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Common-ion effect

The common-ion effect refers to the decrease in solubility of an ionic precipitate by the addition to the solution of a soluble compound with an ion in common with the precipitate. This behaviour is a consequence of Le Chatelier's principle for the equilibrium reaction of the ionic association/dissociation; the effect is seen as an effect on the solubility of salts and other weak electrolytes. Adding an additional amount of one of the ions of the salt leads to increased precipitation of the salt, which reduces the concentration of both ions of the salt until the solubility equilibrium is reached; the effect is based on the fact that both the original salt and the other added chemical have one ion in common with each other. Hydrogen sulphide is a weak electrolyte, it is weakly ionized in its aqueous solution. There exists an equilibrium between unionized molecules and the ions in an aqueous medium as follows: H2S = 2H+ + S2-By applying the law of mass action, we have K a = 2 To the above solution of H2S, if we add hydrochloric acid it ionizes as HCl = H+ + Cl-This makes H+ a common ion and creates a common ion effect.

Due to the increase in concentration of H+ ions, the equilibrium of dissociation of H2S shifts to the left and keeps the value of Ka constant. Thus the ionization of H2S is decreased; the concentration of unionized H2S is increased. As a result, the concentration of sulphide ions is decreased. Barium iodate, Ba2, has a solubility product Ksp = 2 = 1.57 x 10-9. Its solubility in pure water is 7.32 x 10-4 M. However in a solution, 0.0200 M in barium nitrate, Ba2, the increase in the common ion barium leads to a decrease in iodate ion concentration. The solubility is therefore reduced to about five times smaller. A practical example used widely in areas drawing drinking water from chalk or limestone aquifers is the addition of sodium carbonate to the raw water to reduce the hardness of the water. In the water treatment process soluble sodium carbonate salt is added to precipitate out sparingly soluble calcium carbonate; the pure and finely divided precipitate of calcium carbonate, generated is a valuable by-product used in the manufacture of toothpaste.

The salting-out process used in the manufacture of soaps benefits from the common-ion effect. Soaps are sodium salts of fatty acids. Addition of sodium chloride reduces the solubility of the soap salts; the soaps precipitate due to a combination of increased ionic strength. Sea and other waters that contain appreciable amount of sodium ions interfere with the normal behavior of soap because of common-ion effect. In the presence of excess Na+, the solubility of soap salts is reduced, making the soap less effective. A buffer solution contains a base and its conjugate acid. Addition of the conjugate ion will result in a change of pH of the buffer solution. For example, if both sodium acetate and acetic acid are dissolved in the same solution they both dissociate and ionize to produce acetate ions. Sodium acetate is a strong electrolyte, so it dissociates in solution. Acetic acid is a weak acid, so it only ionizes slightly. According to Le Chatelier's principle, the addition of acetate ions from sodium acetate will suppress the ionization of acetic acid and shift its equilibrium to the left.

Thus the percent dissociation of the acetic acid will decrease, the pH of the solution will increase. The ionization of an acid or a base is limited by the presence of its conjugate acid. NaCH3CO2 → Na+ + CH3CO2−CH3CO2H ⇌ H+ + CH3CO2−This will decrease the hydronium concentration, thus the common-ion solution will be less acidic than a solution containing only acetic acid. Many transition-metal compounds violate this rule due to the formation of complex ions, a scenario not part of the equilibria that are involved in simple precipitation of salts from ionic solution. For example, copper chloride is insoluble in water, but it dissolves when chloride ions are added, such as when hydrochloric acid is added; this is due to the formation of soluble CuCl2− complex ions. Sometimes adding an ion other than the ones that are part of the precipitated salt itself can increase the solubility of the salt; this "salting in" is called the "uncommon-ion effect". It occurs because as the total ion concentration increases, inter-ion attraction within the solution can become an important factor.

This alternate equilibrium makes the ions less available for the precipitation reaction. This is called odd ion effect. Chelate effect

Moema (Victor Meirelles)

Moema is an oil painting on canvas created in 1886 by Brazilian artist Victor Meirelles. It depicts the homonym character from the epic poem Caramuru, by Santa Rita Durão; the work does not depict a scene from the poem, but instead Meirelles's personal interpretation of the character's fate, submerging into the water after being rejected by Caramuru. The painting was shown in the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, it is a part of the collection of the São Paulo Museum of Art since 1947. Under Beatriz Pimenta Camargo's presidency, the museum has obtained funds for the restoration of the painting, considered to be one of the most important in its collection. A preparatory sketch created before the actual painting shows Moema in a different position, as well as a group of natives in the background which are more prominent than the group in the finished painting's background. Counselor Tomaz Gomes dos Santos, director of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, stated: A work of elevated value, for it gathers in large quantity all of the qualities of grand painting, is Moema by Mr. Vitor Meireles de Lima.

