International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
The International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children, headquartered in Alexandria, with a regional presence in Brazil and Singapore, is a private 501 non-governmental, nonprofit global organization. It combats child sexual exploitation, child pornography, child abduction. Formed in 1998, ICMEC heads a global missing children's network of 22 countries; the organization has trained law enforcement personnel from 121 countries, works with law enforcement in over 100 countries, has worked with legislatures in 100 countries to adopt new laws combating child pornography. ICMEC encourages the creation of national operational centers built on a public-private partnership model, leads global financial and industry coalitions to eradicate child sexual exploitation and child pornography; the Koons Family Institute on International Law and Policy is the International Centre's research arm. In August 2008, ICMEC was granted "Special Consultative Status" by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, to assist the UN with its expertise regarding child sexual exploitation and child abduction.
ICMEC works with the intergovernmental organization INTERPOL, the inter-continental organization the Organization of American States, the Hague Conference on Private International Law. In 1998, the Board of Directors of the United States' National Center for Missing and Exploited Children approved the creation of the International Centre. ICMEC combats child sexual exploitation, child pornography, child abduction. ICMEC held its first Board of Directors meeting in May 1998, it was launched in April 1999 at the British Embassy in Washington, D. C. by Hillary Clinton, then-First Lady of the United States, Cherie Blair, wife of British Prime Minister Tony Blair. Ernie Allen served as CEO of both NCMEC and ICMEC for 15 years. Allen retired from NCMEC in 2012, in 2014 announced his retirement from ICMEC as well. In November 2014, Ambassador Maura Harty was appointed President & CEO of ICMEC; the Board of Directors of ICMEC includes: Franz Humer, Elizabeth Frawley Bagley, Mary Banotti, Eve Branson, Maud de Boer-Buquicchio, Daniel Cardon de Lichtbuer, Dennis DeConcini, Victor Halberstadt, Maura Harty, Jeff Koons, Anne-Marie Lizin, Osamu Nagayama, Raymond F. Schinazi, Patty Wetterling.
In 2007, American artist Jeff Koons, along with his wife Justine, founded the Koons Family Institute on International Law and Policy. It is the International Centre's research arm; as highlighted by articles over the years, including a Wall Street Journal article entitled "Pooling Resources to Fight Child Abuse and Abduction", the issue of child abduction is personal to Koons. Following the end of his marriage to Hungarian-born Italian porn actress Ilona Staller in 1994, as she wanted to continue to perform as a porn actress and Koons wanted them to be monogamous, Staller, in violation of a US court order, left with their then-two-year-old son and took the child to Italy. After Koons spent millions of dollars in legal fees over a five-year period pursuing parental rights to his young son, the Italian Supreme Court failed to recognize the couples' US-based joint custody agreement and instead sided with Staller; this loss for Koons led him to establish the Koons Family Institute, devote over $4.3 million to the International Centre's work.
In addition, Koons' 2010 partnership with Kiehl's to design the artwork for a limited edition moisturizer line raised $200,000 for the Koons Family Institute. In 2006, the International Centre published a report of findings on the presence of child pornography legislation in the then-184 INTERPOL member countries, it updated this information, in subsequent editions, to include 196 UN member countries. The report, entitled "Child Pornography: Model Legislation & Global Review," assesses whether national legislation: exists with specific regard to child pornography. ICMEC stated that it found in its initial report that only 27 countries had legislation needed to deal with child pornography offenses, while 95 countries did not have any legislation that addressed child pornography, making child pornography a global issue worsened by the inadequacies of domestic legislation; the 7th Edition Report found that still only 69 countries had legislation needed to deal with child pornography offenses, while 53 did not have any legislation addressing the problem.
Over seven years of research from 2006–12, ICMEC and the Institute report that they have worked with 100 countries that have revised or put in place new child pornography laws. In June 2009, the Koons Family Institute partnered with The Protection Project at Johns Hopkins University Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, creating the Child Protection Project, to draft a model law focusing on the issues of child protection; the primary objectives of the Child Protection Project are to: "research existing child protection laws in the 193 member states of the United Nations.
