Freedom of speech
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or legal sanction. The term "freedom of expression" is sometimes used synonymously but includes any act of seeking and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. Freedom of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Article 19 of the UDHR states that "everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference" and "everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; the version of Article 19 in the ICCPR amends this by stating that the exercise of these rights carries "special duties and responsibilities" and may "therefore be subject to certain restrictions" when necessary "or respect of the rights or reputation of others" or "or the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health or morals".
Freedom of speech and expression, may not be recognized as being absolute, common limitations or boundaries to freedom of speech relate to libel, obscenity, sedition, fighting words, classified information, copyright violation, trade secrets, food labeling, non-disclosure agreements, the right to privacy, the right to be forgotten, public security, perjury. Justifications for such include the harm principle, proposed by John Stuart Mill in On Liberty, which suggests that: "the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others."The idea of the "offense principle" is used in the justification of speech limitations, describing the restriction on forms of expression deemed offensive to society, considering factors such as extent, motives of the speaker, ease with which it could be avoided. With the evolution of the digital age, application of the freedom of speech becomes more controversial as new means of communication and restrictions arise, for example the Golden Shield Project, an initiative by Chinese government's Ministry of Public Security that filters unfavorable data from foreign countries.
Freedom of speech and expression has a long history that predates modern international human rights instruments. It is thought that ancient Athenian democratic principle of free speech may have emerged in the late 6th or early 5th century BC; the values of the Roman Republic included freedom of freedom of religion. Concepts of freedom of speech can be found in early human rights documents; the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, adopted during the French Revolution in 1789 affirmed freedom of speech as an inalienable right. The Declaration provides for freedom of expression in Article 11, which states that: The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man; every citizen may, speak and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law. Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948, states that: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.
Today, freedom of speech, or the freedom of expression, is recognized in international and regional human rights law. The right is enshrined in Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Article 13 of the American Convention on Human Rights and Article 9 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights. Based on John Milton's arguments, freedom of speech is understood as a multi-faceted right that includes not only the right to express, or disseminate and ideas, but three further distinct aspects: the right to seek information and ideas; this means that the protection of freedom of speech as a right includes not only the content, but the means of expression. The right to freedom of speech and expression is related to other rights, may be limited when conflicting with other rights; the right to freedom of expression is related to the right to a fair trial and court proceeding which may limit access to the search for information, or determine the opportunity and means in which freedom of expression is manifested within court proceedings.
As a general principle freedom of expression may not limit the right to privacy, as well as the honor and reputation of others. However greater latitude is given; the right to freedom of expression is important for media, which plays a special role as the bearer of the general right to freedom of expression for all. However, freedom of the press does not enable freedom of speech. Judith Lichtenberg has outlined conditions in which freedom of the press may constrain freedom of speech, for example where the med
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Rebecca MacKinnon is an author, Internet freedom advocate, co-founder of the citizen media network Global Voices. She is notable as a former CNN journalist who headed the CNN bureaus in Beijing and in Tokyo, she is on the Board of Directors of the Committee to Protect Journalists, a founding board member of the Global Network Initiative and is director of the Ranking Digital Rights project at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute. MacKinnon was born in California; when she was three years old, MacKinnon's family moved to Tempe, where her father Stephen R. MacKinnon took a job as Professor of Chinese History at Arizona State University, her parents' academic research careers led her to pass most of her primary school years in Delhi, Hong Kong, Beijing, before moving back to Arizona for middle and high school. She graduated from Tempe High in 1987, she graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University in 1991 with a B. A. in Government. After graduating, she served as a Fulbright scholar in Taiwan, where she worked as a Newsweek stringer.
