of Zang + bâr, cf. the Sea of Zanj. The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants.
The presence of microliths suggests that Zanzibar has been home to humans for at least 20,000 years, the beginning of the Later Stone Age. A Greco-Roman text between the 1st and 3rd centuries, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, mentioned the island of Menuthias, Unguja. Zanzibar, like the nearby coast, was settled by Bantu-speakers at the outset of the first millennium. Archaeological finds at Fukuchani, on the north-west coast of Zanzibar, indicate a settled agricultural and fishing community from the 6th century CE at the latest; the considerable amount of daub found indicates timber buildings, shell beads, bead grinders, iron slag have been found at the site. There is evidence for limited engagement in long-distance trade: a small amount of imported pottery has been found, less than 1% of total pottery finds from the Gulf and dated to the 5th to 8th century; the similarity to contemporary sites such as Mkokotoni and Dar es Salaam indicate a unified group of communities that developed into the first center of coastal maritime culture.
The coastal towns appear to have been engaged in Indian Ocean and inland African trade at this early period. Trade increased in importance and quantity beginning in the mid-8th century and by the close of the 10th century Zanzibar was one of the central Swahili trading towns. Excavations at nearby Pemba Island, but at Shanga in the Lamu Archipelago, provide the clearest picture of architectural development. Houses were built with timber and in mud with coral walls; the houses were continually rebuilt with more permanent materials. By the 13th century, houses were built with stone, bonded with mud, the 14th century saw the use of lime to bond stone. Only the wealthier patricians would have had stone and lime built houses, the strength of the materials allowing for flat roofs, while the majority of the population lived in single-story thatched houses similar to those from the 11th and 12th centuries. According to John Middleton and Mark Horton, the architectural style of these stone houses have no Arab or Persian elements, should be viewed as an indigenous development of local vernacular architecture.
While much of Zanzibar Town's architecture was rebuilt during Omani rule, nearby sites elucidate the general development of Swahili, Zanzibari, architecture before the 15th century. Persian and Arab traders used Zanzibar as a base for voyages between the Middle East and Africa. Unguja, the larger island, offered a protected and defensible harbor, so although the archipelago offered few products of value, traders settled at Zanzibar City a convenient point from which to trade with the other Swahili coast towns; the impact of these traders and immigrants on the Swahili culture is uncertain. During the Middle Ages and other settlements on the Swahili Coast were advanced; the littoral contained a number of autonomous trade cities. These towns grew in wealth as the Swahili people served as intermediaries and facilitators to local, inland mainland African, Persian, Malaysian and Chinese merchants and traders; this interaction contributed in part to the evolution of the Swahili culture, which developed its own written language.
Although a Bantu language, the Swahili language as a consequence today includes some elements that were borrowed from other civilizations loanwords from Arabic. With the wealth that they had acquired through trade, some of the Arab traders became rulers of the coastal cities. Vasco da Gama's visit in 1498 marked the beginning of European influence. In 1503 or 1504, Zanzibar became part of the Portuguese Empire when Captain Ruy Lourenço Ravasco Marques landed and demanded and received tribute from the sultan in exchange for peace. Zanzibar remained a possession of Portugal for two centuries, it became part of the Portuguese province of Arabia and Ethiopia and was administered by a governor general. Around 1571, Zanzibar became part of the western division of the Portuguese empire and was administered from Mozambique, it appears, that the Portuguese did not administer Zanzibar. The first English ship to visit Unguja, the Edward Bonaventure in 1591, found that there was no Portuguese fort or garrison.
The extent of their occupation was a trade depot where produce was purchased and collected for shipment to Mozambique. "In other respects, the affairs o