United Nations Security Council
The United Nations Security Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with ensuring international peace and security, accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its charter. Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations and international sanctions as well as the authorization of military actions through resolutions – it is the only body of the United Nations with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states; the council held its first session on 17 January 1946. Like the UN as a whole, the Security Council was created following World War II to address the failings of a previous international organization, the League of Nations, in maintaining world peace. In its early decades, the Security Council was paralyzed by the Cold War division between the US and USSR and their respective allies, though it authorized interventions in the Korean War and the Congo Crisis and peacekeeping missions in the Suez Crisis and West New Guinea.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, UN peacekeeping efforts increased in scale, the Security Council authorized major military and peacekeeping missions in Kuwait, Cambodia, Rwanda, Somalia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Security Council consists of fifteen members; the great powers that were the victors of World War II – the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France and the United States – serve as the body's five permanent members. These can veto any substantive resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or nominees for the office of Secretary-General. In addition, the council has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve a term of two years; the body's presidency rotates monthly among its members. Resolutions of the Security Council are enforced by UN peacekeepers, military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget; as of 2016, 103,510 peacekeepers and 16,471 civilians were deployed on sixteen peacekeeping operations and one special political mission.
In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations and conferences had been formed to regulate conflicts between nations, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross and the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. Following the catastrophic loss of life in World War I, the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between the nations; this organization resolved some territorial disputes and created international structures for areas such as postal mail and opium control, some of which would be absorbed into the UN. However, the League lacked representation for colonial peoples and significant participation from several major powers, including the US, USSR, Japan; the earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. US President Roosevelt first coined the term United Nations to describe the Allied countries."On New Year's Day 1942, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, Maxim Litvinov, of the USSR, T. V. Soong, of China, signed a short document which came to be known as the United Nations Declaration and the next day the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures."
The term United Nations was first used when 26 governments signed this Declaration. By 1 March 1945, 21 additional states had signed. "Four Policemen" was coined to refer to the four major Allied countries: the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China. And became the foundation of an executive branch of the United Nations, the Security Council. In mid-1944, the delegations from the Allied "Big Four", the Soviet Union, the UK, the US and China, met for the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in Washington, D. C. to negotiate the UN's structure, the composition of the UN Security Council became the dominant issue. France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the UK, US were selected as permanent members of the Security Council; the most contentious issue at Dumbarton and in successive talks proved to be the veto rights of permanent members. The Soviet delegation argued that each nation should have an absolute veto that could block matters from being discussed, while the British argued that nations should not be able to veto resolutions on disputes to which they were a party.
At the Yalta Conference of February 1945, the American and Russian delegations agreed that each of the "Big Five" could veto any action by the council, but not procedural resolutions, meaning that the permanent members could not prevent debate on a resolution. On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, attended by 50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in drafting the United Nations Charter. At the conference, H. V. Evatt of the Australian delegation pushed to further restrict the veto power of Security Council permanent members. Due to the fear that rejecting the strong veto would cause the conference's failure, his proposal was defeated twenty votes to ten; the UN came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification of the Charter by the five then-permanent members of the Security Council and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. On 17 January
Gedhun Choekyi Nyima
Gedhun Choekyi Nyima is the 11th Panchen Lama of Tibetan Buddhism. He was announced to be the 11th Panchen Lama by the Dalai Lama on 14 May 1995, he was rejected by the search team appointed by the State Council of the People's Republic of China. He was born in Tibet Autonomous Region. After his selection, he was taken into what the PRC government described as protective custody and has not been acknowledged in public since 17 May 1995. Four days before his death, the 10th Panchen Lama made his own will publicly to follow the tradition. On 24 January, following the opening ceremony of the Ling Pagoda, with religious figures in Tibet, Gansu and Yunnan provinces and autonomous regions, the 10th Penchen Lama held a special talk on the reincarnation of the Living Buddha, proposing that "the three candidate boys should be identified first and investigated one by one" and "I would like to take the lead by drawing lots of Golden Urn before the image of Sakyamuni." Following the death of the 10th Panchen Lama in 1989, the search for an individual to be recognised as his reincarnation by Tibetan Buddhists became mired in mystery and controversy, as Tibet had been under the occupation and control of the non-religious People's Republic of China since 1959.