MacKinnon joined CNN in 1992 as Beijing Bureau Assistant and moved up to Producer/Correspondent by 1997 and Bureau Chief by 1998. In 2001 she became Tokyo Bureau Chief. During her time with CNN, she interviewed notable leaders including Junichiro Koizumi, Dalai Lama, Pervez Musharraf, Mohammad Khatami. In the spring of 2004, MacKinnon was a fellow of the Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press and Public Policy at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government; that summer, she joined Harvard Law School's Berkman Center for Internet & Society as a Research Fellow, where she remained until December 2006. Among her projects at the Berkman Center, MacKinnon founded Global Voices Online in collaboration with Ethan Zuckerman. In January 2007 she joined the Journalism and Media Studies Center at the University of Hong Kong, where she remained until January 2009. From February 2009 to January 2010, she conducted research as an Open Society Fellow, funded by George Soros' Open Society Institute. In February 2010 she joined Princeton University's Center for Information Technology Policy where she is a visiting fellow, working on a book about the future of freedom in the Internet age.
Regarding the Middle East, MacKinnon wrote that "the Internet empowers people and helps to bring about the peaceful changes associated with the Arab Spring". In September 2010, MacKinnon became a Bernard L. Schwartz fellow at the New America Foundation, she is Director of the think tank's Ranking Digital Rights project developing a methodology to rank Internet, telecommunications, other ICT sector companies on free expression and privacy criteria. In January 2007, she joined the inaugural Wikimedia Foundation Advisory Board. MacKinnon's first book, Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle For Internet Freedom, was published by Basic Books in January 2012 and won the Goldsmith Book Prize. In an interview, she said that she argues in the book that: We cannot assume that the Internet will evolve automatically in a direction, going to be compatible with democracy, it depends on how the technology is structured and used. Governments and corporations are working to shape the Internet to fit their own needs.
The most insidious situations arise when both government and corporations combine their efforts to exercise power over the same people at the same time, in unconstrained and unaccountable ways. This is why I argue that if we the people do not wake up and fight for the protection of our own rights and interests on the Internet, we should not be surprised to wake up one day to find that they have been programmed and sold away. Mackinnon's websites: RConversation Consent of the Networked Organizations: Committee to Protect Journalists Global Network Initiative Global Voices Online New America Foundation Center for Information Technology Policy Open Society Fellowship Journalism and Media Studies Center at the University of Hong Kong Berkman Center for Internet & Society Rebecca MacKinnon at TED
Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism
The Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism is the journalism school of Columbia University. It is located in Pulitzer Hall on Columbia's Morningside Heights campus in New York City. Founded in 1912 by Joseph Pulitzer, Columbia Journalism School is the only journalism school in the Ivy League and one of the oldest in the world, it offers four degree programs: 1) master of science. The school houses arguably journalism's most prestigious award, it directly administers several other prizes, including the Alfred I. duPont–Columbia University Award, honoring excellence in broadcast and digital journalism in the public service. It co-sponsors the National Magazine Awards known as the Ellie Awards, publishes the Columbia Journalism Review, a respected voice on press criticism since 1961. In addition to offering professional development programs and workshops, the school is home to the Tow Center for Digital Journalism, which explores technological changes in journalism, the Brown Institute for Media Innovation, which supports innovation in storytelling in the digital age.
Admission to the school is selective and has traditionally drawn a international student body. A faculty of experienced professionals preeminent in their respective fields, including politics and culture, science, education and economics, investigative reporting, national and international affairs, instruct students. A Board of Visitors meets periodically to advise the dean's office and support the school's initiatives. In 1892, Pulitzer, a Hungarian-born newspaper magnate, offered Columbia University President Seth Low funding to establish the world's first school of journalism, he sought to elevate a profession viewed more as a common trade learned through an apprenticeship. His idea was for a center of enlightened journalism in pursuit of knowledge as well as skills in the service of democracy. "It will impart knowledge - not for its own sake, but to be used for the public service," Pulitzer wrote in a now landmark, lead essay of the May 1904 issue of the North American Review. The university was resistant to the idea.
But Low's successor, Nicholas Murray Butler, was more receptive to the plan. Pulitzer was set on creating his vision at Columbia and offered it a $2 million gift, one-quarter of, to be used to establish prizes in journalism and the arts, it took Pulitzer's death in October 1911 to finalize plans. On September 30, 1912, classes began with 79 undergraduate and postgraduate students, including a dozen women. Veteran journalist Talcott Williams was installed as the school's director; when not attending classes and lectures, students scoured the city for news. Their more advanced classmates were assigned to cover a visit by President William Howard Taft, a sensational police murder trial and a women's suffrage march. A student from China went undercover to report on a downtown cocaine den. A journalism building was constructed the following year at Broadway and 116th Street on the western end of the campus. In 1935, Dean Carl Ackerman, a 1913 alumnus, led the school's transition to become the first graduate school of journalism in the United States.