The drawing, the colours, the aerial transparency, the lighting effects, the perspective, the exact depiction of nature in its most beautiful aspects, these elevate this masterful composition to the category of an original work of great value. The subject national, is one of our most touching legends. Moema seals the master's reputation; the painting and Meirelles himself received praise from the Baron Homem de Melo: Mr. Vitor Meireles is a realized artist, who settled his style in its ultimate manner, his drawing is of an irreproachable purity, without the sculptural hardness which removes all action and mobility from the figures of a history painting. Its colours are brilliant, but accentuated with perfect tonal gradation and with this fortunate sobriety, the secret of true artistic superiority. Media related to Moema at Wikimedia Commons

Richard Cresheld

Richard Cresheld was an English judge and politician who sat in the House of Commons variously between 1624 and 1648. Cresheld was the son of Edward Cresheld of Mattishall Norfolk, he was admitted to Lincoln's Inn on 18 June 1608 and called to the bar on 17 October 1615. He was recorder of Evesham in 1625. In 1624, Cresheld was elected Member of Parliament for Evesham, he was re-elected MP for the town in 1625 and 1628 and sat until 1629 when King Charles decided to rule without parliament for eleven years. Cresheld spoke in the wake of the Five Knights' case when King Charles had attempted to imprison five knights for refusal to pay loans, he and his fellow MPs believed that the King had broken the "fundamental laws and liberties" of England. He spoke of "the great care which the law hath taken of the liberty and safety of the bodies and persons of the subjects of this kingdom" and held "that the act of power in imprisoning and confining his Majesty's subjects in such manner without any declaration of the cause, is against the fundamental laws and liberties of this realm".

He added that the "kings of England have a'monarchical' state, not a'seignoral'. This debate led on to the Petition of Right. Cresheld was made a bencher of Lincoln's Inn in May 1633, Lent Reader in 1636 and sergeant-at-law in 1637. In March 1637, he was appointed a commissioner to compensate river proprietors for damage caused by improving navigation of the River Avon. In November 1640, Cresheld was elected MP for Evesham in the Long Parliament. In February 1643 representatives of Parliament travelled to Oxford to treat with King Charles. Article eight of the Parliament's petition to Charles proposed Cresheld be appointed a Baron of the Exchequer, but the negotiations failed and the treaty of Oxford was still born, he was made Justice of the Common Pleas by parliament on 12 October 1648, but refused to be resworn after the execution of the King in January 1649. Cresheld died in Serjeant's Inn and was buried in St Andrew's Holborn in 1652. Cresheld's daughter Mary was the mother of Cresheld Draper.

She married John Egioke MP for Evesham in 1660. His daughter Bridget married Sylvanus Wood MP for Gloucestershire in 1654. Willis, Browne. Notitia Parliamentaria, Part II: A Series or Lists of the Representatives in the several Parliaments held from the Reformation 1541, to the Restoration 1660... London. P. 226. Foss, Edward.'Biographia Juridica: A Biographical Dictionary of the Judges of England from the Conquest to the Present Time, 1066-1870. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. LCCN 99-12577. P. 201. ISBN 1-886363-86-2.) Original publishers John Murray of London, 1870. Xv. Henning, Basil Duke; the House of Commons, 1660-1690. Boydell & Brewer. P. 257. ISBN 0-436-19274-8. Manganiello, Stephen C.. The Concise Encyclopedia of the Revolutions and Wars of England, Scotland 1639-1660. Scarecrow Press. P. 409. ISBN 0-8108-5100-8. Williams, William Retlaw; the parliamentary history of the county of Worcester. Hereford: Private print for the author by Jakeman and Carver. P. 157. Willms, Sarah. "The Five Knights' Case and Debates in the Parliament of 1628: Division and Suspicion Under King Charles I".

Constructing the Past. 7: 1–10

Love Anyway

"Love Anyway" is a song from Scottish singer-songwriter Mike Scott, released as the lead single from his second solo album Still Burning. It was written by Mike Scott, produced by Scott and Niko Bolas; as his highest charting solo single, "Love Anyway" reached No. 50 in the UK and remained on the charts for two weeks. In his autobiography, Scott described the song as a "mid-paced rocker with a hustly Jim Keltner groove and a hazy, chiming guitar figure." It was considered by Chrysalis as the album's best contender for a potential hit. Speaking of its limited success as a single, he said: "Despite all its radio play the song on with the public."A music video was filmed to promote the single. It was produced by Anna Whiting. Upon release, Wayne Moriarty of the Edmonton Journal considered the song the "best cut" on Still Burning, he described the track as "a big old slab of Waterboys-ish pomp and rock that will remind his devotees just how special it was when Mike and the lads were pioneering the big sound that carried the likes of U2 to fame and fortune."