Three days after the death of the 10th Panchen Lama, the Premier of the State Council published its decision on how the 11th Panchen Lama was to be selected, claiming to have taken advice from the committee of Tashi Lhunpo Monastery and monks. Armed with Beijing's approval, the head of the Panchen Lama search committee, Chadrel Rinpoche, maintained private communication with the Dalai Lama in order to arrive at a mutually acceptable candidate for both the Dalai Lama and Beijing authorities concerning the Panchen Lama's reincarnation. After the Dalai Lama named Gedhun Choekyi Nyima as the 11th incarnation of the Panchen Lama on 14 May 1995, Chinese authorities had Chadrel Rinpoche arrested and charged with treason. According to the Tibetan Government in Exile, he was replaced by Sengchen Lobsang Gyaltsen, so chosen because he was more to agree with the party line. Sengchen had been a political opponent of both the 10th Panchen Lama; because of the history of rivalry between different sects of Tibetan Buddhism, many Tibetans and scholars believe that this was a tactical move by the Chinese Communist Party to create more unrest and disunity between the unified Tibetan peoples.
The new search committee ignored the Dalai Lama's 14 May announcement and instead chose from a list of finalists which excluded Gedhun Choekyi Nyima. In selecting a name, lottery numbers were drawn from a Golden Urn, a procedure used in Tibet by the Chinese emperor in 1793; the 14th Dalai Lama stated that the Tibetan method involves using possessions of the former Lama to identify his reincarnation, as the new child incarnate will recognize his past items amid miscellaneous ones. On January 26, 1940, the Regent Reting Rinpoche requested the Central Government to exempt Tenzin Gyatso from the lot-drawing process of the Golden Urn to become the 14th Dalai Lama; the request was approved by the Central Government. Chinese authorities announced Gyancain Norbu as the search committee's choice on 11 November 1995; the BBC reported. Alexander Norman wrote, "Today, the Panchen Lamas are famous for having two claimants to the see of Tashilhunpo: one recognised by the present Dalai Lama and taken into house arrest by the Chinese, the other recognised by China but by no one else."
Since his selection, the whereabouts of Gedhun Choekyi Nyima have been unknown. Officials state. Human rights organizations termed him the "youngest political prisoner in the world". No foreign party has been allowed to visit him; the Committee on the Rights of the Child requested to be told of Nyima's whereabouts on 28 May 1996. Xinhua declined, responding that Nyima was at risk of being "kidnapped by separatists" and that "his security had been threatened"; the Committee requested a visit with Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, supported by a campaign of more than 400 celebrities and associations petitioning for the visit, including six Nobel Prize winners. According to statements by the Chinese government from 1998, he was leading a normal life. In May 2007, Asma Jahangir, Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief of the UN Human Rights Council, asked the Chinese authorities what measures they had taken to implement the recommendation of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, that the government should allow an independent expert to visit and confirm the well-being of Gedhun Choekyi Nyima while respecting his right to privacy, that of his parents.
In a response dated 17 July 2007, the Chinese authorities said: "Gedhun Choekyi Nyima is a ordinary Tibetan boy, in an excellent state of health, leading a normal, happy life and receiving a good education and cultural upbringing. He is in upper secondary school, he measures 165 cm in height and is easy-going by nature, he studies hard and his school results are good. He likes Chinese traditional culture and has taken up calligraphy, his parents are both State employees, his brothers and sisters are either working or at university. The allegation that he disappeared together with his parents and that his whereabouts remain unknown is not true." This response did not answer the question about a confirmation. In 2015, on the twentieth anniversary of Gendun Choekyi Nyima's disappearance, Chinese officials announced "The reincarnated child Panchen Lama you mentioned is being educated, living a normal life, growing up healthily and does not wish to be disturbed."In April 2018
Human rights are "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled" Examples of rights and freedoms which are thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and property, freedom of expression, pursuit of happiness and equality before the law. All human beings are born equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Ancient peoples did not have the same modern-day conception of universal human rights; the true forerunner of human-rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval natural law tradition that became prominent during the European Enlightenment. From this foundation, the modern human rights arguments emerged over the latter half of the 20th century.17th-century English philosopher John Locke discussed natural rights in his work, identifying them as being "life and estate", argued that such fundamental rights could not be surrendered in the social contract.
In Britain in 1689, the English Bill of Rights and the Scottish Claim of Right each made illegal a range of oppressive governmental actions. Two major revolutions occurred during the 18th century, in the United States and in France, leading to the United States Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen both of which articulated certain human rights. Additionally, the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 encoded into law a number of fundamental civil rights and civil freedoms. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life and the pursuit of Happiness. Philosophers such as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill and Hegel expanded on the theme of universality during the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison wrote in a newspaper called The Liberator that he was trying to enlist his readers in "the great cause of human rights" so the term human rights came into use sometime between Paine's The Rights of Man and Garrison's publication.