As the school's reach and reputation spread, due in part to distinguished early scholars who included Douglas Southall Freeman, Walter B. Pitkin and Henry F. Pringle, it began offering coursework in television news and documentary in addition to its focus on newspapers and radio; the Maria Moors Cabot Prizes, the oldest international awards in journalism, were founded in 1938, honoring reporting in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Alfred I. duPont-Columbia Awards for excellence in broadcast journalism was created in 1942. In 1958, the Columbia Journalism Award, the school's highest honor, was established to recognize a person of overarching accomplishment and distinguished service to journalism. Three years the school began publishing the Columbia Journalism Review. In 1966, the school began awarding the National Magazine Awards in association with the American Society of Magazine Editors. Former CBS News president, Fred W. Friendly, was appointed the same year to the tenured faculty and enhanced the broadcast journalism program.
By the 1970s, the Reporting and Writing 1 course had become the cornerstone of the school's basic curriculum. The Knight‐Bagehot Fellowship was created in 1975 to business journalism. In 1985, the Delacorte Center for Magazine Journalism was founded. A doctoral program was established in 2001. In 2005, Nicholas Lemann, two years into his tenure as dean, created a second more specialized master's program leading to a master of arts degree; as a result of industry changes forced by digital media, the school in 2013 erased distinctions between types of media, such as newspaper, broadcast and new media, as specializations in its master of science curriculum. The Toni Stabile Center for Investigative Journalism, dedicated to training select students interested in pursuing careers in investigative journalism, opened in 2006. A year the Spencer Fellowship was created to focus on long-form reporting; the Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma relocated to Columbia in 2009 to focus on media coverage of trauma and tragedy.
In 2010, the Tow Center for Digital Journalism was created. The Brown Institute for Media Innovation was launched in 2012; the school's ten-month master of science program offers aspiring and experienced journalists the opportunity to study the skills and the ethics of journalism by reporting and writing stories that range from short news pieces to complex
Walter Leland Cronkite Jr. was an American broadcast journalist who served as anchorman for the CBS Evening News for 19 years. During the heyday of CBS News in the 1960s and 1970s, he was cited as "the most trusted man in America" after being so named in an opinion poll, he reported many events from 1937 to 1981, including bombings in World War II. He was known for his extensive coverage of the U. S. space program, from Project Mercury to the Moon landings to the Space Shuttle. He was the only non-NASA recipient of an Ambassador of Exploration award. Cronkite is well known for his departing catchphrase, "And that's the way it is," followed by the date of the broadcast. Cronkite was born on November 4, 1916, in Saint Joseph, the son of Helen Lena and Dr. Walter Leland Cronkite, a dentist. Cronkite lived in Kansas City, until he was ten, when his family moved to Houston, Texas, he attended elementary school at Woodrow Wilson Elementary School, junior high school at Lanier Junior High School and high school at San Jacinto High School, where he edited the high school newspaper.
He was a member of the Boy Scouts. He attended college at the University of Texas at Austin, entering in the Fall term of 1933, where he worked on the Daily Texan and became a member of the Nu chapter of the Chi Phi Fraternity, he was a member of the Houston chapter of DeMolay, a Masonic fraternal organization for boys. While attending UT, Cronkite had his first taste of performance, appearing in a play with fellow student Eli Wallach, he dropped out in 1935. He dropped out of college in his junior year, in the fall term of 1935, after starting a series of newspaper reporting jobs covering news and sports, he entered broadcasting as a radio announcer for WKY in Oklahoma. In 1936, he met his future wife, Mary Elizabeth "Betsy" Maxwell, while working as the sports announcer for KCMO in Kansas City, Missouri, his broadcast name was "Walter Wilcox". He would explain that radio stations at the time did not want people to use their real names for fear of taking their listeners with them if they left.