Kerry Gold of the Vancouver Sun noted the song's "multiple violins and lush orchestration". In a review of Scott's 1997 concert at the Garage in London, James McNair of The Independent was critical of the song's live rendition: "It's not that "Love Anyway" is weak - far from it; the problem is that the soaring strings that are integral to the song's magic on CD are missing live and, at six minutes 42 seconds, the journey is just too long without them."In his 2002 book The Encyclopedia of Contemporary Christian Music, Mark Allan Powell noted "the manner in which songs like "Love Anyway" bespeak an ethic unlike that which informs previous Waterboys' tunes about heartbreak and disappointment in love. Whereas previous songs express bitterness and a design for vengeance, "Love Anyway" boasts "You made a fool our of me today / I'm breaking the rule / I love you anyway"." In 2011, Richard Curtis, in a piece for The Guardian on his affection for Scott and the Waterboys, commented: "If you're feeling low on energy and hope, pump up "This Is the Sea", "Don't Bang the Drum" or "Love Anyway" and life seems worth living again – worth living large."

Eraldo Da Roma

Eraldo Da Roma was an Italian film editor best known for his work with Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica, Michelangelo Antonioni. Da Roma was born on 1 March 1900 in Italy. At a young age he attempted a singing career as a tenor, but in the early 1930s, De Roma began working in the film industry as an assistant film operator, his earliest film as an editor was L'eredità dello zio… buonanima directed by Amleto Palermi. He adopted his'pseudonym in the 1940s in the credits of some Goffredo Alessandrini's films. Da Roma's reputation as an editor came after World War II, when he became known as "the neorealist editor" because of his collaborations with Roberto Rossellini and Vittorio De Sica in films such as Bicycle Thieves, Year Zero, Open City, Umberto D. Paisan, Miracle in Milan. During his career, Da Roma worked with Michelangelo Antonioni, Gillo Pontecorvo, Sergio Leone, Nicholas Ray, Luigi Zampa, Antonio Pietrangeli, Dino Risi, Mauro Bolognini, Christian-Jaque. Da Roma was the uncle of the distinguished film editor Nino Baragli.

He died on 27 May 1981. Territorial Militia Thirty Seconds of Love The Ferocious Saladin It Was I! All of Life in One Night The Count of Brechard Star of the Sea The Sons of the Marquis Lucera Father For a Night Lucrezia Borgia Bridge of Glass The White Ship A Pilot Returns Giarabub Girl of the Golden West The Man with a Cross The Innocent Casimiro The Tyrant of Padua The Devil's Gondola Alarm Bells Mizar March's Child Engaged to Death Dreams Die at Dawn Eraldo Da Roma on IMDb

North Korea

North Korea the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with Pyongyang as its capital and the largest city in the country. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers, to the south, it is bordered by South Korea, with the fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone separating the two. North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. In 1910, Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan. At the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. Negotiations on reunification failed, in 1948, separate governments were formed: the socialist Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, the capitalist Republic of Korea in the south. An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War.

The Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire. North Korea describes itself as a "self-reliant" socialist state, formally holds elections, though they have been described by outside observers as sham elections. Outside observers generally view North Korea as a Stalinist dictatorship noting the elaborate cult of personality around the Kim dynasty; the Workers' Party of Korea, led by a member of the ruling family, holds absolute power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members. Juche, an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution in 1972; the means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most service—such as healthcare, education and food production—are subsidized or state-funded. From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people, the population continues to suffer malnutrition.

North Korea follows "military-first" policy. It is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, with a total of 9,495,000 active and paramilitary personnel, or 37% of its population, its active duty army of 1.21 million is the fourth largest in the world, after China, the United States and India. It possesses nuclear weapons. In addition to being a member of the United Nations since 1991, North Korea is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, G77 and the ASEAN Regional Forum. A 2014 UN inquiry into human rights in North Korea concluded that "the gravity and nature of these violations reveal a state that does not have any parallel in the contemporary world"; the North Korean regime denies these allegations. The name Korea derives from the name Goryeo; the name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and parts of Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great.

The 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. After the division of the country into North and South Korea, the two sides used different terms to refer to Korea: Chosun or Joseon in North Korea, Hanguk in South Korea. In 1948, North Korea adopted Democratic People's Republic of Korea as its new legal name. In the wider world, because the government controls the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, it is called North Korea to distinguish it from South Korea, called the Republic of Korea in English. Both governments consider themselves to be the legitimate government of the whole of Korea. For this reason, the people do not consider themselves as'North Koreans' but as Koreans in the same divided country as their compatriots in the South and foreign visitors are discouraged from using the former term.

After the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, Korea was occupied by Japan from 1910 to 1945. Japan tried to suppress Korean traditions and culture and ran the economy for its own benefit. Korean resistance groups known as Dongnipgun operated along the Sino-Korean border, fighting guerrilla warfare against Japanese forces; some of them took part in parts of South East Asia. One of the guerrilla leaders was the communist Kim Il-sung, who became the first leader of North Korea. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Korean Peninsula was divided into two zones along the 38th parallel, with the northern half of the peninsula occupied by the Soviet Union and the southern half by the United States; the drawing of the division was assigned to two American officers, diplomat Dean Rusk and Army officer Charles Bonesteel, who chose the 38th parallel because it divided the country in half but would place the capital Seoul under U. S. control. The division was accepted by the Soviet Union.

The agreement was incorporated into the U. S.'s General Order No. 1 for the surrender of Japan. Initial hopes for a uni