In 1849 a contemporary, Henry David Thoreau, wrote about human rights in his treatise On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, influential on human rights and civil rights thinkers. United States Supreme Court Justice David Davis, in his 1867 opinion for Ex Parte Milligan, wrote "By the protection of the law, human rights are secured. In Western Europe and North America, labour unions brought about laws granting workers the right to strike, establishing minimum work conditions and forbidding or regulating child labour; the women's rights movement succeeded in gaining for many women the right to vote. National liberation movements in many countries succeeded in driving out colonial powers. One of the most influential was Mahatma Gandhi's movement to free his native India from British rule. Movements by long-oppressed racial and religious minorities succeeded in many parts of the world, among them the civil rights movement, more recent diverse identity politics movements, on behalf of women and minorities in the United States.
The foundation of the International Committee of the Red Cross, the 1864 Lieber Code and the first of the Geneva Conventions in 1864 laid the foundations of International humanitarian law, to be further developed following the two World Wars. The League of Nations was established in 1919 at the negotiations over the Treaty of Versailles following the end of World War I; the League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation and improving global welfare. Enshrined in its Charter was a mandate to promote many of the rights which were included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the League of Nations had mandates to support many of the former colonies of the Western European colonial powers during their transition from colony to independent state. Established as an agency of the League of Nations, now part of United Nations, the International Labour Organization had a mandate to promote and safeguard certain of the rights included in the UDHR: the primary goal of the ILO today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity and human dignity.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a non-binding declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 in response to the barbarism of World War II. The UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human, civil and social rights, asserting these rights are part of the "foundation of freedom and peace in the world"; the declaration was the first international legal effort to limit the behavior of states and press upon them duties to their citizens following the model of the rights-duty duality....recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom and peace in the world The UDHR was framed by members of the Human Rights Commission, with Eleanor Roosevelt as Chair, who began to discuss an International Bill of Rights in 1947. The members of the Commission did not agree on the form of such a bill of rights, whe
Organization of American States
The Organization of American States, or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization, founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states. Headquartered in the United States capital Washington, D. C. the OAS's members are the 35 independent states of the Americas. As of 26 May 2015, the Secretary General of OAS is Luis Almagro; the notion of an international union in the New World was first put forward during the liberation of the Americas by José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar who, at the 1826 Congress of Panama, proposed creating a league of American republics, with a common military, a mutual defense pact, a supranational parliamentary assembly. This meeting was attended by representatives of Gran Colombia, Peru, The United Provinces of Central America, Mexico but the grandly titled "Treaty of Union and Perpetual Confederation" was ratified only by Gran Colombia. Bolívar's dream soon floundered with civil war in Gran Colombia, the disintegration of Central America, the emergence of national rather than New World outlooks in the newly independent American republics.
Bolívar's dream of American unity was meant to unify Hispanic American nations against external powers. The pursuit of regional solidarity and cooperation again came to the forefront in 1889–1890, at the First International Conference of American States. Gathered together in Washington, D. C. 18 nations resolved to found the International Union of American Republics, served by a permanent secretariat called the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics. These two bodies, in existence as of 14 April 1890, represent the point of inception to which the OAS and its General Secretariat trace their origins. At the Fourth International Conference of American States, the name of the organization was changed to the Union of American Republics and the Bureau became the Pan American Union; the Pan American Union Building was constructed in 1910, on Constitution Avenue, Washington, D. C. In the mid-1930s, U. S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt organized an inter-American conference in Buenos Aires. One of the items at the conference was a "League of Nations of the Americas", an idea proposed by Colombia and the Dominican Republic.
At the subsequent Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, 21 nations pledged to remain neutral in the event of a conflict between any two members. The experience of World War II convinced hemispheric governments that unilateral action could not ensure the territorial integrity of the American nations in the event of external aggression. To meet the challenges of global conflict in the postwar world and to contain conflicts within the hemisphere, they adopted a system of collective security, the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance signed in 1947 in Rio de Janeiro; the Ninth International Conference of American States was held in Bogotá between March and May 1948 and led by United States Secretary of State George Marshall, a meeting which led to a pledge by members to fight communism in the western hemisphere. This was the event that saw the birth of the OAS as it stands today, with the signature by 21 American countries of the Charter of the Organization of American States on 30 April 1948.