In Kansas City, he joined the United Press in 1937. He became one of the top American reporters in World War II, covering battles in North Africa and Europe. With his name now established, he received a job offer from Edward R. Murrow at CBS News to join the Murrow Boys team of war correspondents, relieving Bill Downs as the head of the Moscow bureau. CBS offered Cronkite $125 a week along with "commercial fees" amounting to $25 for every time Cronkite reported on air. Up to that point, he had been making $57.50 per week at UP, but he had reservations about broadcasting. He accepted the offer; when he informed his boss Harrison Salisbury, UP countered with a raise of $17.50 per week. Cronkite accepted the UP offer, a move which angered Murrow and drove a wedge between them that would last for years. Cronkite was on board USS Texas starting in Norfolk, through her service off the coast of North Africa as part of Operation Torch, thence back to the US. On the return trip, Cronkite was flown off Texas in one of her OS2U Kingfisher aircraft when Norfolk was within flying distance.
He was granted permission to be flown the rest of the distance to Norfolk so that he could outpace a rival correspondent on USS Massachusetts to return to the US and to issue the first uncensored news reports to published about Operation Torch. Cronkite's experiences aboard Texas launched his career as a war correspondent. Subsequently, he was one of eight journalists selected by the United States Army Air Forces to fly bombing raids over Germany in a B-17 Flying Fortress part of group called the Writing 69th, during a mission fired a machine gun at a German fighter, he landed in a glider with the 101st Airborne in Operation Market Garden and covered the Battle of the Bulge. After the war, he covered the Nuremberg trials and served as the United Press main reporter in Moscow from 1946 to 1948. In 1950, Cronkite joined CBS News in its young and growing television division, again recruited by Murrow. Cronkite began working at WTOP-TV, the CBS affiliate in Washington, D. C.. He served as anchor of the network's 15-minute late-Sunday-evening newscast Up To the Minute, which followed What's My Line? at 11:00 pm ET from 1951 through 1962.
Although it was reported that the term "anchor" was coined to describe Cronkite's role at both the Democratic and Republican National Conventions, marking the first nationally televised convention coverage, other news presenters bore the title before him. Cronkite anchored the network's coverage of the 1952 presidential election as well as conventions. In 1964 he was temporarily replaced by the team of Roger Mudd. From 1953 to 1957, Cronkite hosted the CBS program You Are There, which reenacted historical events, using the format of a news report, his famous last line for these programs was: "What sort of day was it? A day like all days, filled with those events that alter and illuminate our times... and you were there." In 1971, the show was revived and redesigned to attract an audience of teenagers and
Alcibiades González Delvalle
Alcibiades González Delvalle is a Paraguayan journalist, playwright and novelist. He won the Paraguayan National Prize for Literature in 2013 with his novel Un viento negro. In 2016 he was named a member of the Paraguayan Academy of the Spanish Language. After writing for several newspapers starting in the 1950s, Delvalle joined the newly founded newspaper ABC Color in 1967. Between 1979 and 1983, he was imprisoned for his work criticizing corruption in the regime of Alfredo Stroessner. In 1981, the Committee to Protect Journalists was formed in response to Delvalle's harassment. Delvalle received the Vladimir Herzog Award for his journalism. Delvalle's plays explore folkloric themes, he wrote a trilogy of plays dealing with events during the Paraguayan War, multiple plays exploring Paraguayan mythology and Guaraní folklore, several librettos for musical comedies and zarzuelas. The situation of Paraguayan tenant farmers is a recurring theme in his work, his novel Un viento negro, for which he won the 2013 Paraguayan National Prize for Literature, explores the terror of life under the repressive Stroessner dictatorship, which ruled Paragual for thirty-five years.
Plays inspired by folklore El grito del luisón Hay tiempo para llorar Peru rimá Trilogy dealing with the Paraguayan War Procesados del 70 Elisa San Fernando Novels Patronal Function Un viento negroOther My Vote for the People, a collection of journalistic pieces Our Gray Years, a play