The meeting adopted the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, the world's first general human rights instrument. The transition from the Pan American Union to OAS would have been smooth if it had not been for the assassination of Colombian leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán; the Director General of the former, Alberto Lleras Camargo, became the Organization's first Secretary General. The current Secretary General is former Uruguayan minister of foreign affairs Luis Almagro. Significant milestones in the history of the OAS since the signing of the Charter have included the following: 1959: Inter-American Commission on Human Rights created. 1959: Inter-American Development Bank created. 1960: First application of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance against the regime of Rafael Trujillo in Dominican Republic 1961: Charter of Punta del Este signed, launching the Alliance for Progress. 1962: OAS suspends Cuba. 1969: American Convention on Human Rights signed. 1970: OAS General Assembly established as the Organization's supreme decision-making body.
1979: Inter-American Court of Human Rights created. 1991: Adoption of Resolution 1080, which requires the Secretary General to convene the Permanent Council within ten days of a coup d'état in any member country. 1994: First Summit of the Americas, which resolved to establish a Free Trade Area of the Americas by 2005. 2001: Inter-American Democratic Charter adopted. 2009: OAS revokes 1962 suspension of Cuba. 2009: OAS suspends Honduras due to the coup which ousted president Manuel Zelaya. 2011: OAS lifts the suspension of Honduras with the return of Manuel Zelaya from exile. 2017: Venezuela announces it will begin the process to leave the OAS in response to what it alleged was OAS interference in Venezuela's political crisis. In the words of Article 1 of the Charter, the goal of the member nations in creating the OAS was "to achieve an order of peace and justice, to promote their solidarity, to strengthen their collaboration, to defend their sovereignty, their territorial integrity, their independence."
Article 2 defines eight essential
Child Helpline International
Child Helpline International is a global network of 178 child helplines in 146 countries. A child helpline is a outreach service on behalf of children and young people; as of 2017, Child Helpline International is ranked in the top 100 NGOs worldwide by NGO Advisor on measurements including transparency and impact. In 1989, Child Helpline International founder Jeroo Billimoria worked with street children in India as a social worker, she gave the children her telephone number and told them to call if they needed any help, after which she received a large volume of contacts. Billimoria realised that these children needed someone to assist them; the idea of a toll-free number emerged and she set up Childline India - India's first and only child helpline. Childline India's approach was to have volunteers who answered the phone and who would go directly to the child in need. All phones available for public use could dial Childline India, toll-free, in order to help children find aid in places where an emergency shelter may not be located.
The volunteers kept a log of the calls, which became an important source of data for the creation of child protection policies, thus placing these helplines at the centre of child protection policy. After its success in India, Billimoria explored the idea of taking Childline India's concept globally with hopes to create a global network which provided technical assistance to countries who could start or expand their own helplines; this led to the 2003 International Consultation Meeting, held in Amsterdam and attended by representatives from 49 child helplines from around the globe. At this meeting, Child Helpline International was launched; the work of Child Helpline International is grounded in the principle of United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which highlights the children's rights to privacy and protection from harm. The stated mission of the Child Helpline International network is to provide a forum for information sharing and mutual support, assistance with advocacy and lobbying, promoting the rights of children and child helplines as a medium of assistance to children, to support the initiation and development of child helplines in countries which do not have such services.
Child Helpline International is based in Netherlands. The interim Executive Director of Child Helpline International is Sheila Donovan. Child Helpline International is a membership-based organization with members from five regions: Africa and The Caribbean, Asia Pacific and Middle East and North Africa. In 2015, Child Helpline International reached over 20 million contacts from children and young people in need for care and protection. In 2014, Child Helpline International launched the Free Our Voices Campaign, an interactive digital petition created in collaboration with designers MPC Creative and The Kennedys; the aim, in the words of MPC, is "to use the power of the collective voice-signatures to raise awareness and help CHI get the support needed from governments and telecoms to ensure every child’s call for help is answered". The website uses sound recognition technology which allows visitors to sign the petition by verbally recording their name; each recording is visualised by a unique written signature determined by the frequency, sound and speech pattern of each participant’s individual voice.
Signatures can be further personalised with colour patterns and are shareable via social channels. All signatures are rendered in real-time and captured in a 3D gallery in the shape of a young girl’s face. Visitors can explore the gallery to view their own search names of other participants; this unique design won MPC Creative the 2015 Brand Republic Digital Awards, which recognises those at the forefront of the international communications industry. Notable successes of the Free Our Voices Campaign included a collaboration between Child Helpline International and the GSMA on producing a guide on how child helplines and mobile operators can work together to protect children's rights, cost waivers for child helplines in multiple countries including Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia and Sudan. A key role of the network is to provide platform for knowledge transfers between the members. Types of knowledge exchange activities are: Peer Exchanges: Members of the network learn from one another through visits, sharing solutions, comparing expertise and experiences.
Peer Evaluations: Member organizations compare and evaluate good practices and operations of their own child helplines with other members. Trainings and Workshops: Member organizations learn from trainings and workshops to make sure that each child helpline stay abreast of changing times and needs and possess the up-to-date skills International and Regional Consultations: International and Regional Consultations are biennial events held in alternating years in which the members and stakeholders come together to find common ground and reflect on collective experiences from the existing child helplines. Official website Child Helpline International Annual Report 2015 https://www.ashoka.org/fellow/Jeroo-Billimoria NGO Advisor
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as an international bill of rights for women, it was instituted on 3 September 1981 and has been ratified by 189 states. Over fifty countries that have ratified the Convention have done so subject to certain declarations and objections, including 38 countries who rejected the enforcement article 29, which addresses means of settlement for disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention. Australia's declaration noted the limitations on central government power resulting from its federal constitutional system; the United States and Palau have signed, but not ratified the treaty. The Holy See, Somalia and Tonga are not signatories to CEDAW; the CEDAW Chairperson position is held by Dalia Leinarte. The Convention has a similar format to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, "both with regard to the scope of its substantive obligations and its international monitoring mechanisms".
The Convention is structured in six parts with 30 articles total. Part I focuses on non-discrimination, sex stereotypes, sex trafficking. Part II outlines women's rights in the public sphere with an emphasis on political life and rights to nationality. Part III describes the economic and social rights of women focusing on education and health. Part III includes special protections for rural women and the problems they face. Part IV outlines women's right to equality in marriage and family life along with the right to equality before the law. Part V establishes the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women as well as the states parties' reporting procedure. Part VI describes the effects of the Convention on other treaties, the commitment of the states parties and the administration of the Convention. Article 1 defines discrimination against women in the following terms:Any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, social, civil or any other field.
Article 2 mandates that states parties ratifying the Convention declare intent to enshrine gender equality into their domestic legislation, repeal all discriminatory provisions in their laws, enact new provisions to guard against discrimination against women. States ratifying the Convention must establish tribunals and public institutions to guarantee women effective protection against discrimination, take steps to eliminate all forms of discrimination practiced against women by individuals and enterprises. Article 3 requires states parties to guarantee basic human rights and fundamental freedoms to women "on a basis of equality with men" through the "political, social and cultural fields."Article 4 notes that "doption...of special measures aimed at accelerating de facto equality between men and women shall not be considered discrimination." It adds. Article 5 requires states parties to take measures to seek to eliminate prejudices and customs based on the idea of the inferiority or the superiority of one sex or on stereotyped role for men and women.
It mandates the states parties "o ensure...the recognition of the common responsibility of men and women in the upbringing and development of their children."Article 6 obliges states parties to "take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to suppress all forms of trafficking in women and exploitation of prostitution of women."Article 7 guarantees women equality in political and public life with a focus on equality in voting, participation in government, participation in "non-governmental organizations and associations concerned with the public and political life of the country."Article 8 provides that states parties will guarantee women's equal "opportunity to represent their Government at the international level and to participate in the work of international organizations."Article 9 mandates state parties to "grant women equal rights with men to acquire, change or retain their nationality" and equal rights "with respect to the nationality of their children."Article 10 necessitates equal opportunity in education for female students and encourages coeducation.
It provides equal access to athletics and grants as well as requires "reduction in female students' drop out rates."Article 11 outlines the right to work for women as "an unalienable right of all human beings." It requires equal pay for equal work, the right to social security, paid leave and maternity leave "with pay or with comparable social benefits without loss of former employment, seniority or social allowances." Dismissal on the grounds of maternity, pregnancy or status of marriage shall be prohibited with sanction. Article 12 creates the obligation of states parties to "take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of healthcare in order to ensure...access to health care services, including those related to family planning."Article 13 guarantees equality to women "in economic and social life," with respect to "the right to family benefits, the right to bank loans and other forms of financial credit, the right to participate in recreational activities and all aspects of cultural life."Article 14 provides protectio